The Lakota are a Native American tribe. Known as the Teton Sioux, they are one of the three Sioux tribes of Plains, their current lands are in South Dakota. They speak Lakȟótiyapi—the Lakota language, the westernmost of three related languages that belong to the Siouan language family; the seven bands or "sub-tribes" of the Lakota are: Sičháŋǧu Oglála Itázipčho Húŋkpapȟa Mnikȟówožu Sihásapa Oóhenuŋpa Notable Lakota persons include Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake from the Húnkpapȟa band. Siouan languages speakers may have originated in the lower Mississippi River region and migrated to or originated in the Ohio Valley, they were agriculturalists and may have been part of the Mound Builder civilization during the 9th–12th centuries CE. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Dakota-Lakota speakers lived in the upper Mississippi Region in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas. Conflicts with Anishnaabe and Cree peoples pushed the Lakota west onto the Great Plains in the mid- to late-17th century.
Early Lakota history is recorded in their Winter counts, pictorial calendars painted on hides or recorded on paper. The Battiste Good winter count records Lakota history back to 900 CE, when White Buffalo Calf Woman gave the Lakota people the White Buffalo Calf Pipe. Around 1730, Cheyenne people introduced the Lakota to horses, called šuŋkawakaŋ. After their adoption of horse culture, Lakota society centered on the buffalo hunt on horseback; the total population of the Sioux was estimated at 28,000 by French explorers in 1660. The Lakota population was first estimated at 8,500 in 1805, growing and reaching 16,110 in 1881; the Lakota were, one of the few Native American tribes to increase in population in the 19th century. The number of Lakota has now increased to more than 170,000, of whom about 2,000 still speak the Lakota language. After 1720, the Lakota branch of the Seven Council Fires split into two major sects, the Saône who moved to the Lake Traverse area on the South Dakota–North Dakota–Minnesota border, the Oglála-Sičháŋǧu who occupied the James River valley.
However, by about 1750 the Saône had moved to the east bank of the Missouri River, followed 10 years by the Oglála and Brulé. The large and powerful Arikara and Hidatsa villages had long prevented the Lakota from crossing the Missouri. However, the great smallpox epidemic of 1772–1780 destroyed three-quarters of these tribes; the Lakota crossed the river into short-grass prairies of the High Plains. These newcomers were the Saône, well-mounted and confident, who spread out quickly. In 1765, a Saône exploring and raiding party led by Chief Standing Bear discovered the Black Hills the territory of the Cheyenne. Ten years the Oglála and Brulé crossed the river. In 1776, the Lakota defeated the Cheyenne; the Cheyenne moved west to the Powder River country, the Lakota made the Black Hills their home. Initial United States contact with the Lakota during the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804–1806 was marked by a standoff. Lakota bands refused to allow the explorers to continue upstream, the expedition prepared for battle, which never came.
Some bands of Lakotas became the first Indians to help the United States Army in an Indian war west of the Missouri during the Arikara War in 1823. In 1843, the southern Lakotas attacked Pawnee Chief Blue Coat's village near the Loup in Nebraska, killing many and burning half of the earth lodges. Next time the Lakotas inflicted a blow so severe on the Pawnee would be in 1873, during the Massacre Canyon battle near Republican River. Nearly half a century after Fort Laramie had been built without permission on Lakota land, the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 was negotiated to protect travelers on the Oregon Trail; the Cheyenne and Lakota had attacked emigrant parties in a competition for resources, because some settlers had encroached on their lands. The Fort Laramie Treaty acknowledged Lakota sovereignty over the Great Plains in exchange for free passage on the Oregon Trail for "as long as the river flows and the eagle flies"; the United States government did not enforce the treaty restriction against unauthorized settlement.
Lakota and other bands attacked settlers and emigrant trains, causing public pressure on the U. S. Army to punish the hostiles. On September 3, 1855, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenged the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Lakota village in Nebraska, killing about 100 men and children. A series of short "wars" followed, in 1862–1864, as refugees from the "Dakota War of 1862" in Minnesota fled west to their allies in Montana and Dakota Territory. Increasing illegal settlement after the American Civil War caused war once again; the Black Hills were considered sacred by the Lakota, they objected to mining. Between 1866 and 1868 the U. S. Army fought the Lakota and their allies along the Bozeman Trail over U. S. Forts built to protect miners traveling along the trail. Oglala Chief Red Cloud led his people to victory in Red Cloud's War. In 1868, the United States signed the Fort Laramie
Dial-up Internet access
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network to establish a connection to an Internet service provider by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. The user's computer or router uses an attached modem to encode and decode information into and from audio frequency signals, respectively. In 1979, Tom Truscott and Steve Bellovin, graduates of Duke University, created an early predecessor to dial-up Internet access called the USENET; the USENET was a UNIX based system that used a dial-up connection to transfer data through telephone modems. Dial-up Internet has been around since the 1980s via public providers such as NSFNET-linked universities and was first offered commercially in July 1992 by Sprint. Despite losing ground to broadband since the mid-2000s, dial-up is still used where other forms are not available or where the cost is too high, such as in some rural or remote areas. Dial-up connections to the Internet require no infrastructure other than the telephone network and the modems and servers needed to make and answer the calls.
Where telephone access is available, dial-up is the only choice available for rural or remote areas, where broadband installations are not prevalent due to low population density and high infrastructure cost. Dial-up access may be an alternative for users on limited budgets, as it is offered free by some ISPs, though broadband is available at lower prices in many countries due to market competition. Dial-up requires time to establish a telephone connection and perform configuration for protocol synchronization before data transfers can take place. In locales with telephone connection charges, each connection incurs an incremental cost. If calls are time-metered, the duration of the connection incurs costs. Dial-up access is a transient connection, because either the user, ISP or phone company terminates the connection. Internet service providers will set a limit on connection durations to allow sharing of resources, will disconnect the user—requiring reconnection and the costs and delays associated with it.
Technically inclined users find a way to disable the auto-disconnect program such that they can remain connected for more days than one. A 2008 Pew Research Center study stated that only 10% of US adults still used dial-up Internet access; the study found. Users cited lack of infrastructure as a reason less than stating that they would never upgrade to broadband; that number had fallen to 6% by 2010, to 3% by 2013. The CRTC estimated that there were 336,000 Canadian dial-up users in 2010. Broadband Internet access via cable, digital subscriber line, satellite and FTTx has replaced dial-up access in many parts of the world. Broadband connections offer speeds of 700 kbit/s or higher for two-thirds more than the price of dial-up on average. In addition broadband connections are always on, thus avoiding the need to connect and disconnect at the start and end of each session. Broadband does not require exclusive use of a phone line and so one can access the Internet and at the same time make and receive voice phone calls without having a second phone line.
However, many rural areas still remain without high speed Internet despite the eagerness of potential customers. This can be attributed to population, location, or sometimes ISPs' lack of interest due to little chance of profitability and high costs to build the required infrastructure; some dial-up ISPs have responded to the increased competition by lowering their rates and making dial-up an attractive option for those who want email access or basic web browsing. Dial-up Internet access has undergone a precipitous fall in usage, approaches extinction as modern users turn towards broadband. In contrast to the year 2000 when about 34% of the U. S. population used dial-up, this dropped to 3% in 2013. One contributing factor to the extinction of dial-up is the bandwidth requirements of newer computer programs, like antivirus software, which automatically download sizable updates in the background when a connection to the internet is first made; these background downloads can take several minutes or longer and, until all updates are completed, they can impact the amount of bandwidth available to other applications like web browsers.
Since an "always on" broadband is the norm expected by most newer applications being developed, this automatic upload trend in the background is expected to continue to eat away at dial-up's available bandwidth to the detriment of dial-up users' applications. Many newer websites now assume broadband speeds as the norm and when confronted with slower dial-up speeds may drop these slower connections to free up communication resources. On websites that are designed to be more dial-up friendly, use of a reverse proxy prevents dial-ups from being dropped as but can introduce long wait periods for dial-up users caused by the buffering used by a reverse proxy to bridge the different data rates. Modern dial-up modems have a maximum theoretical transfer speed of 56 kbit/s, although in most cases, 40–50 kbit/s is the norm. Factors such as phone line noise as well as the quality of the modem itself play a large part in determining connection speeds; some connections may be as low as 20 kbit/s in noisy environments, such as in a hotel room where the phone line is shared with many extensions, or in a rural area, many miles from the phone exchange.
Other factors such as long loops, loading coils, pair gain, electric fences, digital loop carriers can slow con
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry and marketing topics. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and law, its headquarters is located in New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek; the magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool", its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, its CEO is Mike Federle. It was sold to Integrated Whale Media Investments. B. C. Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15, 1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise; the original name of the magazine was Forbes: Devoted to Doings.
Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C. Forbes became editor-in-chief, a post he held until his death in 1954. B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his father's death, his strengths lay in streamlining operations and developing marketing. During his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazine's circulation nearly doubled. On Bruce's death, his brother Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. became President and Chief executive of Forbes and Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine. Between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. In 2006, an investment group Elevation Partners that includes rock star Bono bought a minority interest in the company with a reorganization, through a new company, Forbes Media LLC, in which Forbes Magazine and Forbes.com, along with other media properties, is now a part.
A 2009 New York Times report said: "40 percent of the enterprise was sold... for a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million". Three years Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners observed, "It's not worth half of that now", it was revealed that the price had been US$264 million. In January 2010, Forbes reached an agreement to sell its headquarters building Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to New York University; the company's headquarters subsequently moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, in 2014. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale; this was encouraged by minority shareholders Elevation Partners. Sale documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publisher's 2012 EBITDA was US$15 million. Forbes sought a price of US$400 million. In July 2014, the Forbes family bought out Elevation and sold a 51 per cent majority of the company to Integrated Whale Media Investments. Apart from Forbes and its lifestyle supplement, Forbes Life, other titles include Forbes Asia and fifteen local language editions.
Steve Forbes and his magazine's writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes on Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group and Forbes Custom Media. From the 2009 Times report: "Steve Forbes returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10." In addition, that year the company began publishing ForbesWoman, a quarterly magazine published by Steve Forbes's daughter, Moira Forbes, with a companion Web site. The company published American Legacy magazine as a joint venture, although that magazine separated from Forbes on May 14, 2007; the company formerly published American Heritage and Invention & Technology magazines. After failing to find a buyer, Forbes suspended publication of these two magazines as of May 17, 2007. Both magazines were purchased by the American Heritage Publishing Company and resumed publication as of the spring of 2008. Forbes has published the Forbes Travel Guide since 2009.
On January 6, 2014, Forbes magazine announced that, in partnership with app creator Maz, it was launching a social networking app called "Stream". Stream allows Forbes readers to save and share visual content with other readers and discover content from Forbes magazine and Forbes.com within the app. Forbes.com is part of Forbes Digital, a division of Forbes Media LLC. Forbes's holdings include a portion of RealClearPolitics. Together these sites reach more than 27 million unique visitors each month. Forbes.com employs the slogan "Home Page for the World's Business Leaders" and claimed, in 2006, to be the world's most visited business web site. The 2009 Times report said that, while "one of the top five financial sites by traffic off an estimated $70 million to $80 million a year in revenue, never yielded the hoped-for public offering". Forbes.com uses a "contributor model" in which a wide network of "contributors" writes and publishes articles directly on the website. Contributors are paid based on traffic to their respective Forbes.com pages.
Forbes allows advertisers to publish blog posts on its website alongside regular editorial content through a program called BrandVoice, which accounts for more than 10 pe
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Load balancing (computing)
In computing, load balancing improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, or disk drives. Load balancing aims to optimize resource use, maximize throughput, minimize response time, avoid overload of any single resource. Using multiple components with load balancing instead of a single component may increase reliability and availability through redundancy. Load balancing involves dedicated software or hardware, such as a multilayer switch or a Domain Name System server process. Load balancing differs from channel bonding in that load balancing divides traffic between network interfaces on a network socket basis, while channel bonding implies a division of traffic between physical interfaces at a lower level, either per packet or on a data link basis with a protocol like shortest path bridging. One of the most used applications of load balancing is to provide a single Internet service from multiple servers, sometimes known as a server farm.
Load-balanced systems include popular web sites, large Internet Relay Chat networks, high-bandwidth File Transfer Protocol sites, Network News Transfer Protocol servers, Domain Name System servers, databases. An alternate method of load balancing, which does not require a dedicated software or hardware node, is called round robin DNS. In this technique, multiple IP addresses are associated with a single domain name. IP is assigned to clients for a time quantum. Another more effective technique for load-balancing using DNS is to delegate www.example.org as a sub-domain whose zone is served by each of the same servers that are serving the web site. This technique works well where individual servers are spread geographically on the Internet. For example: one.example.org A 192.0.2.1 two.example.org A 203.0.113.2 www.example.org NS one.example.org www.example.org NS two.example.org However, the zone file for www.example.org on each server is different such that each server resolves its own IP Address as the A-record.
On server one the zone file for www.example.org reports: @ in a 192.0.2.1 On server two the same zone file contains: @ in a 203.0.113.2 This way, when a server is down, its DNS will not respond and the web service does not receive any traffic. If the line to one server is congested, the unreliability of DNS ensures less HTTP traffic reaches that server. Furthermore, the quickest DNS response to the resolver is nearly always the one from the network's closest server, ensuring geo-sensitive load-balancing. A short TTL on the A-record helps to ensure traffic is diverted when a server goes down. Consideration must be given the possibility that this technique may cause individual clients to switch between individual servers in mid-session. Another approach to load balancing is to deliver a list of server IPs to the client, to have client randomly select the IP from the list on each connection; this relies on all clients generating similar loads, the Law of Large Numbers to achieve a reasonably flat load distribution across servers.
It has been claimed that client-side random load balancing tends to provide better load distribution than round-robin DNS. With this approach, the method of delivery of list of IPs to the client can vary, may be implemented as a DNS list, or via hardcoding it to the list. If a "smart client" is used, detecting that randomly selected server is down and connecting randomly again, it provides fault tolerance. For Internet services, a server-side load balancer is a software program, listening on the port where external clients connect to access services; the load balancer forwards requests to one of the "backend" servers, which replies to the load balancer. This allows the load balancer to reply to the client without the client knowing about the internal separation of functions, it prevents clients from contacting back-end servers directly, which may have security benefits by hiding the structure of the internal network and preventing attacks on the kernel's network stack or unrelated services running on other ports.
Some load balancers provide a mechanism for doing something special in the event that all backend servers are unavailable. This might include forwarding to a backup load balancer, or displaying a message regarding the outage, it is important that the load balancer itself does not become a single point of failure. Load balancers are implemented in high-availability pairs which may replicate session persistence data if required by the specific application. Numerous scheduling algorithms called load-balancing methods, are used by load balancers to determine which back-end server to send a request to. Simple algorithms include round robin, or least connections. More sophisticated load balancers may take additional factors into account, such as a server's reported load, least response times, up/down status, number of active connections, geographic location, capabilities, or how much traffic it has been assigned. An important issue when operating a load-balanced service is how to handle information that must be kept across the multiple requests in a user's session.
If this information is stored locally on one backend server subsequent requests going to different backend servers would
Yahoo! Search is a web search engine owned by Yahoo, headquartered in California; as of October 2018, it is the second largest search engine worldwide across all platforms with 2.32% market share. As of July 2018, Microsoft Sites handled 24.2 percent of all search queries in the United States. During the same period of time, Oath had a search market share of 11.5 percent. Market leader Google generated. "Yahoo Search" referred to a Yahoo-provided interface that sent queries to a searchable index of pages supplemented with its directory of websites. The results were presented to the user under the Yahoo! brand. None of the actual web crawling and data housing was done by Yahoo! itself. In 2001, the searchable index was powered by Inktomi and was powered by Google until 2004, when Yahoo! Search became independent. On July 29, 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would henceforth power Yahoo! Search; the roots of Search date back to 1995 with Yahoo! Directory. Seeking to provide its own search engine results, Yahoo! acquired their own search technology.
In 2002, they bought Inktomi, a "behind the scenes" or OEM search engine provider, whose results are shown on other companies' websites and powered Yahoo! in its earlier days. In 2003, they purchased Overture Services, Inc. which owned the AlltheWeb and AltaVista search engines. Though Yahoo! Owned multiple search engines, they didn't use them on the main yahoo.com website, but kept using Google's search engine for its results. Starting on April 7, 2003, Yahoo! Search became its own web crawler-based search engine, they combined the capabilities of search engine companies they had acquired and their prior research into a reinvented crawler called Yahoo Slurp. The new search engine results were included in all of Yahoo's websites that had a web search function. Yahoo! started to sell the search engine results to other companies, to show on their own websites. Their relationship with Google was terminated at that time, with the former partners becoming each other's main competitors. In October 2007, Yahoo!
Search was updated with a more modern appearance in line with the redesigned Yahoo! home page. In addition, Search Assist was added. In July 2008, Yahoo! Search announced the introduction of a new service called Yahoo! Search BOSS; this service opens the doors for developers to use Yahoo!'s system for indexing information and images and create their own custom search engine. In January 2010, Microsoft announced a deal in which it would take over the functional operation of Yahoo! Search, set up a joint venture to sell advertising on both Yahoo! Search and Bing known as the Microsoft Search Alliance. A complete transition of all Yahoo! Sponsored ad clients to Microsoft adCenter occurred in October 2010. On March 12, 2014, Yahoo announced a partnership with Yelp to integrate its reviews and user-contributed photos into Yahoo! Search. In November 2014, Mozilla signed a five-year partnership with Yahoo, making Yahoo Search the default search engine for Firefox browsers in the US. In April 2015, the Microsoft partnership was modified, now only requiring Bing results on the "majority" of desktop traffic, opening the ability for Yahoo to enter into non-exclusive deals for search services on mobile platforms and the remainder of desktop traffic.
The amendment gives either company the ability to terminate the contract with four months' notice. In October 2015, Yahoo subsequently reached an agreement with Google to provide services to Yahoo Search through the end of 2018, including advertising and image search services; the team at Yahoo Search blogged about search announcements, features and enhancements. The Yahoo Search Blog, as stated provided A look inside the world of search from the people at Yahoo; this included index updates named their Yahoo Search Assist feature. Yahoo Search provided their search interface in at least 38 international markets and a variety of available languages. Yahoo! has a presence in Europe and across the Emerging Markets. Yahoo Search indexed and cached the common HTML page formats, as well as several of the more popular file-types, such as PDF, Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint, Word documents, RSS/XML and plain text files. For some of these supported file-types, Yahoo Search provided cached links on their search results allowing for viewing of these file-types in standard HTML.
Using the Advanced Search interface or Preferences settings, Yahoo Search allowed the customization of search results and enabling of certain settings such as: SafeSearch, Language Selection, Number of results, Domain restrictions, etc. For a Basic and starter guide to Yahoo Search, they provided a Search Basics tutorial. In 2005, Yahoo began to provide links to previous versions of pages archived on the Wayback Machine. In the first week of May 2008, Yahoo launched a new search mash up called Yahoo Glue, in beta testing. On June 20, 2007, Yahoo introduced; when activated this selection-based search feature enabled users to invoke search using only their mouse and receive search suggestions in floating windows while remaining on Yahoo properties such as Yahoo Mail. This feature was only active on Yahoo web pages within the Yahoo Publisher Network. Yahoo Shortcuts required the content-owner to modify the underlying HTML of his or her webpage to call out the specific keywords to be enhanced; the technology for context-aware selection-based search on Yahoo pages was first devel
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web known as the Web, is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators, which may be interlinked by hypertext, are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser. English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989, he wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and to the general public in August 1991; the World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet. Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language; such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources.
In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content. Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons. Tim Berners-Lee's vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility by the second half of the 1980s. By 1985, the global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the Domain Name System came into being. In 1988 the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was made and Berners-Lee began to discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN.
While working at CERN, Berners-Lee became frustrated with the inefficiencies and difficulties posed by finding information stored on different computers. On March 12, 1989, he submitted a memorandum, titled "Information Management: A Proposal", to the management at CERN for a system called "Mesh" that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term "web" and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded as text: "Imagine the references in this document all being associated with the network address of the thing to which they referred, so that while reading this document, you could skip to them with a click of the mouse." Such a system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the existing meanings of the word hypertext, a term that he says was coined in the 1950s. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why such hypertext links could not encompass multimedia documents including graphics and video, so that Berners-Lee goes on to use the term hypermedia.
With help from his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast Robert Cailliau he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a "Hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" as a "web" of "hypertext documents" to be viewed by "browsers" using a client–server architecture. At this point HTML and HTTP had been in development for about two months and the first Web server was about a month from completing its first successful test; this proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve "the creation of new links and new material by readers, authorship becomes universal" as well as "the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available". While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, WebDAV, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom. The proposal was modelled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University.
The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration. A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world's first web server and to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser and the first web server; the first web site, which described the project itself, was published on 20 December 1990. The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina announced in May 2013 that Berners-Lee gave him what he says is the oldest known web page during a 1991 visit to UNC. Jones stored it on his NeXT computer. On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee published a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the newsgroup alt.hypertext.
This date is sometimes confused with the public availability of the first web servers, which had occurred months earlier. As another example of such confusion, several news media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro.