Burnet County, Texas
Burnet County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,750, its county seat is Burnet. The county was founded in 1852 and organized in 1854, it is named for the first president of the Republic of Texas. The name of the county is pronounced with the emphasis or accent on the first syllable, just as is the case with its namesake. Indigenous peoples inhabit the area as early as 4500 B. C. Known tribes in the area include Tonkawa, Lipan Apache and Comanche. During the 1820s-1830s Stephen F. Austin and Green DeWitt surveying and Indian fighting explorations. In 1849 the United States established Fort Croghan and in 1848 First settlers arrived in the county, Samuel Eli Holland, Logan Vandeveer, Peter Kerr, William Harrison Magill, Noah Smithwick, Captain Jesse B. Burnham, R. H. Hall, Adam Rankin "Stovepipe" Johnson and Captain Christian Dorbandt. In 1851 Twenty Mormon families under the leadership of Lyman Wight establish a colony at Hamilton Creek to be known as Morman Mill.
In 1852 the Fourth Texas Legislature created Burnet County from Bell and Williamson. The first post office was established at Hamilton in 1853. In 1860 there were 235 slaves in Burnet County After the war some former slaves left the county, but many stayed. A group of them settled on land in the eastern part of Oatmeal. In 1870 the black population of the county had increased to 358, keeping pace with the growth of the total number of residents; some found work on farms and ranches, but by the turn of the century many had moved into the Marble Falls area to work in town. During 1882-1903 railroad tracks connected Burnet, Granite Mountain, Marble Falls and Lampasas. Lake Victor and Bertram became shipping point communities. Other communities lost population. During the Great Depression county farmers suffered financially but found work with government sponsored public-works projects; the Lower Colorado River Authority employed hundreds of people for the construction of the Hamilton Dam and Roy B.
Inks Dam. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,021 square miles, of which 994 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 183 U. S. Highway 281 State Highway 29 Lampasas County Bell County Williamson County Travis County Blanco County Llano County San Saba County Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 34,147 people, 13,133 households, 9,665 families residing in the county; the population density was 34 people per square mile. There were 15,933 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.64% White, 1.52% Black or African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 6.24% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. 14.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 13,133 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.50% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.40% were non-families.
22.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 17.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,921, the median income for a family was $43,871. Males had a median income of $30,255 versus $20,908 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,850. About 7.90% of families and 10.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. Adam R. "Stovepipe" Johnson, Confederate general and the 1887 founder of Marble Falls, despite being blinded during the war.
Gerald Lyda, general contractor and cattle rancher and raised in Burnet County. Stephen McGee, former American football quarterback. Played college football for Texas A&M. Drafted and played NFL football for the Dallas Cowboys. James Oakley, former County Commissioner and County Judge Logan Vandeveer, early Texas soldier, ranger and civic leader. Vandeveer was a leader in presenting the petition to the legislature in 1852 to establish Burnet County and was instrumental in having the town of Burnet named the county seat. Al Witcher, American football player List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Burnet County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Burnet County Burnet County government’s website Burnet County tourism office Burnet County from the Handbook of Texas Online Burnet County TXGenWeb Project Burnet Bulletin newspaper The Highlander newspaper
Tom Miller Dam
Tom Miller Dam is a dam located on the Colorado River within the city limits of Austin, United States. The City of Austin, aided by funds from the Public Works Administration, constructed the dam for the purpose of flood control and for generating hydroelectric power. Named after Robert Thomas Miller, a former Mayor of Austin, the dam forms Lake Austin, one of the Texas Highland Lakes; the dam began operating in 1940 and is located at the site of the city's two previous dams, each of which were destroyed during major floods and each of which shared the same name - Austin Dam. It is leased to the Lower Colorado River Authority, who maintains and operates the dam. Austin Dam failure
Lower Colorado River Authority
The Lower Colorado River Authority is a nonprofit public utility created in November 1934 by the Texas Legislature. LCRA's mission is to enhance the lives of the Texans it serves through water stewardship and community service. LCRA provides public power, manages the lower Colorado River and operates transmission lines, owns public parks, offers community services. LCRA does not have the ability to levy taxes. Instead, LCRA is funded by revenue it generates, the vast majority of which comes from producing and transmitting electricity. A small portion of LCRA's revenue comes from selling water; the Fayette Power Project is a three-unit coal-fired power plant in Fayette County that provides 1,625 megawatts. Lake Fayette is the cooling pond for the project. LCRA uses coal from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming as fuel; the Sim Gideon Power Plant is a three-unit natural gas-fired plant in Bastrop County that provides 608 megawatts. The Lost Pines 1 Power Project is a natural gas-fired combined-cycle plant adjacent to the Sim Gideon plant, the two form the Lost Pines Power Park.
The Lost Pines 1 Power Project can generate up to 511 megawatts. Lake Bastrop is the cooling pond for the Lost Pines Power Park. LCRA broke ground on a new Thomas C. Ferguson Power Plant in April 2012, about 100 yards from the site of the original Ferguson plant on Lake LBJ; the plant began operating in 2014. The Ferguson facility is a natural gas-fired, combined cycle plant in Horseshoe Bay capable of producing 540 megawatts. Ferguson is among the most environmentally responsible power plants in Texas, producing 30 to 40 percent fewer emissions per unit of power that the unit it replaced, it uses about 35 percent less fuel per megawatt-hour and about one-third of the water used at a typical steam plant per unit of power. The Winchester Power Park in Fayette County provides about 176 megawatts for use during peak-demand periods; the LCRA buys natural gas on the open market and stores it at the Hilbig Gas Storage Facility, an underground reservoir near Rockne, Texas. The facility can hold up to 4 billion cubic feet of natural gas.
LCRA operates six hydroelectric dams along the Colorado River in Central Texas that provide a source of renewable energy and form six lakes collectively known as the Texas Highland Lakes: Buchanan Dam - forms Lake Buchanan Inks Dam - forms Inks Lake Wirtz Dam - forms Lake LBJ, which serves as a cooling pond for the Thomas C. Ferguson Power Plant Max Starcke Dam - forms Lake Marble Falls Mansfield Dam - forms Lake Travis Tom Miller Dam - forms Lake AustinIn keeping with its state-approved Water Management Plan, LCRA generates electricity from the dams only as it releases water for other reasons, or when ordered to do so by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. LCRA purchases 51 megawatts of wind power capacity from the Indian Mesa Wind Energy Center in West Texas and 200 megawatts from the Papalote Creek II Wind Farm near the Texas Gulf Coast. LCRA distributes electricity to its wholesale electric customers - municipal utilities and electric cooperatives - and supports the statewide electric transmission network through more than 5,100 miles of transmission lines and more than 380 substations, which are owned by LCRA Transmission Services Corporation, a nonprofit corporation owned by LCRA.
LCRA manages the Highland Lakes and the lower Colorado River, a 600 mi stretch of the Texas Colorado River, as a system to supply water for more than 1 million people as well as businesses, the environment and agriculture in the lower Colorado River basin. LCRA has the rights to more than 2.1 million acre-feet of water per year based on surface water permits issued by the state of Texas. LCRA owns more than 40 public parks, recreation areas and river access sites along the Highland Lakes and lower Colorado River. LCRA's McKinney Roughs and Matagorda Bay nature parks have natural science centers that offer outdoor educational and recreational programs for youths and adults. LCRA offers a wide range of conservation programs for water users within its river basin, it operates an environmental laboratory, monitors the water quality of the lower Colorado River, regulates on-site sewage systems to limit pollution and help protect the health of those enjoying the Highland Lakes. LCRA's community services programs include the Community Development Partnership Program, which has awarded $42 million in matching grants for 1,491 community development projects since 1995.
In November 1934, the Texas Legislature authorized the formation of the Lower Colorado River Authority to complete Buchanan Dam, where construction had been idled in 1932 following the financial collapse and bankruptcy of the Samuel Insull-controlled public utility holding company. LCRA began operations in February 1935. LCRA completed Buchanan Dam and a companion project, Inks Dam, in 1938—the first of six dams that form the reservoirs known as the Highland Lakes. LCRA completed the chain of lakes and dams in 1951. LCRA manages the chain to protect basin residents from the worst effects of Hill Country floods and provide the lower Colorado River basin with a reliable water supply. With the encouragement of congressman, Lyndon B. Johnson, LCRA used the hydroelectric power from its dams in 1936 to launch a public power program that served communities and electric cooperatives in Central and South Texas. For nearly three decades, hydroelectric generation was LCRA's primary power source. Growing demand for electricity led LCRA to build natural gas and coal-fired power plants.
LCRA added to its generation portfolio with the
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area the riverbed of the dammed river itself. In the United Kingdom, they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways destroy the dam. Floodgates and fuse plugs may be designed into spillways to regulate reservoir level; such a spillway can be used to regulate downstream flows – by releasing water in small amounts before the reservoir is full, operators can prevent sudden large releases that would happen if the dam were overtopped. Other uses of the term "spillway" include bypasses of dams or outlets of channels used during high water, outlet channels carved through natural dams such as moraines. Water flows over a spillway only during flood periods – when the reservoir cannot hold the excess of water entering the reservoir over the amount used. In contrast, an intake tower is a structure used to release water on a regular basis for water supply, hydroelectricity generation, etc. A spillway is located at the top of the reservoir pool.
Dams may have bottom outlets with valves or gates which may be operated to release flood flow, a few dams lack overflow spillways and rely on bottom outlets. There are two main types of spillways: controlled and uncontrolled. A controlled spillway has mechanical gates to regulate the rate of flow; this design allows nearly the full height of the dam to be used for water storage year-round, flood waters can be released as required by opening one or more gates. An uncontrolled spillway, in contrast, does not have gates; the rate of discharge is controlled only by the depth of water above the reservoir's spillway. Storage volume in the reservoir above the spillway crest can only be used for the temporary storage of floodwater. In an intermediate type, normal level regulation of the reservoir is controlled by the mechanical gates. If inflow to the reservoir exceeds the gate's capacity, an artificial channel called either an auxiliary or emergency spillway, blocked by a fuse plug dike will operate.
The fuse plug is designed to over-top and wash out in case of a large flood, greater than the discharge capacity of the spillway gates. Although it may take many months to restore the fuse plug and channel after such an operation, the total damage and cost to repair is less than if the main water-retaining structures had been overtopped; the fuse plug concept is used where it would be costly to build a spillway with capacity for the probable maximum flood. A chute spillway is a common and basic design which transfers excess water from behind the dam down a smooth decline into the river below; these are designed following an ogee curve. Most they are lined on the bottom and sides with concrete to protect the dam and topography, they may have a controlling device and some are thinner and multiply lined if space and funding are tight. In addition, they are not always intended to dissipate energy like stepped spillways. Chute spillways can be ingrained with a baffle of concrete blocks but have a'flip lip' and/or dissipator basin which creates a hydraulic jump, protecting the toe of the dam from erosion.
Stepped channels and spillways have been used for over 3,000 years. Despite being superseded by more modern engineering techniques such as hydraulic jumps in the mid twentieth century, since around 1985 interest in stepped spillways and chutes has been renewed due to the use of new construction materials and design techniques; the steps produce considerable energy dissipation along the chute and reduce the size of the required downstream energy dissipation basin. Research is still active on the topic, with newer developments on embankment dam overflow protection systems, converging spillways and small weir design. A bell-mouth spillway is designed like an inverted bell where water can enter around the entire perimeter; these uncontrolled spillways are called morning glory, or glory hole spillways. In areas where the surface of the reservoir may freeze, this type of spillway is fitted with ice-breaking arrangements to prevent the spillway from becoming ice-bound. In some cases bell-mouth spillways are gate controlled.
The spillway at Hungry Horse Dam, in Montana, U. S. the highest morning glory structure in the world, is controlled by a 64-by-12-foot ring gate. One of the most well-known of these spillways is the one in Covão dos Conchos reservoir lake, in Portugal, constructed to look like a natural formation; the largest bell-mouth spillway is in Geehi Dam, in New South Wales, measuring 105 ft in diameter at the lake's surface. A siphon makes use of the difference in the height between the intake and the outlet to create a pressure difference needed to remove excess water. Siphons however require priming or the removal of air in the bend in order for them to function and most siphon spillways are designed with a system that makes use of water to remove the air and automatically prime the siphon. One such design is the volute siphon which makes use of water forced into a spiral vortex by volutes or fins on a funnel that draw air out of the system; the priming happens automatically when the water level rises above the inlets that are used to drive the priming process.
Other spillway types include an ogee crest which over-tops a dam, a side channel that wraps around the topography of a dam and a labyrinth which uses
Max Starcke Dam
Max Starcke Dam is a dam in the U. S. state of Texas. Starcke Dam impounds one of the Texas Highland Lakes; the dam was constructed in 1949-1951. Located near Marble Falls, Starcke Dam was the last of the six Highland Lakes dams to be built. Called Marble Falls Dam, the dam was renamed in 1962 for Max Starcke, a former Mayor of Seguin, Texas. Starcke was the second general manager of the Lower Colorado River Authority and served in that position from 1940 through 1955. LCRA Website