Ulva intestinalis referred to as Enteromorpha intestinalis Nees, is a green alga in the family Ulvaceae, of the genus Ulva known by the common names gutweed and grass kelp. Until they were reclassified by genetic work completed in the early 2000s, the tubular members of the genus Ulva were in the genus Enteromorpha. World-wide, it can be found in Bering Sea near Alaska, Aleutian islands, Puget Sound, Korea, Philippines,and Russia. Besides this, places it can be found in Israel, in such European countries as Azores, Denmark, Norway, in such seas as the Baltic, Mediterranean Sea, it is found in the shores of the Pacific Ocean including in New Zealand. The fronds have branches and are tubular expanding in width to mid-thallus. Reaching 15 cm long or more; the cells are irregularly arranged and the chloroplast is hood-shaped and placed to one side with only one pyrenoid. The species may be 10–30 centimetres long and 6–18 millimetres wide, they have rounded tips as well. The algae may be reproductive at all times of the year.
The life-history shows an alteration of generations, isomorphic - sporophytic. In some references the species is treated as two subspecies: ssp. intestinalis Link and ssp. compressa Link. Danish: Tarm-rørhinde Dutch: Echt darmwier French: Entéromorphe German: Darmtang or German: gemeiner Darmtang Norwegian: Bokmål tarmgrønske or Norwegian: Nynorsk tarmgrønske Polish: Sałata, Polish: Taśma or Polish: Watka Swedish: Tarmalg Thai: สาหร่ายไส้ไก่ Portuguese: Erva-Patinha
Malin Head is located on the Inishowen Peninsula, County Donegal, Republic of Ireland and is the most northerly point of the island of Ireland. The northernmost tip is the headland named Banba's Crown located at latitude 55.38ºN. Malin Head gives its name to the Malin sea area. There is a weather station on the head, one of 22 such stations whose reports are broadcast as part of the BBC Shipping Forecast. Ptolemy's Geography described a point called Βορειον which referred to Malin Head. Banba's Crown on Malin Head is the most northerly point of the Irish mainland. Banba was one of the mythical queens of Ireland. Banba's Crown is about 16 km north of the village of Malin; the island of Inishtrahull is further north, located 10 km north east of Malin Head. Further north still is the most northerly landfall of Tor Beg rock. Malin Head is home to small businesses such as pubs, shops and a large call centre called Forward Emphasis International, which employs many of the local residents. To the north east Inistrahull Island can be seen.
The first lighthouse on the island was put into operation in 1813, the light flashes every 30 seconds. Above Banba's Crown to the east lies Ballyhillion beach, a unique raised beach system of international scientific importance; the distinct shorelines show the changing relationship between the sea and the land from the time the glaciers began to melt, some 15,000 years ago. At that time County Donegal was depressed by the weight of an immense ice sheet, so the level of the sea, relative to today's shore, was up to 80 feet higher than today. Scenes from Star Wars: The Last Jedi were filmed in Malin Head. Malin Head has a temperate oceanic climate High winds and storms are a notable presence for much of the year. A military watchtower was built at Banba's Crown during the Napoleonic Wars. Around 1902, a signal station was built at Banba's Crown, quite close to the old Napoleonic watchtower. Both of these buildings still stand. During World War II, the Irish Government allowed the British Government to site two radio direction finders on Malin Head.
This top-secret operation was mentioned in The Cranborne Report. The RDF equipment was used to monitor aerial activity in the North Atlantic. After the war, the site became a weather station for the Met Éireann and a Navtex transmitting station. Today, it is still used as a functioning weather station for the north west part of Ireland. On a section of land jutting out from the mainland at Banba's Crown, the word'Éire' can be seen in large letters that were formed from placing stones together to form the letters; this was to signify to overflying planes that they were passing Ireland and that Ireland was neutral. Malin Head is an ideal vantage point from which to view the autumnal movements of seabirds such as gannets, skuas and others, on their southward migration flights. Malin to Mizen Wild Atlantic Way
Lough Foyle, sometimes Loch Foyle, is the estuary of the River Foyle, on the north coast of Ireland. It lies between County Londonderry in Northern Ireland and County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland. Sovereignty over these waters has been in dispute since the Partition of Ireland; the Lough Foyle Ramsar site is 2204.36 hectares in area, at latitude 55 05 24 N and longitude 07 01 37 W. It was designated a Ramsar site on 2 February 1999; the site consists of a large shallow sea lough which includes the estuaries of the rivers Foyle and Roe. It contains extensive intertidal areas of mudflats and sandflats, salt marsh and associated brackish ditches; the site qualified under Criterion 1 of the Ramsar Convention because it is a good representative example of a wetland complex which plays a substantial hydrological and ecological system role in the natural functioning of a major river basin located in a trans-border position. It qualified under Ramsar criterion 2, as it supports an appreciable number of rare, vulnerable or endangered species of plant and animal.
A range of notable fish species have been recorded for the Lough Foyle estuary and the lower reaches of some of its tributary rivers. These include allis shad, twait shad and sea lamprey, all of which are Irish Red Data Book species. Important populations of Atlantic salmon migrate through the system to and from their spawning grounds; the site qualified under Ramsar criterion 3, as it supports a large numbers of wintering waterfowl including internationally important populations of whooper swan, light-bellied brent goose and bar-tailed godwit, as well as wildfowl species which are nationally important in an all-Ireland context, including red-throated diver, great crested grebe, mute swan, Bewick's swan, greylag goose, common teal, Eurasian wigeon, common eider, red-breasted merganser. Nationally important wader species include Eurasian oystercatcher, Eurasian golden plover, grey plover, red knot, Eurasian curlew, common redshank and greenshank. A survey of Lough Foyle was June 1939 by H. Blackler.
In this, a map shows the distribution of certain species of algae in the lough and a full annotated list of the algae recorded along with photographs of the different sites. The list included: Cyanophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae and two species of Zostera; the marine algae of Lough Foyle are included in Morton. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds has a reserve at the lough. In 1792 the four-mile Strabane Canal was constructed from the tidal waters of Lough Foyle at Leck, to Strabane; the canal fell into disuse in 1962. In June 2006 the Strabane Lifford Development Commission awarded a £1.3m cross-border waterways restoration contract. The project involves the restoration of one and a half miles of canal and two locks to working order. Work began on the Lough Foyle side of the canal in the summer of 2006, but by 2010 the partial restoration was deemed unsatisfactory and the local council refused to continue to maintain the canal; the Broharris Canal was constructed in the 1820s when a cut – some two miles long on the south shore of Lough Foyle near Ballykelly – was made in the direction of Limavady.
It served both as a drainage channel and a navigation, with goods being brought from the Londonderry Port, shellfish and kelp from the sand banks along the shore. In the summer time, a ferry service operates between Magilligan across Lough Foyle. Northern Ireland Railways runs from Londonderry railway station along the scenic shore of Lough Foyle – with views of Inishowen in County Donegal as well as the Atlantic Ocean – via Coleraine to Belfast Central and Great Victoria Street; the strategically important Belfast-Derry railway line is to be upgraded to facilitate more frequent trains and improvements to the permanent way, such as track and signalling to enable faster services. From Londonderry railway station the next stop is Bellarena followed by Castlerock Coleraine en route to Belfast. Walkers alighting from trains arriving at Castlerock can walk to Mussenden Temple owned by the National Trust and can see the mouth of Lough Foyle and Greencastle some distance away in County Donegal; the main character of Alfred Bester's famous science-fiction novel, The Stars My Destination, is named Gulliver Foyle.
Bester took the names of his characters from various locations in Great Britain. The United States Navy established a Naval Air Station Lough Foyle on 1 July 1918 to operate seaplanes during World War I; the base closed shortly after the First Armistice at Compiègne. At the end of World War II after the Allied victory, the remainder of the German Atlantic fleet of U-boats used to attack supply lines from North America to Britain during the Battle of the Atlantic were assembled in Lough Foyle and scuttled – as part of Operation Deadlight. Lough Foyle is a disputed territory between the Republic of Ireland and the UK. Although this dispute is still ongoing, there are no negotiations as to its ownership; the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office underlined its view on 2 June 2009 that all of Lough Foyle is in the United Kingdom, a spokesperson stating:'The UK position is that the whole of Lough Foyle is within the UK. We recognise that the Irish Government does not accept this position... There are no negotiations in progress on this issue.
The regulation of activities in the Lough is now the responsibility of the Loughs Agency, a cross-border body established under the Good Friday A
Colonsay is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, located north of Islay and south of Mull. The ancestral home of Clan Macfie and the Colonsay branch of Clan MacNeil, it is in the council area of Argyll and Bute and has an area of 4,074 hectares. Aligned on a south-west to north-east axis, it measures 8 miles in length and reaches 3 miles at its widest point. Although Colonsay appears bare and somewhat forbidding on approach from the sea, its landscape is varied, with several beautiful sandy beaches, a sheltered and fertile interior, unusually well-wooded for a Hebridean island, it is linked by a tidal causeway to Oronsay. The highest point on the island is 143 metres above sea level; the Colonsay Group, which takes its name from the island, is an estimated 5,000 m thick sequence of mildly metamorphosed Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks that outcrop on the islands of Islay and Oronsay and the surrounding seabed. The sequence has been correlated with the Grampian Group, the oldest part of the Dalradian Supergroup.
In 1995 evidence of large-scale Mesolithic nut shelling, some 8,000 years ago, was found in a midden pit at Staosnaig on the island's sheltered east coast, in a large, shallow pit full of the remains of hundreds of thousands of burned hazelnut shells. Hazelnuts have been found on other Mesolithic sites, but in such quantities or concentrated in one pit; the nuts were radiocarbon dated to 7720±110 BP, which calibrates to c. 6000 BCE. Similar sites in Britain and its dependencies are known only at Farnham in Surrey and Cass ny Hawin on the Isle of Man; this discovery gives an insight into communal activity and forward planning of the period. The nuts were harvested in a single year and pollen analysis suggests that the hazel trees were all cut down at the same time; the scale of the activity, unparalleled elsewhere in Scotland, the lack of large game on the island, suggests that Colonsay's inhabitants were vegetarian. The pit was on a beach close to the shore, there were two smaller stone-lined pits, whose function remains obscure, a hearth, a second cluster of pits.
There are a variety of ruined hill forts on the island such as Dùn Meadhonach. The eighth century Riasg Buidhe Cross has been re-erected in the gardens of Colonsay House. St Cathan's Chapel may date from the 14th century; the ruins of the Chapel of St. Mary are little more than foundations and may date to an earlier period. In 1549 Dean Monro wrote that Colonsay was "seven myle lange from the northeist to the southwest, with twa myle bredthe, ane fertile ile guid for quhit fishing, it hath ane paroch kirke. This ile is bruikit be ane gentle capitane, callit M’Duffyhe, pertened of auld to Clandonald of Kyntyre. During the 18th century the lairds of the island were Macneils, included Archibald Macneil. Colonsay House was first built by the Mcneil family in 1722. Since 1904 the house has been the property of the island's owners, the Barons Strathcona and Mount Royal. Colonsay was owned by Euan Howard, 4th Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal until his death in 2018 and Colonsay House is occupied by his elder son, Alexander Howard, 5th Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal and his family.
In 2013 the Argyll and Bute Council threatened legal action against Alexander Howard over the state of the Rubh' Aird Alanais beach following the significant removal of gravel leading to large holes. Howard infuriated island residents, by accusing them of removing gravel from a beach without permission. Locals said that innocent people had been labelled "thieves" and "peasants", it was discovered that the gravel had been removed by a builder working on behalf of one of the crofters. The island's population was 124 as recorded by the 2011 census an increase of nearly 15% since 2001 when there were 108 usual residents. During the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702. Colonsay's main settlement is Scalasaig on the east coast. There has been a growth of tourism as the mainstay of the island's economy, with numerous holiday cottages, many of them owned and managed by the Isle of Colonsay Estate; the Colonsay Hotel, the only hotel on the island, is estate owned. The island has a tiny bookshop specialising in books of local interest.
There is a hotel overlooking the harbour, a cafe and bakery, a shop and post office. Colonsay's best known beach, Kiloran Bay, is a vast stretch of golden sands and draws locals and tourists alike while maintaining an isolated and peaceful atmosphere. Colonsay Community Development Company, the local development trust is “engaged in a range of work which reflects a sustainable approach to the regeneration of our island”. Current projects include running the islands coal supply and only petrol pump, a major Rhododendron ponticum eradication programme and a feasibility study into the possibility of improving the harbour and surrounding area. 2007 saw the opening of the Colonsay Brewery, a micro-brewery that employs two people and offers three different products. Colonsay is the smallest island in the world with its own brewery. In 2016 Colonsay Brewery launched a gin, called Wild Island Botanic Gin, distilled with hand gathered wild botanicals from the island, it is distilled at Langley Distillery in a cooperation with master distiller Robb Dorsett.
In February 2017 a company called Wild Thyme Spirits Ltd brought out a product called Colonsay Gin, believed to be distilled at Strathearn Distillery in Perthshire and sold, unusually, in 50 cl bottles. The nature of island life was exemplified by a story reported in 1993 that, at that time, the last recorded cri
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Fionán Lynch was an Irish revolutionary, barrister and judge. Fionán Lynch was born on 17 March 1889 in County Kerry, he was the seventh of eleven children to his parents Finian Lynch and Ellie McCarthy, the master and mistress of the new national school in the townland of Kilmakerrin, near Cahersiveen, in County Kerry. His father, Finian Lynch, was the younger son of Partalan Lynch, a stonemason and hedge school teacher, who had purchased some land from the O’Connell estate at Kenneigh in Kerry, between Cahersiveen and Waterville on the Ballinskelligs side of the road and north of the river Inny, he was born in 1849. His elder brother became a stonemason but Finian trained as a teacher in Dublin, his mother, Ellie McCarthy was the daughter of the teachers in the national school at Spunkane, east of the road between Cahersiveen and Waterville and nearer to Waterville. She went to Dublin to train as a teacher, he grew up bilingual, speaking in Irish at home, but in English at school. He was educated in the parent's school in Kilmakerrin but subsequently went to St Brendan's College in Killarney and at the age of 14 in about September 1903, to the Holy Ghost Fathers School at Rockwell College College, Tipperary.
In 1907 he finished for one year with the Holy Ghost Fathers in Dublin. He had planned to study medicine, but in 1907, when he was 18 years old his father died and he did not have the money to pursue this career path. Instead, when he was 18, he went to Swansea in Wales and taught in a parish school, not as a trained teacher, but as a well-educated young man, before returning to Ireland in 1909, where he started training as a teacher in Saint Patrick's Teacher Training College, Drumcondra in North Dublin, he graduated in 1911 as a primary school teacher and took up a teaching position in Dublin in April 1912 in St. Michan's School, Halston Street near North King Street, Dublin, by chance, within the area of his activity in 1916. While in training he met and became a lifelong friend of Gearóid O'Sullivan, a fellow student from Skibbereen in County Cork. Both having got jobs in Dublin, they arranged to stay at The Munster Hotel, 44 Mountjoy Street, the hotel and lodgings run by his aunt Miss Myra McCarthy.
This address would become well known because Michael Collins, a first cousin of Gearóid O'Sullivan, stayed there after his release from Frongoch internment camp in December 1916 sharing a room with Lynch, with it remaining his base until 1922. After Collins went on the run he would still call in for breakfast and to collect his laundry. According to Lynch it was the most raided house in Dublin during 1920–21. During 1918, the British spy Timothy Quinlisk stayed. While in Swansea, keen on fostering the Irish language both written and spoken, Lynch had formed a branch of the Gaelic League; when he returned to Dublin in 1912 Lynch, Gearóid O'Sullivan and his friend Diarmuid O'Hegarty joined the active and influential Keating Branch of the Gaelic League, where IRB influence was strong. The Chairman of the branch was Cathal Brugha and Piaris Beaslai was a member, with Seán MacDiarmada a frequent visitor. Lynch, O’Sullivan and Ó Hegarty were soon brought onto the committee of the branch and undertook teaching of both adults and children.
Lynch proceeded to the Royal University/ University College Dublin where he got a BA in Celtic studies in 1913 and a Higher Diploma in Education in 1914. He had a story about his BA in Celtic studies whereby the university was short of an examiner fluent in the Irish language and sought the help of the Gaelic league, he was registered as a student as Finian Lynch, the anglicised version of his name, the recommendation from the Gaelic league for a suitable examiner was one Fionán Ó Loingsigh. Piaris Beaslai established a dramatic society, called na hAisteoiri and all three joined, they undertook plays around the country at social events such as the Oireachtas. Lynch translated Molière's “Le Maladie Imaginaire” into the Irish language for the purpose. During 1914 and 15 they produced plays in Irish at intervals in Dublin and in the summer of 1914 they did a tour of Cork and Kerry producing plays in different towns each night and finishing off with two or three nights at the Oireachtas in Killarney.
In July 1914 they were producing Irish plays at the Oireachtas in Drogheda and Seán MacDiarmada insisted that they go ahead though it clashed with the Howth gun running. On 25 November 1913 Lynch, together with Gearóid O'Sullivan and Diarmuid O'Hegarty attended the meeting at the Rotunda Rink for the founding of the Irish Volunteers and they joined on that first night. Drilling started within a couple of weeks, at the Foresters Hall on Parnell Square and instructors were chosen and Lynch was chosen to train a squad. In summer 1914 there was the first election of volunteer officers and Lynch was elected 2nd lieutenant of F Company, which would be placed in 1st Battalion. With the formation of the battalion the captain of F Company, Piaras Beaslai, was promoted to second in command of the battalion and, as Sean Shouldice, the first lieutenant couldn't accept the captaincy, Lynch was promoted to captain of F Company, his friend from the Gaelic League Diarmuid Ó Hegarty was made second lieutenant.
Soon after this he was asked by his close friend Seán MacDiarmada, along with Con Collins, to join the Irish Republican Brotherhood. The IRB supreme Council were trying to ensure volunteer officers were members of the brotherhood and the fact that he was friendly with Seán MacDiarmada made him acceptable, he subsequently took the oath and was sw