Colchester County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. With a population of 50,585 the county is the fourth largest in Nova Scotia. Colchester County is located in north central Nova Scotia; the majority of the county is governed by the Municipality of the County of Colchester, the county is home to two independent incorporated towns and Truro, two village commissions in Bible Hill and Tatamagouche, the Millbrook 27 First Nations reserve. The glaciers began their retreat from in the Maritimes 13,500 years ago; the earliest evidence of Palaeo-Indian settlement in the region follows after deglaciation. The record of continuous habitation through the paleo and archaic period over ten thousand years culminated in the development of the culture and language now known as the Mi'kmaq. For several thousand years the territory of the province has been a part of the territory of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. Mi'kma'ki includes what is now the Maritimes, parts of Maine and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Colchester County is located in the traditional Mi'kmaw districts of Sipekni'katik to the south and west, Epekwitk aq Piktuk to the north and east. French colonization of the area began during the 1680s. Acadian settlers were farmers, they used salty but fertile marshes that were found on the banks of the Minas Basinand through the use of dykes and aboiteaux that allowed fresh water to enter but kept out the salt-water tide. The appellation Colchester was applied in 1780 to the district called "Cobequid," and was derived from the town of Colchester in Essex; the old name Cobequid was derived from the Mi'kmaq word "Wagobagitk" meaning "the bay runs far up", in reference to the area surrounding the easternmost inlet of the Minas Basin, a body of water called Cobequid Bay. The District of Colchester, at first part of Halifax County, was established as a county in its own right in 1835. In 1838 a distinct line of division between Cumberland County and Colchester County was established. Two years in 1840, the Township of Parrsboro was divided and part of it annexed to Colchester County.
In 1871, the boundaries between the Counties of Hants and Colchester and between the Counties of Halifax and Colchester were established. In 1880 the boundary between the Counties of Halifax and Colchester was revised. In 1897 a portion of the boundary between the Counties of Colchester and Cumberland was fixed and defined; the question of the boundary between Colchester and Cumberland Counties was the subject of a Commission of Inquiry established in 1946. The report was filed in the office of the Provincial Secretary and in the office of the Department of Lands and Forests in January 1959. Certified copies of it were sent to the Registrars of Deeds for the Counties of Colchester and Kings; the Municipality of the County of Colchester is governed by a municipal council composed of a Mayor elected at-large and 11 Councillors elected to represent districts. Municipal Council is responsible oversee the provision of the services of municipal government. Municipal governments in Nova Scotia are Council–manager governments, meaning that the Council provides policy direction and approves the budget, the Chief Administrative Officer oversees the administrative operations and implement Council's policies.
Directly delivered services include services such as fire protection, public works and water. The municipality participates in shared services, such as police, solid waste management, library services, the Rath Eastlink Community Centre; the municipal operating budget was $29.1 million in 2017/18. The current mayor is Christine Blair. Municipal governments in Nova Scotia are elected every four years and the most recent round of elections took place on October 15, 2016; the provincial legislation that creates and empowers the municipality is the Nova Scotia Municipal Government Act. While the majority of the land area of county is governed by the Municipal Council of the Municipality of the County of Colchester the county includes two independently incorporated towns and Truro, as well as the independently governed Millbrook First Nation. Within the county are two communities with incorporated village commissions in Bible Hill and Tatamagouche which are a part of the county wide municipality but are created to provide additional village services.
Colchester is represented by three ridings in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly and two ridings in Canada's House of Commons. TownsStewiacke TruroVillagesBible Hill TatamagoucheUnincorporated communitiesManganese MinesReservesMillbrook 27County municipality and county subdivisionsMunicipality of the County of Colchester Colchester Subdivision A Colchester Subdivision B Colchester Subdivision C As a census division in the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Colchester County recorded a population of 50,585 living in 22,229 of its 25,378 total private dwellings, a change of −0.8% from its 2011 population of 50,968. With a land area of 3,628.12 km2, it had a population density of 13.9/km2 in 2016. Forming the majority of the Colchester County census division, the Municipality of the County of Colchester recorded a population of 36,091 living in 15,246 of its 17,814 total private dwellings in the 2016 Census of Population, a change of −1.5% from its 2011 population of 36,624.
With a land area of 3,572.49 km2, it had a population density of 10.1/km2 in 2016. Highways and numbered routes that run through the county, including external routes that start or finish at the county limits: List of municipalities in Nova Scotia Central Nova Tourist Association — Tourism Association Repre
Pictou County is a county in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. It was established in 1835, was a part of Halifax County from 1759 to 1835, it had a population of 43,748 people in 2016, a decline of 4.2 percent from 2011. Furthermore, its 2016 population is only 88.11% of the census population in 1991. It is the sixth most populous county in Nova Scotia; the origin of the name "Pictou" is obscure. Possible Mi'kmaq derivations include "Piktook" meaning an explosion of gas, "Bucto" meaning fire related to the coal fields in the area, it might be a corruption of Poictou, an old province in France. Nicolas Denys named the harbour La rivière de Pictou in the 1660s. Pictou was a receiving point for many Scottish immigrants moving to a new home in northern Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island following the Highland Clearances of the late 18th and early 19th centuries; the town's slogan is "The Birthplace of New Scotland". Pictou County includes the towns of New Glasgow, Pictou and Trenton, it is bounded by the Northumberland Strait, Antigonish County, Guysborough County and Colchester County.
Pictou Harbour and its three rivers played a vital role in the early days of settlement, as a port of entry, a means of transport and for the export of lumber and coal. As a census division in the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Pictou County recorded a population of 43,748 living in 19,305 of its 22,525 total private dwellings, a change of −4.2% from its 2011 population of 45,643. With a land area of 2,846.28 km2, it had a population density of 15.4/km2 in 2016. Forming the majority of the Pictou County census division, the Municipality of the County of Pictou recorded a population of 20,692 living in 8,946 of its 11,178 total private dwellings in the 2016 Census of Population, a change of −2.8% from its 2011 population of 21,278. With a land area of 2,797.25 km2, it had a population density of 7.4/km2 in 2016. Pictou County is wholly within the federal electoral district of Central Nova; the county has been represented federally by Conservative MPs since 1957, with the exceptions of 1993-1997 and when Liberal MPs have been in office.
The seat is held by Liberal MP Sean Fraser, elected in 2015. Pictou County is divided into three provincial electoral districts, namely Pictou Centre, Pictou East and Pictou West. All three are held by PC MLAs in the Nova Scotia Legislature; the towns of New Glasgow, Pictou and Trenton each have their own town councils. The Municipality of Pictou County serves the remaining rural areas, including Pictou Island. Amalgamation of these six municipal units is considered. Pictou County District Planning Commission provides planning and waste disposal services to all the communities in the county. Pictou Landing First Nation has reserves at Fisher's Grant and Merigomish Harbour. Resource based industries include coal mining, forestry and agriculture. Manufacturing industries include Northern Pulp and Scotsburn Dairy. Web. Com operate a call center in New Glasgow. Tourism is an important part of the economy during the summer, in 2006 employed 1,200 people and brought 45 million dollars to the economy. Rail car manufacturer Trenton Works was closed in 2007 when owners Greenbrier moved production to Mexico.
There are 2,400 medium-sized businesses that collectively generate more than 15,000 jobs. The Pictou County Chamber of Commerce is a business advocacy group that speaks as a united voice on behalf of the business community. Two highways designated as part of the national Trans-Canada Highway system provide the only controlled-access roads in the county, they are Highway 104, which traverses the county from west to east, Highway 106 the short north-south spur to the Northumberland Ferries Limited terminal at Caribou. The Cape Breton and Central Nova Scotia Railway is a freight line connecting Truro to Sydney, with spurs at Stellarton and Trenton serving local industries such as Trenton Generating Station. Via Rail Canada abandoned passenger rail service in the county on January 15, 1990, following nationwide budget cuts. Maritime Bus provide motor coach service to New Glasgow. Northumberland Ferries Limited operates a seasonal passenger-vehicle ferry service from Caribou, Nova Scotia to Wood Islands, Prince Edward Island.
A separate passenger-only ferry service is operated seasonally from Caribou to Pictou Island. Trenton Aerodrome is a private commercial airport operated by Sobeys. Highways and numbered routes that run through the county, including external routes that start or finish at the county limits: Pictou County is served by the daily newspaper The News and the weekly newspaper The Advocate. Pictou County has two locally based radio station is CKEC-FM & CKEZ-FM. A sports and recreation paper is distributed monthly through the mail at no charge. There are two performance spaces in the county, the deCoste Centre in Pictou and Glasgow Square in New Glasgow. Both house several local musicians and events, including summer sounds series at the deCoste and the New Glasgow Riverfront Jubilee in August at the Glasgow Square. Many of the towns and villages host their own events throughout the year. Read By The Sea is an annual one day literary festival held in the village of River John; the New Scotland Days Festival in Pictou each September is a celebration of the county's Scottish heritage.
Pictou hosts the Lobster Carnival every July since 1934. It was voted the best festival in Canada. New Glasgow's Art at Night is an annual one night art eve
Antigonish County, Nova Scotia
Antigonish County is a county in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is located in northern Nova Scotia on the Northumberland Strait; the Town of Antigonish and Municipality of the County of Antigonish are the two largest incorporated municipalities in the county. The County of Sydney was created in 1784, its boundaries were established by Governor and Council on December 16, 1785. When St. Mary's Township was established in 1818 it was in Sydney County and in Halifax County. In 1822 that part of St. Mary's Township, in Halifax County was annexed to the County of Sydney. In 1836 Sydney County was diminished in size when Guysborough County was established out of what had been part of it. In 1863 the name of the County of Sydney was changed to Antigonish County; the word Antigonish is of Mi'kmaq origin derived from Nalegitkoonecht meaning "where branches are torn off". It is said. In 2001, the Town of Antigonish applied to annex 1,600 hectares from the surrounding county so it could expand; the Municipality responded that the annexation would hurt its tax base so it instead applied for a total merger, or amalgamation.
The issue was sent to the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board, in 2005 it was decided that amalgamation of the Town and Municipality would better serve both parties. The board ordered a plebiscite, promising to consider the results when making a final decision; the results were mixed, with 84% of Municipality residents voting yes to amalgamation and 74% of Town residents voting no. Voter turn-out was 45%; the board rejected the proposal for amalgamation, citing lack of public support. As a census division in the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Antigonish County recorded a population of 19,301 living in 8,129 of its 9,842 total private dwellings, a change of −1.5% from its 2011 population of 19,589. With a land area of 1,457.99 km2, it had a population density of 13.2/km2 in 2016. Forming the majority of the Antigonish County census division, the Municipality of the County of Antigonish recorded a population of 14,584 living in 6,001 of its 7,112 total private dwellings in the 2016 Census of Population, a change of −0.7% from its 2011 population of 14,692.
With a land area of 1,450.27 km2, it had a population density of 10.1/km2 in 2016. TownsAntigonishVillagesHavre BoucherReservesPomquet and Afton 23 Summerside 38County municipality and county subdivisionsMunicipality of the County of Antigonish Antigonish Subdivision A Antigonish Subdivision B Hwy 104 Trunk 4 Trunk 7 Trunk 16 Route 245 Route 316 Route 337 Route 344 Arisaig Provincial Park Bayfield Provincial Park Beaver Mountain Provincial Park Eigg Mountain-James River wilderness area Pomquet Beach Provincial Park List of communities in Nova Scotia Antigonish County Antigonish County Community Website
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises. An exchange consists of electronic components and in older systems human operators that interconnect telephone subscriber lines or virtual circuits of digital systems to establish telephone calls between subscribers. In historical perspective, telecommunication terms have been used with different semantics over time; the term telephone exchange is used synonymously with central office, a Bell System term. A central office is defined as a building used to house the inside plant equipment of several telephone exchanges, each serving a certain geographical area; such an area has been referred to as the exchange. Central office locations may be identified in North America as wire centers, designating a facility from which a telephone obtains dial tone. For business and billing purposes, telephony carriers define rate centers, which in larger cities may be clusters of central offices, to define specified geographical locations for determining distance measurements.
In the United States and Canada, the Bell System established in the 1940s a uniform system of identifying central offices with a three-digit central office code, used as a prefix to subscriber telephone numbers. All central offices within a larger region aggregated by state, were assigned a common numbering plan area code. With the development of international and transoceanic telephone trunks driven by direct customer dialing, similar efforts of systematic organization of the telephone networks occurred in many countries in the mid-20th century. For corporate or enterprise use, a private telephone exchange is referred to as a private branch exchange, when it has connections to the public switched telephone network. A PBX is installed in enterprise facilities collocated with large office spaces or within an organizational campus to serve the local private telephone system and any private leased line circuits. Smaller installations might deploy a PBX or key telephone system in the office of a receptionist.
In the era of the electrical telegraph, post offices, railway stations, the more important governmental centers, stock exchanges few nationally distributed newspapers, the largest internationally important corporations and wealthy individuals were the principal users of such telegraphs. Despite the fact that telephone devices existed before the invention of the telephone exchange, their success and economical operation would have been impossible on the same schema and structure of the contemporary telegraph, as prior to the invention of the telephone exchange switchboard, early telephones were hardwired to and communicated with only a single other telephone. A telephone exchange is a telephone system located at service centers responsible for a small geographic area that provided the switching or interconnection of two or more individual subscriber lines for calls made between them, rather than requiring direct lines between subscriber stations; this made it possible for subscribers to call each other at businesses, or public spaces.
These made telephony an available and comfortable communication tool for everyday use, it gave the impetus for the creation of a whole new industrial sector. As with the invention of the telephone itself, the honor of "first telephone exchange" has several claimants. One of the first to propose a telephone exchange was Hungarian Tivadar Puskás in 1877 while he was working for Thomas Edison; the first experimental telephone exchange was based on the ideas of Puskás, it was built by the Bell Telephone Company in Boston in 1877. The world's first state-administered telephone exchange opened on November 12, 1877 in Friedrichsberg close to Berlin under the direction of Heinrich von Stephan. George W. Coy designed and built the first commercial US telephone exchange which opened in New Haven, Connecticut in January, 1878; the switchboard was built from "carriage bolts, handles from teapot lids and bustle wire" and could handle two simultaneous conversations. Charles Glidden is credited with establishing an exchange in Lowell, MA. with 50 subscribers in 1878.
In Europe other early telephone exchanges were based in London and Manchester, both of which opened under Bell patents in 1879. Belgium had its first International Bell exchange a year later. In 1887 Puskás introduced the multiplex switchboard.. Exchanges consisted of one to several hundred plug boards staffed by switchboard operators; each operator sat in front of a vertical panel containing banks of ¼-inch tip-ring-sleeve jacks, each of, the local termination of a subscriber's telephone line. In front of the jack panel lay a horizontal panel containing two rows of patch cords, each pair connected to a cord circuit; when a calling party lifted the receiver, the local loop current lit a signal lamp near the jack. The operator responded by inserting the rear cord into the subscriber's jack and switched her headset into the circuit to ask, "Number, please?" For a local call, the operator inserted the front cord of the pair into the called party's local jack and started the ringing cycle. For a long distance call, she plugged into a trunk circuit to connect to another operator in another bank of boards or at a remote central office.
In 1918, the average time to complete the connection for a long-distance call was 15 minutes. Early manual switchboards required the operator to operate listening keys and ringing keys, but by the late 1910s and 1920s, advances in switchboard technology led to features which allowed the call to be automatic
A resort is a self-contained commercial establishment that tries to provide most of a vacationer's wants, such as food, lodging, sports and shopping, on the premises. The term resort may be used for a hotel property that provides an array of amenities including entertainment and recreational activities. A hotel is a central feature of a resort, such as the Grand Hotel at Mackinac Island, Michigan; some resorts are condominium complexes that are timeshares or owed fractionally or wholly owned condominium. A resort is not always a commercial establishment operated by a single company, but in the late 20th century, that sort of facility became more common. In British English "resort" means a town which people visit for holidays and days out which contains hotels at which such holidaymakers stay. Examples would include Brighton. A destination resort is a resort that itself contains the necessary guest attraction capabilities so it does not need to be near a destination to attract its patrons. A commercial establishment at a resort destination such as a recreational area, a scenic or historic site, a theme park, a gaming facility, or other tourist attraction may compete with other businesses at a destination.
Another quality of a destination resort is that it offers food, lodging, sports and shopping within the facility so that guests have no need to leave the facility throughout their stay. The facilities are of higher quality than would be expected if one were to stay at a hotel or eat in a town's restaurants; some examples are Atlantis in the Bahamas. Related to resorts are convention and large meeting sites, they occur in cities, where special meeting halls, together with ample accommodations and varied dining and entertainment, are provided. An all-inclusive resort charges a fixed price that includes all items. At a minimum, most inclusive resorts include lodging, unlimited food, sports activities, entertainment for the fixed price. In recent years, the number of resorts in the United States offering "all-inclusive" amenities has decreased dramatically. In 1961, over half offered such plans. All-inclusive resorts are found in the Caribbean in Dominican Republic. Notable examples are Club Med, Sandals Resorts, Beaches Resorts An all-inclusive resort includes three meals daily, soft drinks, most alcoholic drinks and other services in the price.
Many offer sports and other activities included in the price as well. They are located in warmer regions; the all-inclusive model originated in the Club Med resorts, which were founded by the Belgian Gérard Blitz. Some all-inclusive resorts are designed for specific vacation interests. For example, certain resorts cater to adults, more-specialized properties accept couples only. Other all-inclusive resorts are geared toward families, with facilities like craft centers, game rooms, water parks to keep children of all ages entertained. All-inclusive resorts are very popular locations for destination weddings. A spa resort is a short l-term residential/lodging facility with the primary purpose of providing individual services for spagoers to develop healthy habits. Many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or sources of mineral waters. Over a seven-day stay, such facilities provide a comprehensive program that includes spa services, physical fitness activities, wellness education, healthy cuisine, special interest programming.
Golf resorts are resorts that cater to the sport of golf, they include access to one or more golfcourses and/or clubhouses. Golf resorts provide golf packages that provide visitors with all greens and cart fees, range balls and meals. In North America, a ski resort is a destination resort in a ski area; the term is less to refer to a town or village. A megaresort is a type of destination resort of an exceptionally-large size, such as those along the Las Vegas Strip. In Singapore, integrated resort is a euphemism for a casino-based destination resort. A holiday village is a type of self-contained resort in Europe whose accommodation is in villas. A holiday camp, in the United Kingdom, refers to a resort whose accommodation is in chalets or static caravans. There are more than 1500 timeshare resorts in the United States that are operated by major hospitality, timeshare-specific, or independent companies, they represent 198,000 residences and nearly 9 million owners, who pay an average $880 per year in maintenance fees.
A reported 16% of the residences became vacation rentals. Baiae, Italy, a famous historic resort of the ancient world, popular over 2000 years ago. Capri, an island near Naples, has attracted visitors since Roman times. Monte Ne, near Rogers, Arkansas, a famous historic resort, active in the early 20th century. At its peak, more than 10,000 people a year visited its hotels. Two of its hotels, Missouri Row and Oklahoma Row, were the largest log buildings in the world. Monte Ne closed in the 1930s and was submerged under Beaver Lake in the 1960s. Tawawa House known as Tawawa Springs or Xenia Springs, inspired Dolen Perkins-Valdez to write her debut novel, when she read about it in an autobiography of W. E. B. Dubois; the book mentioned in passing that t
Cumberland County, Nova Scotia
Cumberland County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The name Cumberland was applied by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Monckton to the captured Fort Beauséjour on June 18, 1755 in honour of the third son of King George II, William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, victor at Culloden in 1746 and Commander in Chief of the British forces; the Mi'kmaq name for the area was "Kwesomalegek" meaning "hardwood point". Cumberland County was founded on August 17, 1759; when the Township of Parrsboro was divided in 1840, one part was annexed to Cumberland County and the other part annexed to Colchester. The dividing line between Cumberland and Colchester was established in 1840. In 1897, a portion of the boundary line between the Counties of Colchester and Cumberland was fixed and defined; the county thrived in the 19th century with the development of lumbering and coal mining. Deforestation and rural outmigration in the 20th century led to the abandonment of some communities such as Eatonville and New Yarmouth.
The county has a total area of 4,271.23 km2. Cumberland County is rich in natural resources with extensive forest land supporting lumber mills and pulp contractors, it has many mineral resources, including 2 operating salt mines. Until the 1970s it had several coal mines which extracted coal from seams that run from Joggins to River Hebert and on to Athol and Springhill. Agriculture is concentrated on wild blueberry harvesting throughout the Cobequid Hills, as well as mixed farms located in the Tantramar Marshes region, the Northumberland Strait coastal plain, the Wentworth Valley; the northwestern edge of Cumberland County forms part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, the natural land bridge connecting the Nova Scotia peninsula to North America. As such, the county hosts several important transportation corridors, including Highway 104 and CN Rail's Halifax-Montreal railway line. Two towns are located in Cumberland County: Oxford; as a census division in the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Cumberland County recorded a population of 30,005 living in 13,614 of its 18,445 total private dwellings, a change of −4.3% from its 2011 population of 31,353.
With a land area of 4,277.86 km2, it had a population density of 7.0/km2 in 2016. Forming the majority of the Cumberland County census division, the Municipality of the County of Cumberland recorded a population of 19,402 living in 8,714 of its 13,103 total private dwellings in the 2016 Census of Population, a change of −5.3% from its 2011 population of 20,485. With a land area of 4,255.04 km2, it had a population density of 4.6/km2 in 2016. TownsAmherst OxfordVillagesPugwash River HebertCounty municipality and county subdivisionsMunicipality of the County of Cumberland Cumberland Subdivision A Cumberland Subdivision B Cumberland Subdivision C Cumberland Subdivision D Trunk 2 Trunk 4 Trunk 6 Hwy 104 Hwy 142 Route 204 Route 209 Route 321 List of municipalities in Nova Scotia Central Nova Tourist Association — Tourism Association Representing Cumberland County. Royal eponyms in Canada Black Lake listings within Nova Scotia. Cumberland County official site Photographs of the Cumberland County War Memorial monument, Amherst Photographs of historic monuments in Cumberland County
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan