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Initiative

In political science, an initiative is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a government to choose to either enact a law or hold a public vote in parliament in what is called indirect initiative, or under direct initiative, the proposition is put to a plebiscite or referendum, in what is called a Popular initiated Referendum or citizen-initiated referendum. In an indirect initiative, a measure is first referred to the legislature, put to a popular vote only if not enacted by the legislature. If the initiative is rejected by the parliament, the government may be forced to see the proposition put to a referendum; the initiative may take the form of a direct initiative or an indirect initiative. In a direct initiative, a measure is put directly to a referendum; the vote may be on a proposed federal level, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or local ordinance, or to oblige the executive or legislature to consider the subject by submitting it to the order of the day.

It is a form of direct democracy. A direct initiative is when an initiative measure, either an initiated state statute or initiated constitutional amendment, is placed directly on the ballot for voters to reject or pass; the measure is not first submitted to the legislature. An indirect initiative refers to a process where after sufficient signatures are collected, the measure is voted on by a parliament. In Brazil, a popular law initiative requires two conditions be met before it is sent to the National Congress: signatures from at least 1% of national registered voters and at least 0.3% of the people allowed to vote from each of at least five of the 27 federal unities. If both conditions are met, Congress is obliged to vote on holding the initiative; the Canadian province of British Columbia has a citizen initiative law known as the Recall and Initiative Act. The original proposal was put to voters in a referendum held in October 1991 and was supported by over 83% of voters, it was subsequently put into force by the incoming NDP government.

Since it came into force in 1995, 11 attempts have been made to fore the government to either adopt a law or to hold a referendum on the question, but only one has succeeded. Only one secured the required signatures of 10% of registered voters in each riding throughout British Columbia. Due to this achievement the government held the first referendum under this legislation, on September 2011 on the subject of repealing the Harmonized Sales Tax. Details of its use in BC are available on the Elections BC website; the rejected Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe included a limited indirect initiative right. The proposal of introducing the European Citizens' Initiative was that 1,000,000 citizens, from minimal numbers of different member states, could invite the executive body of the European Union, the European Commission, to consider any proposal "on matters where citizens consider that a legal act of the Union is required for the purpose of implementing the Constitution." The precise mechanism had not been agreed upon.

Critics underlined the weakness of this right of initiative, which did not entail any vote or referendum. A similar scheme under the same name, European Citizens' Initiative, has been put forward in the now ratified European Lisbon Treaty, enabling a limited indirect initiative right, it follows similar rules to the ones outlined in the European Constitution, requiring the signatures of 1,000 000 European Nationals. These citizens would thereby obtain the same right to request the Commission to submit a legislative proposal as the Council has had since the establishment of the European Communities in 1957. This, does require that the signatures come from a "significant number" of Member States, it is suggested that this significant number will need to be around a quarter of member states, with at least 1/500 of the citizens in those member states supporting the initiative. With the variety of languages within the European Union, this creates a significant hurdle for people to navigate; the treaty makes it clear that right of initiative should not be confused with the right to petition since a petition is directed to Parliament while a citizens' initiative is directed to the Commission.

In 2013 the subjects of ongoing open initiatives of the European Citizens' Initiative are e.g. about "water and sanitation as a human right", "30 km/h - making the streets liveable!", "Unconditional Basic Income", or to "End Ecocide in Europe". It remains to be seen if the ECI evolves into a full initiative or remains in its present state of a de facto petition. Since 1 March 2012, groups of at least 50,000 Finnish citizens with suffrage have had the constitutional right to send a citizens' initiative to the Parliament of Finland; the Parliament is entitled to address and discuss each initiative and the possibilities of them becoming new laws. The first initiative to pass the 50,000 mark did so a few months after the "kansalaisaloite" first became possible; the initiative failed to pass in Parliament. The first initiative to be accepted by the Parliament was the citizens' initiative known in Finla

Ipswich, South Dakota

Ipswich is a city in and county seat of Edmunds County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 954 at the 2010 census. Ipswich was founded in 1883 as a stop on Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, it was named after Ipswich, in England via Ipswich, Massachusetts. Ipswich is located at 45°26′42″N 99°1′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.34 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 954 people, 402 households, 249 families living in the city; the population density was 711.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 441 housing units at an average density of 329.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.5% White, 0.1% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.7% of the population. There were 402 households of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.1% were non-families.

35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 45.1 years. 23.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 943 people, 404 households, 254 families living in the city; the population density was 719.3 people per square mile. There were 440 housing units at an average density of 335.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.52% White, 0.21% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.64% of the population. There were 404 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families.

34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 24.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,073, the median income for a family was $40,598. Males had a median income of $30,268 versus $16,413 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,890. About 6.7% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 19.2% of those age 65 or over. Everett Hughes, United States military officer J. W. Parmley, South Dakota lawyer and businessman James W. McCarter and Gubernatorial Candidate Kay C.

Hartman, Human Resources Manager, MCWD, Mammoth Lakes, CA List of cities in South Dakota Media related to Ipswich, South Dakota at Wikimedia Commons

Florence, Minnesota

Florence is a city in Lyon County, United States. The population was 39 at the 2010 census. Florence was platted in 1888, named for Florence Sherman, the daughter of a first settler. A post office has been in operation at Florence since 1889. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.27 square miles, all of it land. U. S. Route 14 and Minnesota State Highway are two of the main routes in the community; as of the census of 2010, there were 39 people, 14 households, 11 families living in the city. The population density was 144.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 20 housing units at an average density of 74.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.4% White, 23.1% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.1% of the population. There were 14 households of which 35.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.4% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.4% were non-families.

21.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.27. The median age in the city was 39.3 years. 30.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 61 people, 21 households, 17 families living in the city; the population density was 245.5 people per square mile. There were 27 housing units at an average density of 108.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.89 % 13.11 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.11% of the population. There were 21 households out of which 42.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.4% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.0% were non-families. 14.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.24.

In the city, the population was spread out with 34.4% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 6.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,125, the median income for a family was $58,125. Males had a median income of $13,750 versus $31,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,312. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line