The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas is introduced behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end at a high velocity; the hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber. Caliber is measured in inches or millimetres; the first firearms were made at a time when metallurgy was not advanced enough to cast tubes capable of withstanding the explosive forces of early cannons, so the pipe needed to be braced periodically along its length for reinforcement, producing an appearance somewhat reminiscent of storage barrels being stacked together, hence the English name. Gun barrels are metal. However, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, which has a strong tubular stalk and is cheaper to obtain and process, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons such as the fire lances.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, used the technology to make the earliest infantry firearms — the hand cannons. Early European guns were made of wrought iron with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings and welded into a hollow cylinder. Bronze and brass were favoured by gunsmiths because of their ease of casting and their resistance to the corrosive effects of the combustion of gunpowder or salt water when used on naval vessels. Early firearms were muzzle-loading, with the gunpowder and the shot loaded from the front end of the barrel, were capable of only a low rate of fire due to the cumbersome loading process; the later-invented breech-loading designs provided a higher rate of fire, but early breechloaders lacked an effective way of sealing the escaping gases that leaked from the back end of the barrel, reducing the available muzzle velocity. During the 19th century, effective breechblocks were invented that sealed a breechloader against the escape of propellant gases.
Early cannon barrels were thick for their caliber. This was because manufacturing defects such as air bubbles trapped in the metal were common back in the days, played key factors in many gun explosions. A gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out. If the barrel material cannot cope with the pressure within the bore, the barrel itself might suffer catastrophic failure and explode, which will not only destroy the gun but present a life-threatening danger to people nearby. Modern small arms barrels are made of carbon steel or stainless steel materials known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength. In firearms terminology, fluting refers to the removal of material from a cylindrical surface creating rounded grooves, for the purpose of reducing weight; this is most done to the exterior surface of a rifle barrel, though it may be applied to the cylinder of a revolver or the bolt of a bolt-action rifle.
Most flutings on rifle barrels and revolver cylinders are straight, though helical flutings can be seen on rifle bolts and also rifle barrels. While the main purpose of fluting is just to reduce weight and improve portability, when adequately done it can retain the structural strength and rigidity and increase the overall specific strength. Fluting will increase the surface-to-volume ratio and make the barrel more efficient to cool after firing, though the reduced material mass means the barrel will heat up during firing; the chamber is the cavity at the back end of a breech-loading gun's barrel where the cartridge is inserted in position ready to be fired. In most firearms, the chamber is an integral part of the barrel made by reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel. In revolvers, the chamber is a component of the gun's cylinder and separate from the barrel, with a single cylinder having multiple chambers that are rotated in turns into alignment with the barrel in anticipation of being fired.
Structurally, the chamber consists of the body and neck, the contour of which correspond to the casing shape of the cartridge it is designed to hold. The rear opening of the chamber is the breech of the whole barrel, sealed tight from behind by the bolt, making the front direction the path of least resistance during firing; when the cartridge's primer is struck by the firing pin, the propellant is ignited and deflagrates, generating high-pressure gas expansion within the cartridge case. However, the chamber restrains the cartridge case from moving, allowing the bullet to separate cleanly from the casing and be propelled forward along the barrel to exit out of the front end as a projectile; the act of chambering a gun refers to the process of loading a cartridge into the gun's chamber, either manually as in single loading, or via operating the weapon's own action as in pump action, lever action, bolt action or self-loading actions. In the case of an air gun, a pellet itself has no casing to be retained and will be inserted into the chamber (often called "seating
Thompson submachine gun
The Thompson submachine gun is an American submachine gun invented by John T. Thompson in 1918 which became infamous during the Prohibition era, being a signature weapon of various crime syndicates in the United States, it was a common sight in the media of the time, being used by both law enforcement officers and criminals. The Thompson submachine gun was known informally as the "Tommy Gun", "Annihilator", "Chicago Typewriter", "Chicago Submachine", "Chicago Piano", "Chicago Style", "Chicago Organ Grinder", "Trench Broom", "Trench Sweeper", "Drum Gun","The Chopper", "The Thompson"; the Thompson was favored by soldiers, police, FBI, civilians alike for its large.45 ACP cartridge and high volume of automatic fire. It has since gained popularity among civilian collectors for its historical significance, it has considerable significance in popular culture in works about the Prohibition era and World War II, is among the best-known firearms in history. The original automatic Thompsons are no longer produced, but numerous semi-automatic civilian versions are still being manufactured by Auto-Ordnance.
These retain a similar appearance to the original models, but they have various modifications in order to comply with US firearm laws. General John T. Thompson developed the Thompson Submachine Gun, he envisioned an "auto rifle" to replace the bolt action service rifles in use, but he came across a patent issued to John Bell Blish in 1915 while searching for a way to allow his weapon to operate safely without the complexity of a recoil or Gas-operated reloading mechanism. Blish's design was based on the adhesion of inclined metal surfaces under pressure. Thompson gained financial backing from Thomas F. Ryan and started the Auto-Ordnance Company in 1916 for the purpose of developing his "auto rifle", it was developed in Cleveland and the principal designers were Theodore H. Eickhoff, Oscar V. Payne, George E. Goll. By late 1917, the limits of the Blish Principle were discovered, it was found that the only cartridge in service, suitable for use with the lock was the.45 ACP round. Thompson envisioned a "one-man, hand-held machine gun" in.45 ACP as a "trench broom" for use in the ongoing trench warfare of World War I.
Payne drum magazines. The project was titled "Annihilator I", most of the design issues had been resolved by 1918. At an Auto-Ordnance board meeting in 1919 to discuss the marketing of the "Annihilator", with the war now over, the weapon was renamed the "Thompson Submachine Gun". While other weapons had been developed shortly prior with similar objectives in mind, the Thompson was the first weapon to be labeled and marketed as a "submachine gun". Thompson intended the weapon as an automatic "trench-broom" to sweep enemy troops from the trenches, filling a role for which the Browning Automatic Rifle had been proven ill-suited; this concept had been developed by German troops using their own Bergmann MP 18, the world's first submachine gun, in concert with Sturmtruppen tactics. The Thompson first entered production as the M1921, it was available to civilians. M1921 Thompsons were sold in small quantities to the United States Postal Inspection Service to protect the mail from a spate of robberies and to the United States Marine Corps.
Federal sales were followed by sales to several police departments in the US and minor international sales to various armies and constabulary forces, chiefly in Central and South America. The Marines used their Thompsons in China, it was popular as a point-defense weapon for countering ambush by Nicaraguan guerrillas, led to the organization of four-man fire teams with as much firepower as a nine-man rifle squad. The major complaints against the Thompson were its weight, inaccuracy at ranges over 50 yards, the lack of penetrating power of the.45 ACP pistol cartridge. Some of the first batches of Thompsons were bought in America by agents of the Irish Republic, notably Harry Boland; the first test of a Thompson in Ireland was performed by West Cork Brigade commander Tom Barry in presence of IRA leader Michael Collins. They purchased a total of 653, but US customs authorities in New York seized 495 of them in June 1921; the remainder made their way to the Irish Republican Army by way of Liverpool and were used in the last month of the Irish War of Independence.
After a truce with the British in July 1921, the IRA imported more Thompsons and used them in the subsequent Irish Civil War. They were not found to be effective in Ireland; the Thompson achieved most of its early notoriety in the hands of Prohibition and Great Depression-era gangsters, the lawmen who pursued them, in Hollywood films about their exploits, most notably in the St Valentine's Day Massacre. The two Thompson guns used in the massacre are still held by the Berrien County Sheriff's Department; the Thompson has been referred to by one researcher as the "gun that made the twenties roar". In 1926, the Cutts Compensator was offered as an option for the M1921. 21AC at the original price of $200, with the plain M1921 designated No. 21A at a reduced price of $175. In 1928, Federal Laboratories took over the dist
A firearm is a portable gun that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by expanding high-pressure gas produced chemically by exothermic combustion of propellant within an ammunition cartridge. If gas pressurization is achieved through mechanical gas compression rather than through chemical propellant combustion the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm; the first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132. In the 13th century the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon considered the true ancestor of all firearms; the technology spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Europe. Older firearms used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
Modern firearms can be described in the case of shotguns by their gauge. Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used and to the barrel length, to the firing mechanism, to the design's primary intended use, or to the accepted name for a particular variation. Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights; the accurate range of pistols does not exceed 110 yards, while most rifles are accurate to 550 yards using iron sights, or to longer ranges using optical sights. Purpose-built sniper rifles and anti-materiel rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2,200 yards. Firearms include a variety of ranged weapons and there is no agreed upon definition. Many soldiers consider a firearm to be any ranged weapon that uses gunpowder or a derivative as a propellant. Small arms include handguns and long guns, such as rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons, light machine guns; the world's top small arms manufacturing companies are Browning, Colt, Smith & Wesson, Mossberg, Heckler & Koch, SIG Sauer, Walther, ČZUB, Steyr-Mannlicher, FN Herstal, Norinco, Tula Arms and Kalashnikov, while former top producers were Mauser, Springfield Armory, Rock Island Armory under Armscor.
In 2018, Small Arms Survey reported that there are over one billion small arms distributed globally, of which 857 million are in civilian hands. U. S. civilians alone account for 393 million of the worldwide total of civilian held firearms. This amounts to "120.5 firearms for every 100 residents." The world's armed forces control about 133 million of the global total of small arms, of which over 43 percent belong to two countries: the Russian Federation and China. Law enforcement agencies control about 23 million of the global total of small arms; the smallest of all firearms is the handgun. There are two common types of handguns: semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have "charge holes" in a revolving cylinder. Semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round; each press of the trigger fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate the mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately.
This is opposed to "double-action" revolvers which accomplish the same end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull. Prior to the 19th century all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders. With the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the 1870s and had supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried by military and civilians were semi-automatic, although revolvers were still used. Speaking and police forces use semi-automatic pistols due to their high magazine capacities and ability to reload by removing the empty magazine and inserting a loaded one. Revolvers are common among handgun hunters because revolver cartridges are more powerful than similar caliber semi-automatic pistol cartridges and the strength and durability of the revolver design is well-suited to outdoor use. Revolvers in.22 LR and 38 Special/357 Magnum, are common concealed weapons in j
The.38 Super known as.38 Superauto or.38 Super Auto, is a pistol cartridge that fires a 0.356-inch-diameter bullet. The Super was introduced in the late 1920s as a higher pressure loading of.38 Auto. The old.38 ACP propelled a 130-grain bullet at 1,050 ft/s. The improved.38 Super Auto pushed the same 130-grain bullet at 1,280 ft/s. The.38 Super has gained distinction as the caliber of choice for many top pistol match competitors. The cartridge was designed for use in the M1911 pistol and was capable of penetrating the body armor and automobile bodies of the late 1920s; when the.357 Magnum was introduced in 1934, this advantage of the.38 Super was no longer enough to lure police departments and officers from the traditional revolver. The.38 Super retains the original dimensions of the.38 ACP case. The cartridge was designed to headspace on the semi-rim, which worked in the Colt M1900 due to the design of the feed ramp; when the.38 Auto became the.38 Super, in the 1911A1, the feed ramp could no longer be used as rim support.
As a result of this, observed accuracy of the.38 Super suffered until Irv Stone of Bar-Sto barrels re-designed the chamber to allow headspacing on the case mouth. Since all new production.38 Super pistols headspace on the case mouth, as with other cartridges in this class. The semi-rimmed case is known to cause feeding problems in some magazines double stack magazines, led to the development of new variants with reduced rims. In 1974 the industry added the +P headstamp to the.38 Super to further distinguish it from the lower-pressure.38 ACP. Most current ammunition manufacturers label ammunition for the Super as.38 Super +P. Since the.38 Super is dimensionally the same as the.38 ACP, an unsafe condition can be caused by firing.38 Super cartridges in a firearm designed for the much lower pressure.38 ACP. The weakness, in the Colt M1900, M1902 and others derived from that design, comes from the assembly wedge at the front of the slide. If the wedge comes out, or the slide cracks at the wedge, the slide can come off the rear of the frame when fired.
The 1911 and 1911A1, having a slide, solid on front, cannot come off the frame that way. The.38 Super has 1.14 ml cartridge case capacity..38 Super maximum C. I. P. Cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters; the common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 406 mm, 6 grooves, ø lands = 8.79 mm, ø grooves = 9.02 mm, land width = 3.07 mm and the primer type is small pistol. Both SAAMI and C. I. P. Specify a bullet diameter of 0.356 inches. According to the official C. I. P. Guidelines the.38 Super case can handle up to 230 MPa piezo pressure. In C. I. P. Regulated countries every pistol cartridge combo has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum C. I. P. pressure to be certified for sale to consumers. The SAAMI pressure limit for the.38 ACP or.38 Auto is set at piezo pressure. The SAAMI pressure limit for the.38 Super + P is set at piezo pressure. The C. I. P. and SAAMI specified. In recent years, cases such as the.38 Super Comp.38 Super Lapua.38 Super RL, and.38 TJ became available transforming the.38 Super into an truly rimless cartridge.
These "rimless" cases are somewhat of a misnomer, due to the case rim not retaining the same diameter as the case wall just forward of the extractor groove. A common example is the.38 Super Comp case, which has a semi-rim extending only.003-.004" per side, compared to standard.38 Super which has.007-.009" per side. The main reason for the development of new cases was due to the semi-rimmed.38 Super case not always feeding reliably from the double-stack box-magazines used in several semi-automatic pistols popular with practical shooting sports, such as USPSA or IPSC. The nearly rimless cases improve feeding reliability in these pistols but are intended to be used in firearms that headspace on the case mouth. Other improvements found in some of these cases are modified extractor grooves and increased thickness in key parts of the brass for high pressure loadings; because of its larger case volume, which allows for more smokeless powder and results in higher muzzle velocities at similar pressure levels, the.38 Super offers higher bullet velocity potential than the 9×19mm Parabellum when handloaded and in some defense loadings.
The 9×19mm Parabellum is however approved for higher pressure +P loadings by both SAAMI and C. I. P. which compensates for much of the case volume difference in factory-loaded ammunition. The.38 Super is regarded as a well-balanced cartridge with a flat trajectory, good accuracy and high muzzle energy. 7.5 g full metal jacket: 425 m/s: 1,395 ft/s 8.0 g full metal jacket: 410 m/s: 1,346 ft/s Cor-Bon/Glaser offers the.38 Super +P in several full-power self-defense–style loads with advertised velocities such as 115 gr 1,425 ft/s and 125 gr 1,350 ft/s. Tests with ammunition besides Cor-Bon/Glaser increases velocity by between 25 ft/s to 50 ft/s on average. The.38 Super has made a comeback in IPSC and USPSA sports shooting raceguns when equipped with a compensator, because it exceeds the power factor threshold to be considered a "major" charge, while having much more manageable recoil than.45 ACP. Part of the felt recoil reduction is due to the use of lighter-weight b
A submachine gun is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges. The term "submachine gun" was coined by John T. Thompson, the inventor of the Thompson submachine gun; the submachine gun was developed during World War I. At its zenith during World War II, millions of SMGs were made. After the war, new SMG designs appeared frequently. However, by the 1980s, SMG usage decreased. Today, submachine guns have been replaced by assault rifles, which have a greater effective range and are capable of penetrating the helmets and body armor used by modern infantry. However, submachine guns are still used by military special forces and police SWAT teams for close quarters battle because they are "a pistol-caliber weapon that's easy to control, less to over-penetrate the target". During World War I, the Austrians introduced the world's first machine pistol the Steyr Repetierpistole M1912/P16; the Germans experimented with machine pistols by converting pistols such as the Mauser C96 and Luger P-08 from semiautomatic to automatic operation and adding detachable stocks.
Carbine-type automatic weapons firing pistol rounds were developed during the latter stages of World War I by Italy and the United States. Their improved firepower and portability offered an advantage in trench warfare. In 1915, the Italians introduced the Villar-Perosa aircraft machine gun, it fired pistol-caliber 9mm Glisenti ammunition, but was not a true submachine gun, as it was designed as a mounted weapon. This odd design was modified into the OVP 1918 carbine-type submachine gun, which evolved into the 9×19mm Parabellum Beretta Model 1918 after the end of World War I. Both the OVP 1918 and the Beretta 1918 had a traditional wooden stock, a 25-round top-fed box magazine, had a cyclic rate of fire of 900 rounds per minute; the Germans used heavier versions of the P08 pistol equipped with a detachable stock, larger-capacity snail-drum magazine and a longer barrel. By 1918, Bergmann Waffenfabrik had developed the 9 mm Parabellum MP 18, the first practical submachine gun; this weapon used the same 32-round snail-drum magazine as the Luger P-08.
The MP 18 was used in significant numbers by German stormtroopers employing infiltration tactics, achieving some notable successes in the final year of the war. However, these were not enough to prevent Germany's collapse in November 1918. After World War I, the MP 18 would evolve into the MP28/II SMG, which incorporated a simple 32-round box magazine, a semi & full auto selector, other minor improvements. The.45 ACP Thompson submachine gun had been in development at the same time as the Bergmann and the Beretta. However, the war ended. Although it had missed its chance to be the first purpose-designed submachine gun to enter service, it became the basis for weapons and had the longest active service life of the three. In the interwar period the "Tommy Gun" or "Chicago Typewriter" became notorious in the U. S. as a gangster's weapon. However, the FBI and other U. S. police forces themselves showed no reluctance to prominently display these weapons. The submachine gun was accepted by many military organizations as World War II loomed, with many countries developing their own designs.
The Italians were among the first to develop submachine guns during World War I. However, they were slow to produce them during World War II; the 9 mm Parabellum Beretta Model 1938 was not available in large numbers until 1943. The 38 was made in a successive series of improved and simplified models all sharing the same basic layout; the Beretta has the front for semi-auto and rear for full-auto. Most models use standard wooden stocks, although some models were fitted with an MP 40-style under-folding stock and are mistaken for the German SMG; the 38 series was robust and proved popular with both Axis forces and Allied troops. It is considered the most successful and effective Italian small arm of World War II; the 38 series is the longest serving of the world's SMGs, as models can still be seen in the hands of Italian military and police forces. In 1939, the Germans introduced the 9 mm Parabellum MP38 during the invasion of Poland. However, the MP38 production was still just starting and only a few thousand were in service at the time.
It proved to be far more practical and effective in close quarters combat than the standard-issue German Kar 98K bolt-action rifle. From it, the nearly identical MP40 was made in large numbers; the MP40 was lighter than the MP38. It used more stamped parts, making it faster and cheaper to produce; the MP38 and MP40 were the first SMGs to use a practical folding stock. They would set the fashion for all future SMG designs. During the Winter War, the badly outnumbered Finnish used the Suomi KP/-31 in large numbers against the Russians with devastating effect. Finnish ski troops became known for appearing out of the woods on one side of a road, raking Soviet columns with SMG fire and disappearing back into the woods on the other side. During the Continuation War, the Finnish Sissi patrols would equip every soldier with KP/-31s; the Suomi fired 9 mm Parabellum ammo from a 71-round drum magazine. "This SMG showed to the world the importance of the submachine gun to the modern warfare", prompting the development and mass production of submachine guns by mo
Cuba the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet, it is east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is capital; the area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres. The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres, the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants; the territory, now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonisation in the 15th century. From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902.
As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba; the country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of few Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, it is a multiethnic country whose people and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. The country is a middle power in world affairs, it has one of the world's only planned economies, its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world, it ranks in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF. Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation unknown"; the exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as'where fertile land is abundant', or'great place'. Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno, the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people; the ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP. The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D; when Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as hunter-gatherers. After first landing on an island called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492, Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492. Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital.
The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe. Within a century the indigenous people were wiped out due to multiple factors Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance, aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had survived smallpox. On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure and power. On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba, he arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and declared the liberty of all natives. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, he built Havana's first church made of maso