Downtown Calgary is a region of central Calgary, Alberta, it contains the second largest concentration of head offices in Canada. The region is divided into several neighbourhoods, the Central Business District, Eau Claire, East Village, the West End. There are a number of districts within Downtown Calgary as well, most of them being within the Central Business District. Speaking, downtown Calgary is bordered by 14th Street W. on the west, the Bow River and Prince's Island Park on the north, the Elbow River on the east and the CPR mainline tracks on the south. The neighbourhoods of the Beltline and Mission to the immediate south are considered part of downtown, due to the high concentrations of businesses, high population densities, occurrence of retail and nightlife opportunities, but speaking they are not technically part of downtown; the population of Calgary's downtown has grown in recent years, growing by several thousand between 2011 and 2016. With the population of the five combined downtown neighbourhoods surpassing 18 000 as of 2016, Downtown Calgary now has a larger population than that of other Canadian cities of similar size, such as Ottawa and Edmonton.
While downtown Calgary continues to grow, the Beltline neighbourhood to the immediate south, with a population of 21,958 as of 2016, is taking up the majority of residential development in inner city Calgary. Calgary Transit's C-Train light rail system runs down 7th Avenue S. through the middle of downtown in a E-W direction, the ride is free on this section. While the newly proposed Green Line of the C-Train will run underground through downtown under 2nd Street, running in a N-S direction. Calgary's dense business area comprises the bulk of the downtown community, it is a core of skyscrapers. As of February 2017, eight of the ten tallest buildings in western Canada, a few of the tallest in the country, are in Calgary, it is arguably the densest downtown area of any city of its size in North America. Many of the buildings are connected via an 18 km long network of elevated bridges; the system, known as the "+15" is the largest of its kind in the world. The area surrounding the Stephen Avenue Walk is Downtown Calgary's primary retail area.
Stephen Avenue is a pedestrian mall lined with historic buildings containing stores, restaurants and drinking establishments. Adjacent to the outdoor portion of Stephen Avenue is an indoor complex of two shopping malls; the malls, The Core Shopping Centre and the Scotia Centre are bordered at either end by the historic Hudson's Bay Company store and Holt Renfrew's upscale department store. The street is home to a number of galleries, pubs, off-beat cinemas, nightclubs. Other attractions in the commercial core include the Devonian Gardens in The Core, the Calgary Tower, the Art Gallery of Calgary, The Glenbow Museum, Olympic Plaza, Arts Commons, the Telus Convention Centre; the commercial core is divided into a number of districts. They include the Entertainment District/Stephen Avenue, The Olympic Plaza and Cultural District, the Government District; the government district is an informal subdivision of the downtown core, is centered along Macleod Trail, between the commercial core and Downtown East Village.
It contains the City Hall, the Calgary Public Library, the Calgary Police headquarters, the Harry Hays building, Bow Valley College, the United States consulate and the Calgary Board of Education among other buildings. The cultural district is centered on the Burns Building and Olympic Plaza, contains educational and cultural venues such as Bow Valley College, Glenbow Museum and Arts Commons, including The Big Secret Theatre, Jack Singer Concert Hall, Max Bell Theatre, Martha Cohen Theatre, Engineered Air Theatre. A statue of The Famous Five stands between Olympic Plaza; the entertainment district is located along 8th Avenue South. It contains the pedestrian mall of Stephen Avenue, lined with restaurants and shops, enclosed shopping centres, as well as Calgary's only art house movie theater and recreation areas such as the Devonian Gardens. Landmark buildings found in this district include the Hyatt Regency Hotel, which incorporates several historic buildings into its facade, the Calgary Marriott and Fairmont Palliser Hotel.
Landmark skyscrapers in this district are Scotia Centre, Bankers Hall, Eighth Avenue Place. The "Udderly Art Legacy Pasture", a collection of decorated fiberglass cows built in 2000, is hosted in the Centennial Parkade, while other particular exponates are spread throughout the city; the East Village is an area to the east of the Downtown Commercial Core. This area was plagued by homelessness for a long time. However, the area has seen a great amount of redevelopment since the late 2000s. In 2007, the Calgary Municipal Land Corporation began construction on $357 million worth of infrastructure upgrades to the neighbourhood, bringing all streets above flood plain levels, upgrading sewers and storm drains, building plazas; the neighbourhood has since become a new hot-spot for the downtown area, playing host to the award-winning RiverWalk, several restaurants in the historic Simmons Mattress Factory building, several new condo towers, with several more under construction. The neighbourhood is host to the $191 million National Music Centre of Canada, will be host to the $245 million New Central Library of the Calgary Public Library system.
Samuel Henry Harkwood Livingston born in Ireland, he came to Canada following an unsuccessful venture in the Californian gold rush of 1849, found his way to Jumping Pound, North-West Territories, in 1873 where he opened a trading post. He was going to settle near the confluence of the Bow and Elbow Rivers in 1875 but, when the North-West Mounted Police arrived and established Fort Calgary and his family moved further up the Elbow River to the current location of the Glenmore Reservoir; when the Glenmore Dam was built and the area flooded, part of the Livingston house was preserved and now stands at Heritage Park. Sam Livingston was an important man to Alberta's history; the Glenmore Reservoir gets its name from Sam too. Glenmore quite close to his birthplace in County Wicklow. Sam Livingston settled at Fort Victoria for a while, he started a business which included trading for buffalo hides. By 1874 he had relocated his operations southward to be closer to the trade with the plains Indians and was doing business near the Roman Catholic mission, Our Lady of Peace, on the Elbow River.
In the summer of 1876 Livingston moved with his family closer to Fort Calgary, the newly established North-West Mounted Police post on the river. Here, in 1876, he with John Glenn was one of the first farmers in the area. Livingston was a great innovator who brought the first examples of mechanized equipment to farming in the Calgary area; some people call Sam Livingston "Calgary's First citizen", but George Clift King is given that title. In fact John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. In 1872, Alexis Cardinal had built a shack for Father Constantine Scollen. In March 1873, Scollen moved there and established the first mission to the Blackfoot Confederacy in Alberta. Sam Livingston died in 1897 shortly after the birth of his 14th child, his funeral procession was 40 carriages long. Jameson, Sheilagh S.. "Livingston, Samuel Henry Harkwood". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. XII. University of Toronto Press. Bow Valley Ranch - Pioneers
An apartment, flat or unit is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building on a single storey. There are many names for these overall buildings; the housing tenure of apartments varies from large-scale public housing, to owner occupancy within what is a condominium, to tenants renting from a private landlord. Both words refer to a self-contained residential unit with its own front door, kitchen and bathroom. In some parts of the world, the word apartment refers to a purpose-built unit in a building, whereas the word flat means a converted unit in an older building a big house. In other places the terms are interchangeable; the term apartment is favored in North America. In the UK, the term apartment is more usual in professional real estate and architectural circles where otherwise the term flat is used but not for an apartment on a single level. In some countries the word "unit" is a more general term referring to both apartments and rental business suites; the word'unit' is used only in the context of a specific building.
"This building has three units" or "I'm going to rent a unit in this building", but not "I'm going to rent a unit somewhere". Some buildings can be characterized as'mixed use buildings', meaning part of the building is for commercial, business, or office use on the first floor or first couple of floors, one or more apartments are found in the rest of the building on the upper floors. Tenement law rents, it may be found combined as in "Messuage or Tenement" to encompass all the land and other assets of a property. In the United States, some apartment-dwellers own their units, either as co-ops, in which the residents own shares of a corporation that owns the building or development. Most apartments are in buildings designed for the purpose, but large older houses are sometimes divided into apartments; the word apartment denotes a residential section in a building. In some locations the United States, the word connotes a rental unit owned by the building owner, is not used for a condominium. In England and Wales, some flat owners own shares in the company that owns the freehold of the building as well as holding the flat under a lease.
This arrangement is known as a "share of freehold" flat. The freehold company has the right to collect annual ground rents from each of the flat owners in the building; the freeholder can develop or sell the building, subject to the usual planning and restrictions that might apply. This situation does not happen in Scotland, where long leasehold of residential property was unusual, is now impossible. Bachelor apartment, one-bedroom, etc.. Apartment buildings are multi-story buildings where three or more residences are contained within one structure; such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment complex, flat complex, block of flats, tower block, high-rise or mansion block if it consists of many apartments for rent. A high-rise apartment building is referred to as a residential tower, apartment tower, or block of flats in Australia. A high-rise building is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions, it may be only residential, in which case it might be called a tower block, or it might include other functions such as hotel, offices, or shops.
There is no clear difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is considered a skyscraper. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator and cheaper, more abundant building materials, their structural system is made of reinforced concrete and steel. A low-rise building and mid-rise buildings have fewer storeys. Emporis defines a low-rise as "an enclosed structure below 35 metres, divided into regular floor levels." The city of Toronto defines a mid-rise as a building between 12 stories. In American English, the distinction between rental apartments and condominiums is that while rental buildings are owned by a single entity and rented out to many, condominiums are owned individually, while their owners still pay a monthly or yearly fee for building upkeep. Condominiums are leased by their owner as rental apartments. A third alternative, the cooperative apartment building, acts as a corporation with all of the tenants as shareholders of the building.
Tenants in cooperative buildings do not own their apartment, but instead own a proportional number of shares of the entire cooperative. As in condominiums, cooperators pay a monthly fee for building upkeep. Co-ops are common in cities such as New York, have gained some popularity in other larger urban areas in the U. S. In British English the usual word is "flat", but apartment is used by property developers to denote expensive'flats' in exclusive and expensive residential areas in, for example, parts of London such as Belgravia and Hampstead. In Scotland, it is called a block of flats or, if it is a traditional sandstone building, a tenement, a term which has a negative connotation elsewhere. Australian English and New Zealand Engli
Naheed Kurban Nenshi is a Canadian politician, the 36th mayor of Calgary, Alberta. He was elected in the 2010 municipal election with 39% of the vote, is the first Muslim mayor of a large North American city, he was re-elected in 2013 with 74% of the vote. He was again re-elected in 2017 to a third term with 51% of the vote. Nenshi was born in Toronto and raised in Calgary, his parents, Kurbanali Hussein and Noorjah, were Gujarati Muslim immigrants to Canada from Tanzania. He was educated at the University of Calgary, serving as President of the Students' Union and receiving a Bachelor of Commerce in 1993, completed a Master of Public Policy from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1998. Nenshi worked for McKinsey & Company for several years before starting his own consulting firm'Ascend Group' which advised non-profit and public sector organizations to grow; the firm advised the United Nations on ways to encourage wealthy corporations to engage in Corporate Citizenship.
As a young professional, he developed his administrative capabilities by joining Canada25, a federal networking organization that mentored professionals under 35 of public policy and leadership. Nenshi was a constant debate opponent of Toronto Sun journalist Ezra Levant. In 2002, Nenshi wrote about how cities can retain young professionals and use resources in a publication entitled "Building Up: Making Canada's Cities Engines of Growth and Magnets of Development". In 2006, Nenshi was the chief author for "ImagineCalgary's 100-year plan", he has co-founded two citizens' groups aimed at improving Calgary's civic government. In 2009, Nenshi was invited to become a founding member of Civic Camp, an active citizenship forum that encourages and enables Calgarians to engage and collaborate ideas in civic affairs, he co-founded city hall watch dog group "Better Calgary Campaign". He was an instructor in non-profit management in the Bissett School of Business at Mount Royal University and wrote a regular municipal affairs column for the Calgary Herald.
Nenshi first ventured into politics in 2004, running unsuccessfully for a seat on Calgary's city council. His 2010 campaign for mayor, dubbed the "Purple Revolution", was uniquely a viral campaign which relied on using social media to promote his platform and hyper-engage voters. According to Nenshi's campaign I. T. specialist Richard Einarson, the name "Purple Revolution" was chosen because the campaign wanted broad appeal across the socio-economic spectrum of liberal red and conservative blue voters. Beside viral campaigning, the volunteer body of "Team Nenshi" were given a great degree of autonomy to exercise creative talent; the team promoted the cause through creative guerrilla marketing tactics such as "Operation Purple Dawn". Nenshi's supporters converged on the city in a mass rally on the evening before election day, they advertised Nenshi by posting signs and writing platform slogans with chalk graffiti on pavement of high traffic locations. Supporters offered their homes as venues for coffee parties where Nenshi spoke to the gathered about his platform.
The coffee parties offered a friendly atmosphere for friends to discuss the volatile nature of sensitive political issues without risking their relationships. About 40 parties were held during the campaign. A late September poll showed that his campaign was generating interest as he sat third with eight per cent support, although well behind the leaders, alderman Ric McIver and local media personality Barb Higgins, his growing popularity led to greater scrutiny of his views, including a public dispute with Calgary Police Service chief Rick Hanson over the cost of policing the city. Days before the election, a Calgary Herald poll showed that Nenshi's grassroots campaign continued to gain momentum as he had 30 per cent support among decided voters, placing him in a statistical tie with McIver and Higgins, he polled the strongest amongst younger voters, believed to be the result of his social media campaign. Nenshi's surge in popularity carried through to the election, when he earned 40 per cent of the vote, finishing nearly 28,000 votes ahead of second-placed McIver.
Being a Shia Ismaili, Nenshi became the first Muslim to become mayor of a major Canadian city. His win was viewed as a breakthrough for the use of social media as an election tool, when considered with his faith and background, made international headlines, his election is seen as major signal of the shift in Albertan politics and the demography of Calgary. He engaged voters with a mutual two-way dialogue as "politics in full sentences". On September 11, 2010, 20 of Nenshi's campaign advertisements in the city were vandalized or destroyed and a brick was thrown through one of his campaign office's windows; the attacks, which commemorated the ninth anniversary of the September 11 attacks in New York City, were accompanied by a series of racially antagonistic emails. They were therefore assumed to be racially motivated. During this fundraising Gala, Nenshi issued a challenge to his opponents to confront him directly and not to engage him in a proxy campaign of lobbying as he warns his supporters that his opponents will engage in.
In September 2013 when Nenshi's campaign began in earnest, he revealed the donors of his campaign before the election and urged his opponents to do likewise. Nenshi promised to instigate changes to improve the transparency of City Hall's municipal affairs as one of his 2010 campaign statements. According to the documents Nenshi's 1631 supporters derive from a wide range of core supporters. Among Nenshi's larger contributors were contractors from the housing construction industry, which according to Nenshi indicates that not all among
Renting known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another. A gross lease is when the tenant pays a flat rental amount and the landlord pays for all property charges incurred by the ownership. An example of renting is equipment rental. Renting can be an example of the sharing economy. There are many possible reasons for renting instead of buying, for example: In many jurisdictions rent paid in a trade or business is tax deductible, whereas rent on a dwelling is not tax deductible in most jurisdictions. Financial inadequacy, such as renting a house when one is unable to purchase, i.e "renting by necessity". Reducing financial risk due to depreciation and transaction costs for real estate which might be needed only for a short amount of time; when something is needed only temporarily, as in the case of a special tool, a truck or a skip. When something is needed that may or may not be owned but is not in proximity for use, such as renting an automobile or bicycle when away on a trip.
Needing a cheaper alternative to buying, such as renting a movie: a person is unwilling to pay the full price for a movie, so they rent it for a lesser price, but give up the chance to view it again later. The tenant may want to leave the burden of upkeep of the property to his agents. There is no need to worry about maintenance. Renting keeps off-balance-sheet the debt that would burden the balance sheet of a company in case the property would have been bought. Renting is good for the environment if products are used more efficiently by maximizing utility rather than being disposed and under utilized. Short-term rental of all sorts of products represents an estimated €108 billion annual market in Europe and is expected to grow further as the internet makes it easier to find specific items available for rent. According to a poll by YouGov, 76% of people looking to rent would go to the internet first to find what they need, it has been reported that the financial crisis of 2007–2010 may have contributed to the rapid growth of online rental marketplaces, such as erento, as consumers are more to consider renting instead of buying in times of financial hardship.
Environmental concerns, fast depreciation of goods, a more transient workforce mean that consumers are searching for rentals online. A 2010 US survey found. Net income received, or losses suffered, by an investor from renting of one or two properties is subject to idiosyncratic risk due to the numerous things that can happen to real property and variable behavior of tenants. There is an implied, explicit, or written rental agreement or contract involved to specify the terms of the rental, which are regulated and managed under contract law. Examples include letting out real estate for the purpose of housing tenure, parking space for a vehicle, storage space, whole or portions of properties for business, institutional, or government use, or other reasons; when renting real estate, the person or party who lives in or occupies the real estate is called a tenant, paying rent to the owner of the property called a landlord. The real estate rented may be all or part of any real estate, such as an apartment, building, business office or suite, farm, or an inside or outside space to park a vehicle, or store things all under Real estate law.
The tenancy agreement for real estate is called a lease, involves specific property rights in real property, as opposed to chattels. In India, the rental income on property is taxed under the head "income from house property". A deduction of 30% is allowed from total rent, charged to tax; the time use of a chattel or other so called "personal property" is covered under general contract law, but the term lease nowadays extends to long term rental contracts of more expensive non-Real properties such as automobiles, planes, office equipment and so forth. The distinction in that case is long term versus short term rentals; some non-real properties available for rent or lease are: motion pictures on VHS or DVD, of audio CDs, of computer programs on CD-ROM. Transport equipment, such as an automobile or a bicycle. Ships and boats, in which case rental is known as chartering, the rent is known as hire or freight aircraft, in which case rental is known as chartering, or leasing if the rental is longer term specialized tools, such as a chainsaw, laptop, IT equipment or something more substantial, such as a forklift.
Large equipment such as cranes, oil rigs and submarines. A deckchair or beach chair and umbrella. Furniture items such as Wooden Cot, iron cot, coffee Table, dining table, Mattress. Designer handbags, jewelry and watches. Home Appliances items such as washing machines, Television, Microwave oven, Air-Conditioners In various degrees, renting can involve buying services for various amounts of time, such as staying in a hotel, using a computer in an Internet cafe, or riding in a taxicab; as seen from the examples, some rented goods are used on the spot, but they are taken along.
The Bow River is a river in the Canadian province of Alberta. It begins in the Rocky Mountains and winds through the Alberta foothills onto the prairies, where it meets the Oldman River, the two forming the South Saskatchewan River; these waters flow through the Nelson River into Hudson Bay. The Bow River runs through the city of Calgary, taking in the Elbow River at the historic site of Fort Calgary near downtown; the Bow River pathway, developed along the river's banks, is considered a part of Calgary's self-image. First Nations made varied use of the river for sustenance before settlers of European origin arrived, such as using its valleys in the buffalo hunt; the name Bow refers to the reeds that grew along its banks and were used by the First Nations to make bows. The river is an important source of water for drinking water. Between the years 1910 and 1960, the Bow River and its tributaries were engineered to provide hydroelectric power for Calgary's use; this altered the river's flow and certain ecosystems.
The river's source is from the Bow Glacier, part of the Wapta Icefield. The outflow from this source flows into Bow Lake in the Canadian Rockies, it flows south to the village of Lake Louise turns east and flows through the town of Banff and through Canmore. The Ghost Lake reservoir is formed upstream from the town of Cochrane; the Bow flows eastward to the city of Calgary. It reaches the Hudson Bay through the Saskatchewan River, Lake Winnipeg, Nelson River. Communities along the Bow include Lake Louise, Canmore, Cochrane and Arrowwood; the Bow Falls are near Banff. The Bow River has a total length of 587 km and a drainage area of 26,200 km2; the fur trader James Gaddy and the Hudson's Bay Company explorer David Thompson are traditionally considered to be the first people of European origin to see the Bow River. They camped along the Bow with a group of Piikani during the 1787–88 winter. Before they arrived, First Nations populations had lived in the Bow region for thousands of years. Among them were the Nakoda, Tsuu T'ina, the Blackfoot Confederacy, consisting of the Kainai and Siksika peoples.
The Kutenai had migrated westward in the early eighteenth century, but still ventured into the Bow region to hunt bison. First Nations used the river's valleys for the buffalo hunt, in which herds of buffalo were driven over cliffs or into valleys where they could be killed more with bows and arrows. Of all the First Nations groups that lived in the Bow River area, only the Nakoda fished the river regularly. While other groups caught fish during harder times, they hunted buffalo during the summer season when fishing would have been most plentiful; the river's water attracted game, which the First Nations men hunted, while women gathered the roots and berries and processed them for food. The river's game, its local sources for firewood, its valleys' shelter made the river a common camp location for First Nations during the prairie winters; the danger of crossing the river meant. The two main fords of the lower Bow River, Blackfoot Crossing and a ford near the Bow's confluence with the Elbow River, became important gathering points for southern Alberta's First Nations to exchange goods and celebrate festivities.
Blackfoot Crossing was used by the Siksika as a winter campsite and is today a part of their reserve. Fur traders began to move to the Bow River region following Thompson's expedition, but the river was not used extensively in the fur trade. First Nations weakened by declining buffalo numbers and disease were further devastated by the introduction of the whisky trade. Fort Whoop-Up was established in 1869, whisky traders were active along the Bow River during the 1870s. To stop these operations, the formed North-West Mounted Police established Fort Calgary in 1875 at the confluence of the Elbow River and the Bow. In order to proceed with railway construction through present-day Alberta and an orderly settlement of the Bow region, the government sought to extinguish title of First Nations to specific lands, negotiated to do so through treaties. With bison numbers declining and white settlers becoming common in the region, the Nakoda, Tsuu T'ina, Kainai and Siksika met with representatives of the Canadian government at Blackfoot Crossing on the Bow River and signed Treaty 7 on 22 September 1877, ceding lands in exchange for defined reserves.
From the perspective of the Canadian government, these groups had surrendered all their land privileges outside their reserves. The reserves of the Nakoda, Tsuu T'ina, Siksika were established along the Bow River. Calgary was growing after 1900; the city businessmen pressed for dam construction in order to generate cheaper power from hydroelectric sources. William Maxwell Aitken with R. B. Bennett, formed Calgary Power Company in 1910; that year, on property purchased from the Nakoda, Calgary Power began constructing Alberta's first major hydroelectric plant, Horseshoe Dam. Calgary Power had problems before this dam was completed in 1911; the Bow River originates from a northern mountain, its flow varies depending upon the amount and location of winter snowfalls. A comprehensive study of the Bow's flow measurements had not been conducted. In its operations, Calgary Power relied upon estimates of the river's minimum flow duri
International Avenue, Calgary
International Avenue is a Business Revitalization Zone in Calgary, Alberta. The district is centered on 17 Avenue SE in the neighbourhood of Forest Lawn in the east of the city; the district was created in 1993 to celebrate the rich cultural diversity that exists in east central Calgary. The area has since become a popular location for ethnic restaurants and shopping; the BRZ was established to help revitalize the former town of Forest Lawn, annexed by the city in 1961. The neighbourhood has long had a reputation for being a haven for crime and drugs. In recent years, the area has been recognized for its multi-culturalism and has been developing into a major destination for both Calgary residents and tourists; the city and the BRZ are in the process of implementing new urban design and redevelopment initiatives. Since 2003, International Avenue has played host to Calgary's large multi-cultural event, GlobalFest. GlobalFest combines both a celebration of diversity known as OneWorld Festival and an International Fireworks Festival at Elliston Park.
The event takes place annually in late August. International Avenue BRZ Shop 17th Avenue Committee