New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
German is a West Germanic language, spoken in Central Europe. It is the most spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, Liechtenstein, it is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of 100 million people worldwide and the most spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
German is the second most taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level, the fourth most taught non-English language in the US, the second most used scientific language as well as the third most used language on websites after English and Russian. The German-speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of annual publication of new books, with one tenth of all books in the world being published in the German language. In the United Kingdom and French are the most-sought after foreign languages for businesses. German is an inflected language with four cases for nouns and adjectives, three genders, two numbers, strong and weak verbs. German derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. A portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, fewer are borrowed from French and Modern English. With different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, it is notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and other parts of the world.
Due to the limited intelligibility between certain varieties and Standard German, as well as the lack of an undisputed, scientific difference between a "dialect" and a "language", some German varieties or dialect groups are alternatively referred to as "languages" or "dialects". Modern Standard German is a West Germanic language descended from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages; the Germanic languages are traditionally subdivided into three branches: North Germanic, East Germanic, West Germanic. The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse; the East Germanic languages are now extinct, the only historical member of this branch from which written texts survive is Gothic. The West Germanic languages, have undergone extensive dialectal subdivision and are now represented in modern languages such as English, Dutch, Yiddish and others. Within the West Germanic language dialect continuum, the Benrath and Uerdingen lines serve to distinguish the Germanic dialects that were affected by the High German consonant shift from those that were not.
The various regional dialects spoken south of these lines are grouped as High German dialects, while those spoken to the north comprise the Low German/Low Saxon and Low Franconian dialects. As members of the West Germanic language family, High German, Low German, Low Franconian can be further distinguished as Irminonic and Istvaeonic, respectively; this classification indicates their historical descent from dialects spoken by the Irminones and Istvaeones. Standard German is based on a combination of Thuringian-Upper Saxon and Upper Franconian and Bavarian dialects, which are Central German and Upper German dialects, belonging to the Irminonic High German dialect group. German is therefore related to the other languages based on High German dialects, such as Luxembourgish, Yiddish. Related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German, the various Germanic dialects spoken in the French region of Grand Est, such as Alsatian and Lorraine Franconian.
After these High German dialects, standard German is related to languages based on Low Franconian dialects or Low German/Low Saxon dialects, neither of which underwent the High German consonant shift. As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic.
History of Germany
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul, which he had conquered. The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest prevented annexation by the Roman Empire, although the Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes; when the Frankish Empire was divided among Charles the Great's heirs in 843, the eastern part became East Francia. In 962, Otto I became the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the medieval German state. In the Late Middle Ages, the regional dukes and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic.
The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War, ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany. 1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as Prussia, Saxony and other states, which controlled land outside of the area considered as "Germany". After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars from 1803–1815, feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction; the German revolutions of 1848–49 failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for science and humanities, while music and art flourished; the unification of Germany was achieved under the leadership of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in 1871 which solved the Kleindeutsche Lösung, the small Germany solution, or Großdeutsche Lösung, the greater Germany solution, the former prevailing.
The new Reichstag, an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in the Pacific. By 1900, Germany was the dominant power on the European continent and its expanding industry had surpassed Britain's, while provoking it in a naval arms race. Germany led the Central Powers in World War I against France, Great Britain and the United States. Defeated and occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of home territory to be ceded to Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Poland; the German Revolution of 1918–19 put an end to the federal constitutional monarchy, which resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany.
The Nazi Party began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hitler established a totalitarian regime. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. First came the remilitarization of the Rhineland in 1936, the annexing of Austria in the Anschluss and parts of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement in 1938. On 1 September 1939, Germany initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland. After forming a pact with the Soviet Union in 1939, Hitler and Stalin divided Eastern Europe. After a "Phoney War" in spring 1940, the Germans swept Denmark and Norway, the Low Countries and France, giving Germany control of nearly all of Western Europe. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the Nazi regime. In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areas, the systematic genocide program known as The Holocaust killed 11 million including Jews, German dissidents, disabled people, Romanies and others.
In 1942, the German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, after the United States had entered the war, Britain became the base for massive Anglo-American bombings of German cities. Germany fought the war on multiple fronts through 1942–1944, however following the Allied invasion of Normandy, the German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May 1945. Under occupation by the Allies, German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany. Millions of ethnic Germans were deported or fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion, became the dominant economy in Western Europe. West Germany was rearmed in the 1950s under the auspices of NATO, but without access to nuclear weapons; the Franco-German friendship became the basis for the political integration of Western Europe in the European Union.
In 1989, the Berlin Wall was destroye
Theodor Fliedner was a German Lutheran minister and founder of Lutheran deaconess training. In 1836, he founded a hospital and deaconess training center, he is commemorated as a renewer of society in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on October 4 and by the Evangelical Church in Germany on October 5th. Fliedner was born in Eppstein in the Germany, he was the son of a Lutheran minister. Pastor Fliedner studied theology at University of Giessen and the University of Göttingen as well as at Herborn Academy, the theological seminary in Herborn, he was for a house teacher. In 1821 he assumed the pastorate in the poor municipality of Kaiserswerth; when the town could no longer support church and ministry due to an economic crisis, he undertook journeys to collect donations. Beginning in Westphalia, he went to the Netherlands and England. In the Indies he became acquainted with the ancient church office of deaconess while spending time among the Mennonites, who had revived the institution in 1745.
In England he met with English social reformer, Elizabeth Fry, who demonstrated her work among her nation's impoverished and imprisoned people. He returned home not only with a large financial collection for his municipality but with new ideas about social work among the disadvantaged, he began by working among inmates at the Düsseldorf Prison, preaching the Gospel and ministering to spiritual and physical needs. He walked to and from Düsseldorf every other Sunday; the German prisons were in a bad state. Fliedner realized that the first step must be toward looking after the prisoners on their release, accordingly, in 1833, he opened at Kaiserswerth a refuge for discharged female convicts. To better support and teach Kaiserwerth's children, he founded a school in 1835 which became the venue for a women teachers' seminar. In many cities, there were no hospitals at that time. Following somewhat the model of the early Christian Church's diaconate, incorporating ideas learned from Fry and the Mennonites, applying his own thoughts, Fliedner developed a plan whereby young women would find and care for the needy sick.
For this, he needed to create Kaiserswerther Diakonie, an institute where women could learn both theology and nursing skills. He opened the hospital and deaconess training center in Kaiserswerth on 13 October 1836. Gertrud Reichardt was the first deaconess commissioned by the new school. Florence Nightingale trained there as a nurse in 1850. One of the associated Kaiserwerth professional schools was named in her honor. Another noted student was a pioneer of nursing in her country. After his wife, died in 1842, he found a new life companion in Caroline Bertheau, they opened institutes for the diaconate in 1844 in Dortmund and in 1847 in Berlin with the support of King Frederick William IV of Prussia, his wife Queen Elizabeth. Fliedner's attention became focused on this aspect of the ministry and in 1849 he turned to working with the diaconate, including increasing activity abroad. Fliedner's movement has been cited as the model for the Inner Mission movement which Johann Hinrich Wichern developed.
Because of these efforts, deaconess institutes arose in Paris, Strasbourg and elsewhere. By the time of his death in 1864, there were 1,600 deaconesses worldwide. By the middle of the 20th century, there were over 35,000 deaconesses serving in parishes, schools and prisons throughout the world. A sign of the international respect Fliedner garnered is that his most famous pupil came from outside Germany. English nursing reformer Florence Nightingale first visited in 1841, she was impressed by the religious devotion and noted most of the deaconesses were of peasant origin. She graduated from the facility in 1851. Today, one of Düsseldorf's hospitals bears her name. Kollektenreise nach Holland und England Liederbuch für Kleinkinderschulen Kaiserswerther Volkskalender Armen- und Krankenfreund Buch der Märtyrer und anderer Glaubenszeugen der evangelischen Kirche Kurze Geschichte der Entstehung der ersten evangelischen Liebesanstalten in Kaiserswerth This article incorporates reference material from Theodor Fliedner Encyclopædia Britannica Calder, Jean McKinlay The Story of Nursing Kruczek, Dietmar German Theodor Fliedner: Mein Leben, für das Leben.
Eine Biographie über den Gründer der Kaiserswerther Diakonie Sticker, Anna GermanTheodor und Friederike Fliedner Wentz, Abdel Ross Fliedner the Faithful, Biography of Theodore Fliedner Winkworth, Catherine Life of Pastor Fliedner of Kaiserwerth Worman, J. H.. "Fliedner, Theodor". In Ripley, George; the American Cyclopædia. Works by or about Theodor Fliedner at Internet Archive Theodor Fliedner, founder A Background of the Deaconess Community Kaiserswerther Diakonie website