Abydos is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt, of which it was the capital city. It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N, near the modern Egyptian towns of el-'Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju; the English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers from the unrelated city of Abydos on the Hellespont. Considered one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt, the sacred city of Abydos was the site of many ancient temples, including Umm el-Qa'ab, a royal necropolis where early pharaohs were entombed; these tombs began to be seen as significant burials and in times it became desirable to be buried in the area, leading to the growth of the town's importance as a cult site. Today, Abydos is notable for the memorial temple of Seti I, which contains an inscription from the nineteenth dynasty known to the modern world as the Abydos King List.
It is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti I's father, Ramesses I. The Great Temple and most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. Many of the original structures and the artifacts within them lost. Abydos was occupied by the rulers of the Predynastic period, whose town and tombs have been found there; the temple and town continued to be rebuilt at intervals down to the times of the thirtieth dynasty, the cemetery was used continuously. The pharaohs of the first dynasty were buried in Abydos, including Narmer, regarded as founder of the first dynasty, his successor, Aha, it was in this time period. Some pharaohs of the second dynasty were buried in Abydos; the temple was enlarged by these pharaohs as well. Funerary enclosures, misinterpreted in modern times as great'forts', were built on the desert behind the town by three kings of the second dynasty. From the fifth dynasty, the deity Khentiamentiu, foremost of the Westerners, came to be seen as a manifestation of the dead pharaoh in the underworld.
Pepi I constructed a funerary chapel which evolved over the years into the Great Temple of Osiris, the ruins of which still exist within the town enclosure. Abydos became the centre of the worship of the Osiris cult. During the First Intermediate Period, the principal deity of the area, began to be seen as an aspect of Osiris, the deities merged and came to be regarded as one. Khentiamentiu's name became an epithet of Osiris. King Mentuhotep II was the first one building a royal chapel. In the twelfth dynasty a gigantic tomb was cut into the rock by Senusret III. Associated with this tomb was a cenotaph, a cult temple and a small town known as "Wah-Sut", used by the workers for these structures. Next to that cenotaph were buried at least two kings of the thirteenth dynasty and some rulers of the Second Intermediate Period, such as Senebkay. An indigenous line of kings, the Abydos Dynasty, may have ruled the region from Abydos at the time; the building during the eighteenth dynasty began with a large chapel of Ahmose I.
The Pyramid of Ahmose I was constructed at Abydos—the only pyramid in the area. Thutmose III built a far larger temple, about 130 ft × 200 ft, he made a processional way leading past the side of the temple to the cemetery beyond, featuring a great gateway of granite. Seti I, in the nineteenth dynasty, founded a temple to the south of the town in honor of the ancestral pharaohs of the early dynasties. Merneptah added the Osireion just to the north of the temple of Seti. Ahmose II in the twenty-sixth dynasty rebuilt the temple again, placed in it a large monolith shrine of red granite, finely wrought; the foundations of the successive temples were comprised within 18 ft. depth of the ruins discovered in modern times. The latest building was a new temple of Nectanebo I, built in the thirtieth dynasty. From the Ptolemaic times of the Greek occupancy of Egypt, that began three hundred years before the Roman occupancy that followed, the structure began to decay and no works are known. From earliest times, Abydos was a cult centre, first of the local deity and from the end of the Old Kingdom, the rising cult of Osiris and Isis.
A tradition developed that the Early Dynastic cemetery was the burial place of Osiris and the tomb of Djer was reinterpreted as that of Osiris. Decorations in tombs throughout Egypt, such as the one displayed to the right, record journeys to and from Abydos, as important pilgrimages made by individuals who were proud to have been able to make the vital trip. Successively from the first dynasty to the twenty-sixth dynasty, nine or ten temples were built on one site at Abydos; the first was about 30 ft × 50 ft, surrounded by a thin wall of unbaked bricks. Incorporating one wall of this first structure, the second temple of about 40 ft square was built within a wall about 10 ft thick. An outer temenos wall surrounded the grounds; this outer wall was thickened about the third dynasty. The old temple vanished in the fourth dynasty, a smaller building was erected
The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt. This scholarly consensus is the so-called Conventional Egyptian chronology, which places the beginning of the Old Kingdom in the 27th century BC, the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in the 21st century BC and the beginning of the New Kingdom in the mid-16th century BC. Despite this consensus, disagreements remain within the scholarly community, resulting in variant chronologies diverging by about 300 years for the Early Dynastic Period, up to 30 years in the New Kingdom, a few years in the Late Period. In addition, there are a number of "alternative chronologies" outside scholarly consensus, such as the "New Chronology" proposed in the 1990s, which lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 350 years, or the "Glasgow Chronology", which lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 500 years. Scholarly consensus on the general outline of the conventional chronology current in Egyptology has not fluctuated much over the last 100 years.
For the Old Kingdom, consensus fluctuates by as much as a few centuries, but for the Middle and New Kingdoms, it has been stable to within a few decades. This is illustrated by comparing the chronology as given by two Egyptologists, the first writing in 1906, the second in 2000; the disparities between the two sets of dates result from additional discoveries and refined understanding of the still incomplete source evidence. For example, Breasted adds a ruler in the Twentieth dynasty that further research showed did not exist. Following Manetho, Breasted believed all the dynasties were sequential, whereas it is now known that several existed at the same time; these revisions have resulted in a lowering of the conventional chronology by up to 400 years at the beginning of Dynasty I. Forming the backbone of Egyptian chronology are the regnal years as recorded in Ancient Egyptian king lists. Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text, or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers for a short period of Egyptian history.
The situation is further complicated by occasional conflicting information on the same regnal period from different versions of the same text. Regnal periods have to be pieced together from inscriptions, which will give a date in the form of the regnal year of the ruling pharaoh, yet this only provides a minimum length of that reign and may or may not include any coregencies with a predecessor or successor. In addition, some Egyptian dynasties overlapped, with different pharaohs ruling in different regions at the same time, rather than serially. Not knowing whether monarchies were simultaneous or sequential results in differing chronological interpretations. Where the total number of regnal years for a given ruler is not known, Egyptologists have identified two indicators to deduce that total number: for the Old Kingdom, the number of cattle censuses. A number of Old Kingdom inscriptions allude to a periodic census of cattle, which experts at first believed took place every second year. However, further research has shown that these censuses were sometimes taken in consecutive years, or after two or more years had passed.
The Sed festival was celebrated on the thirtieth anniversary of a pharaoh's ascension, thus rulers who recorded celebrating one could be assumed to have ruled at least 30 years. However, once again, this may not have been standard practice in all cases. In the early days of Egyptology, the compilation of regnal periods was hampered by a profound biblical bias on the part of Egyptologists; this was most pervasive before the mid 19th century, when Manetho's figures were recognized as conflicting with biblical chronology, based on Old Testament references to Egypt. In the 20th century, such biblical bias has been confined to alternative chronologies outside the scholarly mainstream. A useful way to work around these gaps in knowledge is to find chronological synchronisms, which can lead to a precise date. Over the past decades, a number of these have been found, although they are of varying degrees of usefulness and reliability. Seriation, i.e. archeological sequences. This does not fix a person or event to a specific year, but establishing a sequence of events can provide indirect evidence to provide or support a precise date.
For example, some inscribed stone vessels of the rulers of the first two dynasties were collected and deposited in storage galleries beneath and sealed off when the Step Pyramid of Djoser, a Pharaoh of the Third Dynasty, was built. Another example are blocks from the Old Kingdom bearing the names of several kings, which were reused in the construction of Middle Kingdom pyramid-temples at Lisht in the structures of Amenemhat I; the third pylon at Karnak, built by Amenhotep III contained as "fill" material from the kiosk of Sesostris I, along with various stelae of the Second Intermediate Period and the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom. Synchronisms with other chronologies, the most important of these being with the Assyrian and Babylonian chronologies, but synchronisms with the Hittites, ancient Palestine, in the final period with ancient Greece, are used; the earliest such synchronism is in the 18th century
Durham University is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years, after Oxford and Cambridge, is one of the institutions to be described as the third-oldest university in England; as a collegiate university its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and its 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide teaching to students, while the colleges are responsible for their domestic arrangements and welfare; the university is a member of the Russell Group of British research universities after being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is affiliated with the regional N8 Research Partnership and international university groups including the Matariki Network of Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university estate includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Durham Castle to a 1930s Art Deco chapel.
The university owns and manages the Durham World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle, Palace Green, the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library. Among British universities, it had the eighth highest average UCAS Tariff for new entrants in 2016 and the third lowest proportion of state-school educated students starting courses in 2016, at 62.9 per cent. The university is ranked 5th to 7th by recent national league tables of the British universities, 74th to 114th in three of the four major global tables and in the 201–300 range in the fourth, it was Sunday Times University of the Year for 2005, the Times and Sunday Times Sports University of the Year for 2015, was awarded a Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2018. The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in 2012. Current and emeritus academics include 14 Fellows of the Royal Society, 17 Fellows of the British Academy, 14 Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences, 5 Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2 Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
Durham graduates have long used the Latin post-nominal letters Dunelm after their degree, from Dunelmensis. The strong tradition of theological teaching in Durham gave rise to various attempts to form a university there, notably under King Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell, who issued letters patent and nominated a proctor and fellows for the establishment of a college in 1657. However, there was deep concern expressed by Oxford and Cambridge that the awarding of degree powers could hinder their position, it was not until 1832 when Parliament, at the instigation of Archdeacon Charles Thorp and with the support of the Bishop of Durham, William van Mildert, passed "an Act to enable the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral to appropriate part of the property of their church to the establishment of a University in connection therewith" that the university came into being. The act received Royal Assent from King William IV on 4 July 1832; the university opened on 28 October 1833. In 1834 all but two of the bishops of the Church of England confirmed that they would accept holders of Durham degrees for ordination.
In 1835 a fundamental statute was passed by the Dean and Chapter, as governors of the University, setting up Convocation and laying down that Durham degrees would only be open to members of the Church of England. Regulations for degrees were finalised in 1836 and the university was incorporated by Royal Charter granted by William IV on 1 June 1837 as the "Warden and Scholars of the University of Durham", with the first students graduating a week later. Accommodation was provided in the Archdeacon's Inn from 1833 to 1837. On the accession of Queen Victoria an order of the Queen-in-Council was issued granting the use of Durham Castle to the university. In 1846, Bishop Hatfield's Hall was founded, providing the opportunity for students to obtain affordable lodgings with catered communal eating, a revolutionary idea at the time, endorsed by a Royal Commission in 1862 and spread to other universities; those attending University College were expected to bring a servant with them to deal with cooking, cleaning and so on.
The level of applications to Bishop Hatfield's Hall led to a second hall along similar lines, Bishop Cosin's Hall, being founded in 1851, although this only survived until 1864. Elsewhere, the university expanded from Durham into Newcastle in 1852 when the medical school there became a college of the university; this was joined in 1871 by the College of Physical Sciences. St Cuthbert's Society was founded in 1888 for non-collegiate mature, male students as a non-residential society run by the students themselves. Two teacher-training colleges – St Hild's for women, established in 1858, The College of the Venerable Bede for men, established in 1839 existed in the city and these merged to form the mixed College of St Hild and St Bede in 1975. From 1896 these were associated with the university and graduates of St Hild's were the first female graduates from Durham in 1898. During its expansion phase the University became the first English university to establish relationships with overseas institutions.
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing. Excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigraphist. For example, the Behistun inscription is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing and dating the trilingual inscription and finding any relevant circumstances, it is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document. Epigraphy and history are competences practised by the same person. An epigraph is any sort of text, from a single grapheme to a lengthy document. Epigraphy overlaps other competences such as numismatics or palaeography; when compared to books, most inscriptions are short. The media and the forms of the graphemes are diverse: engravings in stone or metal, scratches on rock, impressions in wax, embossing on cast metal, cameo or intaglio on precious stones, painting on ceramic or in fresco.
The material is durable, but the durability might be an accident of circumstance, such as the baking of a clay tablet in a conflagration. Epigraphy is a primary tool of archaeology; the US Library of Congress classifies epigraphy as one of the auxiliary sciences of history. Epigraphy helps identify a forgery: epigraphic evidence formed part of the discussion concerning the James Ossuary; the study of ancient handwriting in ink, is a separate field, palaeography. The character of the writing, the subject of epigraphy, is a matter quite separate from the nature of the text, studied in itself. Texts inscribed in stone are for public view and so they are different from the written texts of each culture. Not all inscribed texts are public, however: in Mycenaean Greece the deciphered texts of "Linear B" were revealed to be used for economic and administrative record keeping. Informal inscribed texts are "graffiti" in its original sense; the science of epigraphy has been developing since the 16th century.
Principles of epigraphy vary culture by culture, the infant science in European hands concentrated on Latin inscriptions at first. Individual contributions have been made by epigraphers such as Georg Fabricius; the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, begun by Mommsen and other scholars, has been published in Berlin since 1863, with wartime interruptions. It is the most extensive collection of Latin inscriptions. New fascicles are still produced; the Corpus is arranged geographically: all inscriptions from Rome are contained in volume 6. This volume has the greatest number of inscriptions. Specialists depend on such on-going series of volumes in which newly discovered inscriptions are published in Latin, not unlike the biologists' Zoological Record— the raw material of history. Greek epigraphy has unfolded with different corpora. There are two; the first is Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum of which four volumes came out, again at Berlin, 1825-1877. This marked a first attempt at a comprehensive publication of Greek inscriptions copied from all over the Greek-speaking world.
Only advanced students still consult it, for better editions of the texts have superseded it. The second, modern corpus is Inscriptiones Graecae arranged geographically under categories: decrees, honorary titles, funeral inscriptions, all presented in Latin, to preserve the international neutrality of the field of classics. Other such series include the Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum, Corpus Inscriptionum Crucesignatorum Terrae Sanctae, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum, Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, "Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia" and "Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period" and so forth. Egyptian hieroglyphs were solved using the Rosetta Stone, a multilingual stele in Classical Greek, Demotic Egyptian and Classical Egyptian hieroglyphs; the work was done by the French scholar, Jean-François Champollion, the British scientist Thomas Young. The interpretation of Maya hieroglyphs was lost as a result of the Spanish Conquest of Central America. However, recent work by Maya epigraphers and linguists has yielded a considerable amount of information on this complex writing system.
Inscriptions were incised on stone, metal, terracotta, or wood. In Egypt and Mesopotamia hard stones were used for the purpose, the inscriptions are therefore well preserved and easy to read. In Greece the favourite material in Athens, was white marble, which takes an admirably clear lettering, but is liable to weathering of the surface if exposed, to wear if rebuilt into pavements or similar structures. Many other kinds of stone, both hard
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC. There is much debate surrounding this dynasty, which may have been situated at Herakleopolis Magna, Hermopolis Magna, Thebes. Monuments from their reign show that they controlled Upper Egypt in parallel with the Twenty-second dynasty, shortly before the death of Osorkon II. J. P. Elias, "A Northern Member of the'Theban' Twenty-Third Dynasty", Discussions in Egyptology 31, 57-67. J. Goldberg, "The 23rd Dynasty Problem Revisited: Where and Who?", Discussions in Egyptology 29, 55-85. H. Jacquet Gordon, "Deux graffiti d'époque libyenne sur le toit du Temple de Khonsu à Karnak" in Hommages à la memoire de Serge Sauneron, 1927-1976, pp. 169–74. K. A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 3rd ed. Warminster: 1996
Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artefacts. He held the first chair of Egyptology in the United Kingdom, excavated many of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt in conjunction with his wife, Hilda Petrie; some consider his most famous discovery to be that of the Merneptah Stele, an opinion with which Petrie himself concurred. Petrie developed the system of dating layers based on pottery and ceramic findings. Petrie was born on 3 June 1853 in Maryon Road, Kent, the son of William Petrie and Anne. Anne was the daughter of Captain Matthew Flinders. William Petrie was an electrical engineer who developed carbon arc lighting and developed chemical processes for Johnson, Matthey & Co. Petrie was raised in a Christian household, was educated at home, he had no formal education. His father taught his son how to survey laying the foundation for his archaeological career.
At the age of eight, he was tutored in French and Greek, until he had a collapse and was taught at home. He ventured his first archaeological opinion aged eight, when friends visiting the Petrie family were describing the unearthing of the Brading Roman Villa in the Isle of Wight; the boy was horrified to hear the rough shovelling out of the contents, protested that the earth should be pared away, inch by inch, to see all, in it and how it lay. "All that I have done since," he wrote when he was in his late seventies, "was there to begin with, so true it is that we can only develop what is born in the mind. I was in archaeology by nature." The chair of Edwards Professor of Egyptian Archaeology and Philology at University College London was set up and funded in 1892 following a bequest from Amelia Edwards, who died in that year. Petrie's supporter since 1880, Edwards had instructed, he continued to excavate in Egypt after taking up the professorship, training many of the best archaeologists of the day.
In 1913 Petrie sold his large collection of Egyptian antiquities to University College, where it is now housed in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology. One of his trainees, Howard Carter, went on to discover the tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922. In his teenage years, Petrie surveyed British prehistoric monuments in attempts to understand their geometry, his father had corresponded with Piazzi Smyth about his theories of the Great Pyramid and Petrie travelled to Egypt in early 1880 to make an accurate survey of Giza, making him the first to properly investigate how they were constructed. Petrie's published reports of this triangulation survey, his analysis of the architecture of Giza therein, was exemplary in its methodology and accuracy, disproved Smyth's theories and still provides much of the basic data regarding the pyramid plateau to this day. On that visit, he was appalled by the rate of destruction of mummies, he described Egypt as "a house on fire, so rapid was the destruction" and felt his duty to be that of a "salvage man, to get all I could, as as possible and when I was 60, I would sit and write it all."
Returning to England at the end of 1880, Petrie wrote a number of articles and met Amelia Edwards and patron of the Egypt Exploration Fund, who became his strong supporter and appointed him as Professor at her Egyptology chair at University College London. Impressed by his scientific approach, they offered. Petrie accepted the position and was given the sum of £250 per month to cover the excavation's expenses. In November 1884, Petrie arrived in Egypt to begin his excavations, he first went to a New Kingdom site with 170 workmen. He cut out the middle man role of foreman on this and all subsequent excavations, taking complete overall control himself and removing pressure on the workmen from the foreman to discover finds but sloppily. Though he was regarded as an amateur and dilettante by more established Egyptologists, this made him popular with his workers, who found several small but significant finds that would have been lost under the old system. In 1886, while working for the Egypt Exploration Fund, Petrie excavated at Tell Nebesheh in the Eastern Nile Delta.
This site is located 8 miles southeast of Tanis and, among the remains of an ancient temple there, Petrie found a royal sphinx, now located at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. By the end of the Tanis dig, he ran out of funding but, reluctant to leave the country in case it was renewed, he spent 1887 cruising the Nile taking photographs as a less subjective record than sketches. During this time, he climbed rope ladders at Sehel Island near Aswan to draw and photograph thousands of early Egyptian inscriptions on a cliff face, recording embassies to Nubia and wars. By the time he reached Aswan, a telegram had reached there to confirm the renewal of his funding, he went straight to the burial site at Fayum interested in post-30 BC burials, which had not been studied. He found intact tombs and 60 of the famous portraits, discovered from inscriptions on t