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An inkwell is a small jar or container made of glass, silver, brass, or pewter, used for holding ink in a place convenient for the person, writing. The artist or writer dips the brush, quill, or dip pen into the inkwell as needed or uses the inkwell as the source for filling the reservoir of a fountain pen. An inkwell has a lid to prevent contamination, accidental spillage, excessive exposure to air. A type known as the travelling inkwell was fitted with a secure, screw lid so a traveller could carry a supply of ink in their luggage without the risk of leakage; the inkwell's origins may be traced back to Ancient Egypt. Knowledge of hieroglyphics was at the time restricted. Only scribes knew the full array of hieroglyphs and would write on the behalf of their employers the pharaoh. After Rome invaded Egypt, inkwells became more popular in Italy as a larger percentage of the population were capable of writing. Inkwells fell out of use in the early part of 20th century as the reservoir fountain pen replaced the dip pen, which needed to be dipped in ink after writing a few lines.

Old school desks had round holes for inkwells. The Collector's World of Inkwells, Jean & Franklin Hunting, Schiffer Publishing Ltd ISBN 0-7643-1102-6 The Write Stuff Inkwells Pens & Desk Accessories, Ray & Bevy Jaegers, Krause Publications ISBN 0-930625-86-2 McGraw's Book of Antique Inkwells Volume 1, Vincent D McGraw, published 1972 Edwardian Shopping 1898-1913 selection facsimile, Army & Navy Stores, David & Charles ISBN 0-7153-7068-5 Pens & Writing Equipment, Jim Marshall, Miller's ISBN 1-84000-066-X English Silver Hallmarks, Judith Bannister, W Foulsham & Co Ltd ISBN 0-572-01181-4 Handbook of Pottery & Porcelain Marks, J P Cushion, Faber & Faber Ltd ISBN 0-571-04922-2 Walter's Inkwells of 1885 Book 1, Leo G Walter, published 1968 Inkbottles & Inkwells, William E Covill Jnr, William S Sullwold 1971 Inkstands & Inkwells A Collector's Guide, Betty & Ted Rivera, Crown Publishers Inc,ISBN 0-517-50419-7 Inkwells Identification & Values Book 1,Veldon Badders, Schroeder Publishing Inc, ISBN 0-89145-639-2 Inkwells Identification & Values Book II, Veldon Badders, Schroeder Publishing Inc, ISBN 1-57432-020-3 Western Writing Implements, Michael Finlay, Plains Books ISBN 1-872477-00-3 Writing Antiques, George Mell, Shire Publications Ltd ISBN 0-85263-519-2 Writing Implements & Accessories, Joyce Irene Whalley, David & Charles ISBN 0-7153-6903-2 Yesterday's Shopping 1907 facsimile, Army & Navy Stores, David & Charles ISBN 0-7153-4692-X The Story of Writing, Donald Jackson, Studio Vista ISBN 0-289-70985-7 The Enormous File, A Social History of the Office, Alan Delgado, John Murray ISBN 0-7195-3612-X Doulton Ink Wares, Colin Roberts, BEE Publications ISBN 0-9520547-0-1 De Vito, C.

Medeghini, L. Mignardi, S. Coletti, F. & Contino, A..: Production technology. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 37, 1779-1788. 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2016.11.044 Calligraphy

Terri Hogue

Terri S. Hogue is a hydrologist, she is a professor and department head of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Colorado School of Mines. Her research focuses on different hydrologic and land surface processes in semi-arid regions and the implications of them on water resource management. Hogue attended University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire, where she graduated in 1995 with a B. S. in Geology. She earned her Masters in 1998 and her Ph. D. in 2003 from University of Arizona in Hydrology and Water Resources. In July 2003, Hogue started as an assistant professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at University of California–Los Angeles, she was on faculty there for eight years and became an associate professor in 2009. Hogue continues to be an adjunct associate professor for the university as well; when she left UCLA, Hogue joined the faculty at Colorado School of Mines in the Civil and Environmental Engineering program. She was named the Department Head of Civil and Environmental Engineering in January 2018.

In this position, Hogue hopes to increase national recognition for her department. Prior to this appointment, Hogue was the Director of the Hydrologic Science and Engineering graduate program at Colorado School of Mines. Additionally, Hogue serves as the director of the ConocoPhillips Center for Sustainable WE2ST at Colorado School of Mines, the home of research on sustainability in energy and water resources on the campus. Hogue was a member of the Colorado School of Mines Board of Trustees from January 2017 until January 2019. Hogue is best known for her research on fluxes in the hydrologic cycle. Hogue studies how anthropogenic changes to the environment and natural hazards affect hydrologic and land surface processes. Much of her research looks toward the development of tools and models to better predict such hydrologic fluxes. At Colorado School of Mines, Hogue leads a research group focusing on these areas of study, with an emphasis on modeling and parameterization for different watershed responses to a variety of events.

For example, Hogue looks at the effects of wildfire on catchments, the implications of urbanization on hydrologic activity, flood forecasting. In recent years, Hogue received grants from the National Science Foundation and United States Environmental Protection Agency to continue her research in these fields with a focus on water sustainability and stormwater treatment. Regarding research on policy, Hogue completed multiple studies on the impacts of different water management methods in urban areas such as Los Angeles. Hogue has been recognized for her work in many forms. Notably, in 2009, she received the National Science Foundation’s CAREER Award. In 2011, Hogue spoke at the United States Senate "Hazards on the Hill" event about fire and urbanization, she has been the Hydrology Section Secretary for the American Geophysical Union since 2013. In 2015, the National Science Foundation granted Hogue and her colleague at Colorado School of Mines $600,000 to start a Research Experience for Teachers at Colorado School of Mines, exemplifying Hogue's work in public outreach

Drop Dead Diva (season 4)

The fourth season of Drop Dead Diva premiered on June 3, 2012 and concluded on September 9, 2012, on Lifetime. Season four consisted of 13 episodes. Brooke Elliott as Jane Bingum Margaret Cho as Teri Lee Jackson Hurst as Grayson Kent Kate Levering as Kim Kaswell April Bowlby as Stacy Barrett Lex Medlin as Judge Owen French Carter MacIntyre as Luke Daniels Josh Stamberg as Jay Parker Kim Kardashian as Nikki LePree Marcus Lyle Brown as A. D. A. Paul Saginaw Gregory Alan Williams as Judge Warren Libby Brandy Norwood as Elisa Shayne Ben Feldman as Fred Faith Prince as Elaine Bingum Sharon Lawrence as Bobbie Dobkins Rhoda Griffis as Paula Dewey Vickie Eng as Judge Rita Mayson Mary Mouser as Chloe Surnow On September 22, 2011, Lifetime picked up the show for a 4th season featuring 13 episodes, which premiered on June 3, 2012. Lex Medlin who played the recurring role of Judge Owen French, has been upgraded to a series regular in season four. Carter MacIntyre joined the main cast for season four, he plays the role of Jane's new guardian angel.

Kim Kardashian will recur as Stacy's business partner. Brandy is confirmed to be reprising her role as Elisa Shayne for season four. Drop Dead Diva on Lifetime Drop Dead Diva on IMDb Drop Dead Diva at


Awaruite is a occurring alloy of nickel and iron with a composition from Ni2Fe to Ni3Fe. Awaruite occurs in river placer deposits derived from serpentinized ophiolites, it occurs as a rare component of meteorites. It occurs in association with native magnetite in placers, it was first described in 1885 for an occurrence along Gorge River, near Awarua Bay, South Island, New Zealand, its type locality. Awaruite is known as josephinite in an occurrence in Josephine County, Oregon where it is found as placer nuggets in stream channels and masses in serpentinized portions of the Josephine peridotite; some nuggets contain andradite garnet

ANTARES (telescope)

ANTARES is the name of a neutrino detector residing 2.5 km under the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France. It is designed to be used as a directional neutrino telescope to locate and observe neutrino flux from cosmic origins in the direction of the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth, a complement to the South Pole neutrino detector IceCube that detects neutrinos from both hemispheres; the name comes from Astronomy with Abyss environmental RESearch project. The experiment is a recognized CERN experiment. Other neutrino telescopes designed for use in the nearby area include the Greek NESTOR telescope and the Italian NEMO telescope, which are both in early design stages; the array contains a set of twelve separate vertical strings of photomultiplier tubes. Each one is about 350 meters long, they are anchored at the bottom of the sea at a depth of about 2.5 km 70 meters apart from each other. When neutrinos enter the southern hemisphere of the earth, they continue traveling directly through it.

On rare occasions, a few muon neutrinos interact with the water in the Mediterranean Sea. When this happens, they produce a high energy muon. ANTARES works by its photomultiplier tubes detecting the Cherenkov radiation emitted as the muon passes through the water; the detection techniques used discriminate between the signature of "upward-going muons", a muon neutrino that has had interactions with matter below the detector, much higher flux of "downward atmospheric muons". In contrast to the South Pole neutrino telescopes AMANDA and IceCube, ANTARES uses water instead of ice as its Cherenkov medium; as light in water is less scattered than in ice this results in a better resolving power. On the other hand, water contains more sources of background light than ice, leading to a higher energy thresholds for ANTARES with respect to IceCube and making more sophisticated background-suppression methods necessary; the construction of ANTARES was completed on May 30, 2008, two years after the first string was deployed.

Initial testing began in 2000. Equipment indirectly related to the detector such as a seismometer were deployed in 2005; the first string of photomultiplier tubes was moved into place in February 2006. In September 2006 the second line was connected. Lines 3, 4 and 5 were deployed at the end of 2006 and connected in January 2007; this was an important step that made Antares the biggest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere. Lines 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 were deployed between March and early November 2007 and connected in December 2007 and January 2008. From May 2008 the detector has been running in its complete 12-line configuration. Deployment and connection of the detector are performed in cooperation with the French oceanographic institute, IFREMER using the ROV Victor, for some past operations the submarine Nautile; the ANTARES project complements the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica. The detection principles of the two projects are similar, although ANTARES only points toward the Southern Hemisphere.

Thanks to its location in the Mediterranean Sea, ANTARES is more sensitive to neutrinos with energies below 100 TeV in the southern sky, a region that includes many galactic sources. ANTARES will detect neutrinos from high energy origin in the range from 1010 to 1014 electronvolts. Over many years of operation, it may be able to produce a map of the neutrino flux from cosmic origins in the Southern Hemisphere. Of particular interest would be the detection of astrophysical point sources of neutrinos in correlation with observations in other bands. Apart from this astro-particle physics aspect, the ANTARES telescope may tackle some fundamental problems in particle physics, such as the search for dark matter in the form of neutralino annihilation in the sun or the galactic center. Due to the different methods employed, its expected sensitivity is complementary to the direct dark matter searches performed by various experiments such as DAMA, CDMS and at the LHC. Detection of neutralino signals would confirm supersymmetry, but is not considered likely at the ANTARES sensitivity level.

Other possible "exotic" phenomena that could conceivably be measured by ANTARES include nuclearites or magnetic monopoles. The first neutrino detections were reported in Feb 2007. Using 6 years of data, a search of the galactic center for point sources of neutrinos found none. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations were measured. In addition to the main optical detector for cosmic neutrinos, the ANTARES experiment houses a number of instruments for the study of the deep sea environment, such as salinity and oxygen probes, sea current profilers and instrumentation for the measurement of light transmission and sound velocity. A camera system has been installed for automatic tracking of bioluminescent organisms. Results from these instruments, while important for the calibration of the detector, will be shared with ocean science institutes involved in the ANTARES collaboration. While the ANTARES detector contains an acoustic positioning system for the alignment of the free-floating detector lines, it houses a separate dedicated acoustic detection system AMADEUS, which will comprise 6 converted ANTARES storeys with hydrophones to evaluate the possibility for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea.

The first

List of hymns by Martin Luther

The reformer Martin Luther, a prolific hymnodist, regarded music and hymns in German as important means for the development of faith. Luther wrote songs for occasions of the liturgical year, hymns on topics of the catechism, paraphrases of psalms, other songs. Whenever Luther went out from existing texts, here listed as "text source", he expanded and interpreted them. Luther worked on the tunes, in collaboration with Johann Walter. Hymns were published in the Achtliederbuch, in Walter's choral hymnal Eyn geystlich Gesangk Buchleyn and the Erfurt Enchiridion in 1524, in the Klugsches Gesangbuch, among others. For more information, see Martin Luther § Hymnodist. Other hymns sometimes ascribed to Luther but not listed above include "All Her und Lob soll Gottes sein", "Unser große Sünde und schwere Missetat", "Christ ist erstanden", "Nun laßt uns den Leib begraben". Otto Schlißke, Handbuch der Lutherlieder, Göttingen 1948. Martin Luther § Hymnodist Hymnody of continental Europe § Reformation Kirchenlieder von Martin Luther – numbered by Evangelisches Gesangbuch Martin Luther at Chronological catalog of Luther's life events and works with citations, 478 pages, 5.45 MB LettersLuther4.doc