The term has been used for large-scale post-colonial emigration of whites from Africa, or parts of that continent, driven by levels of violent crime and anti-colonial state policies. In the 1970s, attempts to achieve effective desegregation by means of forced busing in some areas led to families moving out of former areas. However, some historians have challenged the white flight as a misnomer whose use should be reconsidered. Such conditions are considered to have contributed to the emigration of other populations, according to the environmental geographer Laura Pulido, the historical processes of suburbanization and urban decentralization contribute to contemporary environmental racism. The result was severe urban decay that, by the 1960s, prior to national data available in the 1950 US census, a migration pattern of disproportionate numbers of whites moving from cities to suburban communities was easily dismissed as merely anecdotal. Because American urban populations were still growing, a relative decrease in one racial or ethnic component eluded scientific proof to the satisfaction of policy makers.
In essence, data on urban population change had not been separated into what are now familiarly identified its components, the first data set potentially capable of proving white flight was the 1950 census. But original processing of data, on older-style tabulation machines by the US Census Bureau. It was not simply a more powerful calculating instrument that placed the reality of white flight beyond a high hurdle of proof required for policy makers to consider taking action. In other words, central cities had been bringing back their new suburbs, real estate prices often fall in areas of economic erosion, allowing persons with lower income to establish homes in such areas. Since the 1960s and changed immigration laws, the United States has received immigrants from Mexico and South America, immigration has changed the demographics of both cities and suburbs, and the US has become a largely suburban nation, with the suburbs becoming more diverse. In addition, the fastest growing minority group in the US, began to migrate away from traditional entry cities and to cities in the Southwest, such as Phoenix, in 2006, the increased number of Latinos had made whites a minority group in some western cities.
Blacks were effectively barred from pursuing homeownership, even when they were able to afford it, after World War II, aided by the construction of the Interstate Highway System, many White Americans began leaving industrial cities for new housing in suburbs. The roads served to transport suburbanites to their city jobs, facilitating the development of suburbs and this may have exacerbated urban decay. In Birmingham, the government used the highway system to perpetuate the racial residence-boundaries the city established with a 1926 racial zoning law. Constructing interstate highways through majority-black neighborhoods eventually reduced the populations to the poorest proportion of people unable to leave their destroyed community. The real estate business practice of blockbusting was a for-profit catalyst for white flight, the remaining white inhabitants, fearing devalued residential property, would quickly sell, usually at a loss. Losses happened when they sold en masse, and would sell the properties to the black families, profiting from price arbitrage
In addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development. In Continental Europe the term peri-urbanisation is often used to denote similar dynamics and phenomena, There is widespread disagreement about what constitutes sprawl and how to quantify it. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the number of residential units per acre in a given area. But others associate it with decentralization, segregation of uses, the term urban sprawl is highly politicized, and almost always has negative connotations. It is criticized for causing environmental degradation, and intensifying segregation and undermining the vitality of existing urban areas, due to the pejorative meaning of the term, few openly support urban sprawl as such. The term has become a cry for managing urban growth. Definitions of sprawl vary, researchers in the field acknowledge that the term lacks precision and he argued that a better way to identify sprawl was to use indicators rather than characteristics because this was a more flexible and less arbitrary method.
He proposed using accessibility and functional space as indicators. Ewings approach has been criticized for assuming that sprawl is defined by negative characteristics, what constitutes sprawl may be considered a matter of degree and will always be somewhat subjective under many definitions of the term. The following characteristics are associated with sprawl, This refers to a situation where commercial, residential and industrial areas are separated from one another. Consequently, large tracts of land are devoted to a use and are segregated from one another by open space, infrastructure. The degree to which different land uses are mixed together is used as an indicator of sprawl in studies of the subject. Job sprawl is another land use symptom of urban sprawl and car-dependent communities, spatial mismatch is related to job sprawl and economic environmental justice. Job sprawl has been documented and measured in various ways and it has been shown to be a growing trend in Americas metropolitan areas.
The Brookings Institution has published articles on the topic. In 2005, author Michael Stoll defined job sprawl simply as jobs located more than 5-mile radius from the CBD, and measured the concept based on year 2000 U. S. Census data. These two authors used three geographic rings limited to a 35-mile radius around the CBD,3 miles or less,3 to 10 miles and this compares to the year 1998 -23. 3%,34. 2%, and 42. 5% in those respective rings. The study shows CBD employment share shrinking, and job growth focused in the suburban and exurban outer metropolitan rings, Sprawl is often characterized as consisting of low-density development
London Borough of Hackney
The London Borough of Hackney is a North East London Borough within Inner London, United Kingdom. Southern and eastern parts of the borough are popularly regarded as being part of east London, the London Plan issued by the Greater London Authority assigns whole boroughs to sub-regions for statutory monitoring and resource allocation purposes. The most recent iteration of this plan assigns Hackney to the ‘East’ sub-region, while the 2008 and 2004 versions assigned the borough to ‘North’ and ‘East’ sub-regions respectively. Hackney is bounded by Islington to the west, Haringey to the north, Waltham Forest to the north-east, Newham to the east, Tower Hamlets to the south-east and the City of London to the south-west. Much of Hackney retains an inner-city character, but in places as Dalston large housing estates have been joined by newly developed gated communities. In South Hackney, near Victoria Park, terraced Georgian and Edwardian housing still survives, the historical and administrative heart of Hackney is the area roughly extending north from Mare Street and surrounding the Church of St John-at-Hackney, known as Hackney Central.
To the north of the borough are Upper Clapton and Lower Clapton, Stamford Hill, to the east is the large open space of Hackney Marshes and the districts of Hackney Wick and Homerton. Light industries in the area around the River Lea employ over 3,000 people, some of the area was used for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The borough was formed in 1965 from the area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hackney, Shoreditch. The shield is surmounted by a representation of St. Augustines Tower, the old metropolitan borough of Hackney was closely based on the unusually large ancient parish of the same name. The council displays, in Hackney Town Hall, a portrait of the Queen wearing the robes of the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem, in the 13th century the name appears as Hackenaye or Hacquenye, but no certain derivation is advanced. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Place Names discusses the origin of the name, the first surviving records of the place name are as Hakney and Hakeneye. This was once a much wilder place than today, the Dictionary suggests that the ‘Hack’ element may derive from, The Old English ‘Haecc’ meaning a hatch – an entrance to a woodland or common.
Or alternatively from ‘Haca’ meaning a hook, and in this context, given the island context, the ‘hatch’ option is unlikely to be correct, so the favoured Hakas Island or the Island on the bend seem more likely. The place name will have originally referred to just the island or possibly both the island and the manor of the name based around it. Subsequently, the name Hackney was applied to the ancient parish of Hackney. At one time most of the area was covered with oak and hazel woodlands, with marshland around the rivers. In Roman times and for a time after, the River Lea was an estuary
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and business centre of a city. In larger cities, it is synonymous with the citys financial district. Both the CBD and the city centre or downtown may coincide with the central activities district, a citys CBD is usually typified by a concentration of retail and office buildings. The CBD usually has a density higher than the surrounding districts of the city. The CBD is often the city centre or downtown, Mexico City has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs, the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma - Polanco, and the new Santa Fe. The shape and type of a CBD almost always reflect the citys history. Cities with maximum building height restrictions often have a historic section quite apart from the financial. It has been said that downtowns are therefore distinct from both CBDs and city centres. CBDs usually have very small resident populations, for example, the population of the City of London declined from over 200,000 in the year 1700 to less than 10,000 today.
In some instances, however, CBD populations are increasing as younger professional, the Buenos Aires Central Business District, is the main commercial centre of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina. The actual area was the point of first European settlement and its north-south axis runs from Monserrat in the south to Retiro railway station in the north. Its east-west axis runs from Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve and Puerto Madero, the district is the financial and cultural hub of Argentina. Its port is one of the busiest in South America, navigable rivers by way of the Río de la Plata connect the port to northeast Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. As a result, it serves as the hub for a vast area of the southeastern region of the South American continent. Tax collection related to the port has caused political problems in the past. The Buenos Aires Human Development Index is likewise high by international standards, the term is used to refer to the business and financial area of a state capital city such as the Sydney CBD, Melbourne CBD, Brisbane CBD, Perth CBD and Adelaide CBD.
The city centres of some cities, such as Townsville, Bendigo. More recently, in cities the city centre, which may or may not be distinct from the CBD, is increasingly separately identified
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure. The term was used in Venice to describe the part of the city to which Jews were restricted and segregated. The term has been applied in various contexts, the word ghetto comes from the Jewish area of Venice, the Venetian Ghetto in Cannaregio. However, there is no agreement among etymologists about the origins of the Venetian language term, by 1899 the term had been extended to crowded urban quarters of other minority groups. In Northern Ireland and cities have long been segregated along ethnic, Northern Irelands two main communities are its Irish nationalist/republican community and its unionist/loyalist community. Ghettos emerged in Belfast during the riots that accompanied the Irish War of Independence, for safety, people fled to areas where their community was the majority. They sealed off these neighborhoods with barricades to keep out rioters or gunmen from the other side, many more ghettos emerged after the 1969 riots and beginning of the Troubles.
In August 1969 the British Army was deployed to restore order, the government built barriers called peace lines. Many of the ghettos came under the control of such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army. One of the most notable ghettos was Free Derry, the existence of ethnic enclaves in the United Kingdom is controversial. By 2001, two London boroughs – Newham and Brent – had minority majority populations, and most parts of the city tend to have a diverse population, in France, a banlieue is a suburb of a large city. Banlieues are divided into autonomous entities and do not constitute part of the city proper. For instance, 80% of the inhabitants of the Paris area live outside the city of Paris, a Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews in the diaspora. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were often the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding authorities, a Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is Di yiddishe gas, or The Jewish street.
Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter, Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as alien. As a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities, the character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with an affluent population. In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of growth, had narrow streets and tall
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns.
Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, cultural, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography
Demographics of Atlanta
Atlanta is the largest city in the state of Georgia. Atlanta ranks as the 40th-largest in the United States, and the sixth-largest city in the southeastern region,2010 census results varied dramatically with previous Census Bureau estimates, counting 550,003 residents. Atlanta is the city of the ninth most populous United States metropolitan area at 5,268,860. Atlantas population grew steadily during the first 100 years of the citys existence, from 1970 to 2000, the city lost over 100,000 residents, a decrease of around 16 percent. During the same time, the area gained over three million people, cutting the citys share of the metro population in half, from over 25 percent in 1970 to around 12 percent in 2000. However, the citys population bottomed out in 1990 at around 394,000, in 2009, the median income for a household in the city was $47,464 and the median income for a family was $59,711. About 21. 8% of the population and 17. 2% of families lived below the poverty line, the city of Atlanta is seeing a large demographic increase in its white population, and at a pace that outstrips the rest of the nation.
The proportion of whites in the population grew faster between 2000 and 2006 than that of any other U. S. city. By 2010, Atlantas white population had increased by 22,763 people, the white percentage increased from 31% in 2000, to 35% in 2006, to 38% in 2010, more than double the increase between 1990 and 2000. During the same time, the black population decreased by 31,678 people. Note that this phenomenon is not unique to Atlanta, as Washington, the city of Atlanta has recently become relatively more diverse. The city long consisted overwhelmingly of blacks and non-Hispanic whites, those made up 92. 1% of the city in 1990. Atlantas Hispanic population increased by 72. 0% from 2000 to 2010, the Asian American population increased by 65. 5%, and in 2010 Asian Americans made up 5. 1% of the city. The trend towards ethnic diversity is much stronger in Metro Atlanta as a whole in which blacks, the metro areas Hispanic population more than doubled from 268,851 in 2000 to 547,400 in 2010, and now makes up over 10% of the regions population.
These immigrant communities have altered the economic and religious landscape of metro Atlanta, the Asian American population in the metro nearly doubled and makes up just under 5% of the regions population. In NPU L, the proportion of the population went down from 97. 5% to 89. 1%. Although the foreign-born population in the city itself is low among large US cities and even compared to Atlantas own metro area, it is high compared to other nearby Southern cities. For example, in Macon, Georgia,7. 1% were US-born outside the South and 3. 0% foreign-born. and in Birmingham, the city of Atlanta has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita
A skid row or skid road is an impoverished area, typically urban, inhabited by the poor, the homeless, or others considered disreputable or forgotten by society. A skid row may be anything from an urban district to a red-light district to a gathering area for the homeless. In general skid row areas are inhabited or frequented by individuals marginalized by poverty or through drug addiction, urban areas considered skid rows often feature cheap taverns, dilapidated buildings, and drug dens as well as other features of urban blight. Used figuratively it may indicate the state of a persons life. The term skid road originally referred to the path along which timber workers skidded logs and its current sense appears to have originated in the Pacific Northwest. The term skid road dates back to the 17th century, when it referred to a log road, used to skid or drag logs through woods and bog. The term was in usage in the mid-19th century and came to refer not just to the corduroy roads themselves. When a logger was fired he was sent down the skid road, the source of the term skid road as an urban district is heavily debated, and is generally identified as originating in either Seattle or Vancouver.
The name Skid Road was in use in Seattle by 1850s when the citys historic Pioneer Square neighborhood began to expand from its commercial core. The district centered near the end of what is now Yesler Way, Henry Yesler acquired land from Doc Maynard at a small point of land at what is today near the intersection of 1st Avenue and Yesler Way. He acquired a swath of land 450 feet wide from his property up First Hill to a box of land about 10 acres in size full of timber spanning what is today 20th to 30th Avenues. His steam-powered logging mill was built in 1853 on the point of land that looked south towards an island that has since been filled in around and is the heart of todays Pioneer Square. The mill operated seven days a week,24 hours per day on the waterfront, the streets end near the mill, attracted cookhouses and inexpensive hotels for itinerant workers, along with several establishments that served beer and liquor. The Skid Road was built on that 450 foot wide slice of land from the top of First Hill to the mill on the point.
Timber cut in nearby forests was greased and skidded down a long, since the building of the mill much of what is todays Seattle is the result of extensive terra-forming by the local people to make the hilly landscape of Seattle habitable. At the time of the building of the mill it was some of the flat land available. The Skid Road became the line between the affluent members of Seattle and the mill workers and more rowdy portion of the population. The road became Mill Street, and eventually Yesler Way, the 100-block of East Hastings Street in Vancouver, British Columbia, the heart of that citys skid road neighborhood, lies on a historical skid road
Downtown is a term primarily used in North America by English speakers to refer to a citys core or central business district, often in a geographical or commercial sense. The term is not generally used in British English, whose speakers use the term city centre. The term downtown is thought to have been coined in New York City, uptown spread, but to a much lesser extent. In both cases, the directionality of both words was lost, so that a Bostonian might refer to going downtown, even though it was north of where they were. Downtown lay to the south in Detroit, but to the north in Cleveland, to the east in St. Louis, in Boston, a resident pointed out in 1880, downtown was in the center of the city. Uptown was north of downtown in Cincinnati, but south of downtown in New Orleans, downtown was not included in dictionaries as late as the 1880s. It was the location of the department stores and hotels, as well as the theatres, clubs and dance halls. It was frequently, at first, the part of a city that was electrified.
It was the place where street congestion was the worst, but most of all, downtown was the place where the city did its business. Inside its small precincts, sometimes as small as several hundred acres, the majority of the trading, there were hubs of business in other places around the city and its environs, but the downtown area was the chief one, truly the central business district. And as more and more business was done downtown, those who had their homes there were gradually pushed out, selling their property, the skyscraper would become the hallmark of the downtown area. What limited them was the thickness of the masonry needed at the base to hold the weight of the building above it. As the buildings got taller, the thickness of the masonry, although first used in Chicago, the steel-framed skyscraper caught on most quickly in New York City in the 1880s, and from there spread to most other American cities in the 1890s and 1900s. In the short run, the proponents of height limits were successful in their efforts, what was worse, at least to real estate interests, the building dumped 1.2 million square feet of office space on what was a sluggish real estate market.
To many in the real estate industry, the law was an example of a reasonable restriction. This was the time when the central business district began to appear as more-or-less synonymous with the downtown area. The phrase acknowledged the existence of business districts in the city. Real estate interests were concerned about the tendency of downtown to move because the downtown area had by far the highest land values in each city
While more attention has been paid to this since the 1990s, the movement of blacks to the suburbs has been underway for some time, with nine million people having migrated from 1960 to 2000. Their goals have been similar to those of the middle class, whose out-migration was called white flight, newer housing, better schools for their children. From 1990 to 2000, the percentage of African Americans who lived in the suburbs increased to a total of 39 percent, most who moved to the suburbs after World War II were middle class. Early years of change accelerated in the late 1960s after passage of civil rights legislation ended segregation. Since the 1950s, there began a period of restructuring of industries. In many cases, they are following the movement of jobs to the suburbs, because more African Americans are attaining college degrees, they are better able to find and obtain better-paying jobs and move to the suburbs. Most African-American migrants leaving the northern regions have gone to the New South states, according to a 2007 study, average African-American family income has increased, but the gap with white families has increased slightly.
In his After the Fact study, the anthropologist Clifford Geertz documented changes in a city in Morocco, as poor rural migrants moved into the center city during urbanization, the older, more established and wealthier populations moved to the outskirts. In recent decades, such ethnic succession seen first in center cities has been taking place in the suburbs, since the 1960s, many middle-class African-Americans have been moving to the suburbs for newer housing and good schools, just as European Americans had done before them. Right now, the South, more than any region of the country, is living up to that promise. In the last 25 years, for example, the population of Prince Georges County, Maryland, by 2006 it was the wealthiest majority-black county in the nation. Similar to White Americans, African Americans continue to move to distant areas. Charles County, Maryland has become the destination for middle-class black migrants from Washington and other areas, by 2002. Charles County has the black population of any large county in the nation except the Atlanta suburbs.
Randallstown near Baltimore has become a majority-black suburb, in 1950 few northern cities yet had majority or near majority percentages of blacks, nor did southern ones, Washington, DC was 35 percent African American and Baltimore was 40 percent. From 1950 to 1970, the population increased dramatically in Philadelphia, Newark, Detroit, Cleveland, St. Louis, Kansas City, Cincinnati. By 196075 percent of blacks lived in environments, while whites had been moving to suburbs in large numbers following WWII. Job losses in former industrial cities have often pushed population out, in the 1950s and 1960s, numerous blacks from Chicago began to move to suburbs south of the city to improve their housing
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D. C. It conducts research and education in the sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, foreign policy. Brookings has five research programs at its Washington, D. C. campus and three international centers based in Doha, Beijing and New Delhi, India. In the University of Pennsylvanias 2015 Global Go To Think Tanks Report, Brookings states that its staff represent diverse points of view and describes itself as non-partisan, while the media sometimes describes Brookings as liberal. The same study found Brookings to be the most frequently cited think tank by the US media, as a 501 non-profit organization, Brookings describes itself as independent and non-partisan. The New York Times has referred to the organization as liberal, liberal-centrist, the Washington Post has described Brookings as centrist and liberal. The Los Angeles Times has described Brookings as liberal-leaning and centrist before opining that it did not believe such labels mattered, in 1977, Time Magazine described it as the nations pre-eminent liberal think tank.
Newsweek has described Brookings as centrist while Politico has used the term center-left, the left-wing, media watchdog group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting describes it as conservative. Some liberals argue, that despite its left-of-center reputation, Brookings fellow and research director Benjamin Wittes is a member of the conservative Hoover Institutions Task Force on National Security and Law. Brookings scholars have served in Republican and Democratic administrations, including Mark McClellan, Ron Haskins, aside from political figures, the board of trustees includes leaders in business and industry, including Philip H. Knight, Chairman of Nike, Inc. Brookings was founded in 1916 as the Institute for Government Research, the Institutions founder, philanthropist Robert S. Louis. The three were merged into the Brookings Institution on December 8,1927, during the Great Depression economists at Brookings embarked on a large scale study commissioned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to understand the underlying causes of the depression.
With the entry into World War II in 1941, Brookings researchers turned their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization, in 1948, Brookings was asked to submit a plan for the administration of the European Recovery Program. The resulting organization scheme assured that the Marshall Plan was run carefully, in 1952, Robert Calkins succeeded Moulton as president of the Brookings Institution. He secured grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation that put the Institution on a financial basis. He reorganized the Institution around the Economic Studies, Government Studies, in 1957, the Institution moved from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near Dupont Circle in Washington, D. C. Kermit Gordon assumed the presidency of Brookings in 1967 and he began a series of studies of program choices for the federal budget in 1969 entitled Setting National Priorities. He expanded the Foreign Policy Studies Program to include research in national security, yet throughout the 1970s, Brookings was offered more federal research contracts than it could handle