According to both Anglican and Catholic canon law, a cathedral chapter is a college of clerics formed to advise a bishop and, in the case of a vacancy of the episcopal see in some countries, to govern the diocese during the vacancy. These chapters are made up of canons and other officers, while in the Church of England chapters now includes a number of lay appointees, they can be "numbered", in which case they are provided with a fixed "prebend", or "unnumbered", in which case the bishop indicates the number of canons according to the rents. In some Church of England cathedrals there are two such bodies, the lesser and greater chapters, which have different functions; the smaller body consists of the residentiary members and is included in the larger one. It referred to a section of a monastic rule, read out daily during the assembly of a group of canons or other clergy attached to a cathedral or collegiate church, it came to be applied to the group of clergy itself. Typical roles within England's cathedrals have included: Historically, there was no distinction between the monastic cathedral chapters and those of the secular canons, in their relation to the bishop or diocese.
In both cases the chapter was the bishop's consilium which he was bound to consult on all important matters and without doing so he could not act. Thus, a judicial decision of a bishop needed the confirmation of the chapter before it could be enforced, he could not change the service books, or "use" of the church or diocese, without capitular consent, there are episcopal acts, such as the appointment of a diocesan chancellor, or vicar general, which still need confirmation by the chapter. In its corporate capacity the chapter takes charge sede vacante of a diocese. In England, this custom has never obtained, the two archbishops having, from time immemorial, taken charge of the vacant dioceses in their respective provinces. When, either of the sees of Canterbury or York is vacant the chapters of those churches take charge, not only of the diocese, but of the province as well, incidentally, therefore, of any of the dioceses of the province which may be vacant at the same time; the normal constitution of the chapter of a secular cathedral church comprised four officers, in addition to the canons.
These are the precentor, the chancellor and the treasurer. These four officers, occupying the four corner stalls in the choir, are called in many of the statutes the quatuor majores personae of the church. A dean seems to have derived the designation from the Benedictine "deans" who had ten monks under their charge; the dean came into existence to supply the place of the provost in the internal management of the church and chapter. In England every secular cathedral church was headed by a dean, elected by the chapter and confirmed in office by the bishop; the dean is president of the chapter and within the cathedral has charge of the celebration of the services, taking specified portions of them by statute on the principal festivals. Deans sit in the principal stall in the choir, the first on the right hand on entering the choir at the west. Next to the dean is the precentor, whose special duty is that of regulating the musical portion of the services. Precentors preside in the dean's absence and occupy the corresponding stall on the left side, although there are exceptions to this rule, where, as at St Paul's Cathedral, the archdeacon of the cathedral city ranks second and occupies what is the precentor's stall.
The third officer is the chancellor. The chancellor of the cathedral church is charged with the oversight of its schools, ought to read theology lectures and superintend the lections in the choir and correct slovenly readers. Chancellors are the secretary and librarian of the chapter. In the absence of the dean and precentor the chancellor is president of the chapter; the easternmost stall, on the dean's side of the choir, is assigned to the chancellor. The fourth officer is the treasurer, they are ornaments of the church. It was their duty to provide candles and incense, they regulated such matters as the ringing of the bells. The treasurer's stall is opposite to that of the chancellor. In many cathedral churches there are additional officers, such as the praelector, vice-chancellor, succentor-canonicorum, whose roles came into existence to supply the places of the other absent officers, for non-residence was the fatal blot of the secular churches, in this they contrasted badly with the monastic churches, where all the members were in continuous residence.
There were ordinary canons, each of whom, as a rule, held a separate prebend or endowment, besides receiving their share of the common funds of the church. For the most part the canons speedily became non-resident, this led to the distinction of residentiary and non-residentiary canons, until in most churches the number of resident canons became limited in number and the non-residentiary canons, who no longer shared in the common funds, became known as prebendaries only, although by their non-residence they did not forfeit their position as canons and retained their votes in chapter like the others; this system of non-residence led to the institution of vicars choral, each canon having their own vicar, who sat in their stall in their absence and, when th
Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo I de' Medici was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death. Cosimo was born in Florence on 12 June 1519, the son of the famous condottiere Ludovico de' Medici and his wife Maria Salviati, herself a granddaughter of Lorenzo the Magnificent, he was the Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola. Cosimo came to power in 1537 at age 17, just after the 26-year-old Duke of Florence, Alessandro de' Medici, was assassinated. Cosimo was from a different branch of the Medici family, descended from Giovanni il Popolano, the great-grandson of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici Bank, it was necessary to search for a successor outside of the "senior" branch of the Medici family descended from Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici, since the only male child of Alessandro, the last lineal descendant of the senior branch, was born out-of-wedlock and was only four years' old at the time of his father's death. Up to the time of his accession, Cosimo had lived only in Mugello and was unknown in Florence.
However, many of the influential men in the city favoured him as the new duke. Several hoped to rule through him. However, as the Florentine literatus Benedetto Varchi famously put it, "The innkeeper's reckoning was different from the glutton's." Cosimo proved strong-willed and ambitious and soon rejected the clause he had signed that entrusted much of the power of the Florentine duchy to a Council of Forty-Eight. When the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence. During this time, Cosimo had an illegitimate daughter, portrayed shortly before her premature death in a marvelous painting by Bronzino. Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi; when Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo. After defeating the exiles' army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety.
It fell after only a few hours, Cosimo celebrated his first victory. The prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzi's body was found with a bloody sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil, but many believe that his suicide was faked. In 1537, Cosimo sent Bernardo Antonio de' Medici to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to gain recognition for his position as head of the Florentine state; that recognition came in June 1537 in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move, Cosimo restored the power of the Medici, who thereafter ruled Florence until the death of the last of the Medici ruler, Gian Gastone de' Medici, in 1737; the help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy. Cosimo next turned his attention to Siena. With the support of Charles V, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano in 1554 and laid siege to their city.
Despite the inhabitants' desperate resistance, the city fell on 17 April 1555 after a 15-month siege, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimo's territories. In 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany. In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up active rule of the Florentine state to his son and successor Francesco I, he retreated to live in the Villa di Castello, outside Florence. Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548, he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence who had earlier arranged the assassination of Cosimo's predecessor Alessandro, assassinated himself in Venice. Cosimo was an active builder of military structures, as a part of his attempt to save the Florentine state from the frequent passage of foreign armies.
Examples include the new fortresses of Siena, Sansepolcro, the new walls of Pisa and Fivizzano and the strongholds of Portoferraio on the island of Elba and Terra del Sole. He laid heavy tax burdens on his subjects. Despite his economic difficulties, Cosimo was a lavish patron of the arts and developed the Florentine navy, which took part in the Battle of Lepanto, which he entrusted to his new creation, the Knights of St. Stephen. Cosimo is best known today for the creation of the Uffizi. Intended as a means of consolidating his administrative control of the various committees and guilds established in Florence's Republican past, it now houses one of the world's most important collections of art, much of it commissioned and/or owned by various members of the Medici family, his gardens at Villa di Castello, designed by Niccolò Tribolo when Cosimo was only seventeen years old, were designed to announce a new golden age for Florence and to demonstrate the magnificence and virtues of the Medici.
They were decorated with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto and ingenious ornamental water features, were a prototype for the Italian Renaissance garden. They had a profound influence on Italian and French gardens through the eighteenth century. Cosimo finished the Pitti Palace as a home for the Medici and created the ma
Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy and the capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about 80 kilometres southeast of Florence at an elevation of 296 metres above sea level, it is 30 km west of Città di Castello. In 2013 the population was about 99,000. Described by Livy as one of the Capitae Etruriae, Arezzo is believed to have been one of the twelve most important Etruscan cities—the so-called Dodecapolis, part of the Etruscan League. Etruscan remains establish that the acropolis of San Cornelio, a small hill next to that of San Donatus, was occupied and fortified in the Etruscan period. There is other significant Etruscan evidence: parts of walls, an Etruscan necropolis on Poggio del Sole, most famously, the two bronzes, the "Chimera of Arezzo" and the "Minerva" which were discovered in the 16th century and taken to Florence. Increasing trade connections with Greece brought some elite goods to the Etruscan nobles of Arezzo: the krater painted by Euphronios c. 510 BC depicting a battle against Amazons is unsurpassed.
Conquered by the Romans in 311 BC, Arretium became a military station on the via Cassia, the road by which Rome expanded into the basin of the Po. Arretium sided with Marius in the Roman Civil War, the victorious Sulla planted a colony of his veterans in the half-demolished city, as Arretium Fidens; the old Etruscan aristocracy was not extinguished: Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, whose name is eponymous with "patron of the arts", was of the noble Aretine Etruscan stock. The city continued to flourish as Arretium Vetus, the third largest city in Italy in the Augustan period, well known in particular for its exported pottery manufactures, the characteristic moulded and glazed Arretine ware, bucchero-ware of dark clay and red-painted vases. Around 261 AD the town council of Arezzo dedicated an inscription to its patron L. Petronius Taurus Volusianus. See that article for discussion of the possible political/military significance of Volusianus's association with the city. In the 3rd to 4th century Arezzo became an episcopal seat: it is one of the few cities whose succession of bishops are known by name without interruption to the present day, in part because they were the feudal lords of the city in the Middle Ages.
The Roman city was demolished through the Gothic War and the invasion of the Lombards dismantled, as elsewhere throughout Europe, the stones reused for fortifications by the Aretines. Only the amphitheater remained; the commune of Arezzo threw off the control of its bishop in 1098 and was an independent city-state until 1384. Ghibelline in tendency, it opposed Guelph Florence. In 1252 the city founded the Studium. After the rout of the Battle of Campaldino, which saw the death of Bishop Guglielmino Ubertini, the fortunes of Ghibelline Arezzo started to ebb, apart from a brief period under the Tarlati family, chief among them Guido Tarlati, who became bishop in 1312 and maintained good relations with the Ghibelline party; the Tarlati sought support in an alliance with Forlì and its overlords, the Ordelaffi, but failed: Arezzo yielded to Florentine domination in 1384. During this period Piero della Francesca worked in the church of San Francesco di Arezzo producing the splendid frescoes restored, which are Arezzo's most famous works.
Afterwards the city began an economical and cultural decay, which ensured that its medieval centre was preserved. In the 18th century the neighbouring marshes of the Val di Chiana, south of Arezzo, were drained and the region became less malarial. At the end of the-century French troops led by Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Arezzo, but the city soon turned into a resistance base against the invaders with the "Viva Maria" movement, winning the city the role of provincial capital. In 1860 Arezzo became part of the Kingdom of Italy. City buildings suffered heavy damage during World War II; the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Arezzo War Cemetery, where 1,266 men are buried, is located to the North West of the city. Pope Benedict XVI visited Arezzo and two other Italian municipalities on May 13, 2012. Arezzo is set on a steep hill rising from the floodplain of the River Arno. In the upper part of the town are the cathedral, the town hall and the Medici Fortress, from which the main streets branch off towards the lower part as far as the gates.
The upper part of the town maintains its medieval appearance despite the addition of structures. Arezzo's city proper is near the high risk areas for earthquakes, but located in a transitional area where the risk for severe earthquakes is much lower than in nearby Umbria and Abruzzo, albeit it is more vulnerable than Florence. Notable earthquakes are still a rare phenomenon in the province, with a 4.6 quake 25 kilometres to its north-east that claimed no lives on 26 November 2001 the exception. Under the Köppen climate classification Arezzo is either a humid subtropical climate or an oceanic climate, having traditionally leaned towards the latter, it has uncharacteristically hot summer days for a maritime climate, with the lows moderating the average temps and bringing it to sit right on the border with subtropical. The Piazza Grande is
Fidenza is a town and comune in the province of Parma, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. It has around 27,000 inhabitants; the town was renamed Fidenza in 1927. The town originates from a Roman camp founded on the place where the Ananes Gauls had their settlement of Vicumvia. In 41 BC, it became a municipium. In the 5th century, it was destroyed by Constantine I. From 1092 to 1100, Borgo San Donnino was the seat of King Conrad II of Italy. In the same year, it became a commune, confirmed in 1162 by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who entrusted it to the Pallavicino family of Piacenza. In 1199, it was freed in 1221 by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. In 1268 the city was however destroyed by the troops of Parma, it was rebuilt around 1300. In 1449, it was conquered by the new Milanese lords, the Sforza, who held it until 1499. After the date, it continued to change move to an autonomous state to the subjection to Parma until 1556, when it became part of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza. After a period under France during the Napoleonic Wars, it was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1859, during the unification of Italy.
The city underwent a large program of expansion during the Fascist government of Italy. It changed its name from Borgo Donnino to Fidenza in 1927. In May 1944, the city was nearly destroyed. In the Spring 1945, the German occupation troops perpetrated several massacres, such as that of the Carzole and of Via Baracca, it was conquered by the Allies on 26 April 1945. The Fidenza Cathedral is the most prominent building, built in the 12th century and dedicated to Domninus of Fidenza, martyred by order of Maximian in 304 AD; the town's previous name, Borgo San Donnino, was given in honor of the saint. The cathedral is an example of Lombard-Romanesque churches of the 11th to 13th centuries in northern Italy; the upper part of the façade is incomplete, but the lower, with its three portals and sculptures, is a fine example of Romanesque architecture, including two statues by Benedetto Antelami and bas-reliefs depicting the Histories of St. Domninus; the interior is simple and well-proportioned, has not been spoilt by restoration.
The statue at the front of the cathedral of the apostle Simon Peter is famous for its pointing in the direction of Rome, held in the left hand is an inscription reading "I show you the way to Rome", making it one of the world's first road signs. Enrichetta d'Este, Duchess of Parma is buried here; the Palazzo Comunale is medieval, being first mentioned in 1191. The current structure dates from the 14th century but has a new façade, added in the 19th century. After being destroyed by Spanish and French troops during the Italian Wars, it was rebuilt and enlarged. Remains of the medieval town are visible near the cathedral, include the only surviving gate, the Porta San Donnino, it was built by the Visconti family in 1364. Canterbury, United Kingdom Herrenberg, Germany Kremnica, Slovakia Sisteron, France Diario di Fidenza
San Callisto is a Roman Catholic titular church in Rome, built over the site of Saint Pope Callistus I and the location of his martyrdom. The original building dates form the time of Pope Gregory III who ordered the building of a church on the site; the church has been rebuilt twice since, first in the twelfth century and again the current church in 1610. In 1458 Pope Callixtus III granted it a titular church as a seat for Cardinals. Established in 1517, the Titulus San Calixti is held by Willem Jacobus Cardinal Eijk; the seventeenth century facade carried the coat of arms of Pope Paul V. The church has a single aisle with a chapel either side; the chapel on the right are two angels sculptured by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The chapel on the left contains the pit where Pope Callistus I venerated as a saint, was martyred; the main altar has the fresco Glory of St. Callisto done by Antonio Achilli. Mariano Armellini, Le chiese di Roma dal secolo IV al XIX, Tipografia Vaticana, 1891. Penelope.uchicago.edu.
Christian Hülsen, Le chiese di Roma nel Medio Evo, Olschki, 1927. Penelope.uchicago.edu. Giuseppe Momo, Relazione sui lavori di restauro della chiesa di San Calisto in Roma, Società Arti Grafiche, 1938. Claudio Rendina, Le Chiese di Roma, Newton Compton, 2000, p. 57. Giorgio Carpaneto, Rione XIII Trastevere, in AA. VV, I rioni di Roma, Newton Compton, 2000, vol. III, pp. 831–923
Joachim du Bellay
Joachim du Bellay was a French poet, a member of the Pléiade. Joachim du Bellay was born at the Castle of La Turmelière, not far from Liré, near Angers, being the son of Jean du Bellay, Lord of Gonnor, first cousin of the cardinal Jean du Bellay and of Guillaume du Bellay, his mother was Renée Chabot, daughter of Perceval Chabot and heiress of La Turmelière. Both his parents died while he was still a child, he was left to the guardianship of his elder brother, René du Bellay, who neglected his education, leaving him to run wild at La Turmelière; when he was twenty-three, however, he received permission to study law at the University of Poitiers, no doubt with a view to his obtaining preferment through his kinsman the Cardinal Jean du Bellay. At Poitiers he came in contact with the humanist Marc Antoine Muret, with Jean Salmon Macrin, a Latin poet famous in his day. There too he met Jacques Peletier du Mans, who had published a translation of the Ars Poetica of Horace, with a preface in which much of the program advocated by La Pléiade is to be found in outline.
It was in 1547 that du Bellay met Ronsard in an inn on the way to Poitiers, an event which may justly be regarded as the starting-point of the French school of Renaissance poetry. The two had much in common, became fast friends. Du Bellay returned with Ronsard to Paris to join the circle of students of the humanities attached to Jean Dorat at the Collège de Coqueret. While Ronsard and Jean-Antoine de Baïf were most influenced by Greek models, du Bellay was more a Latinist, his preference for a language so nearly connected with his own had some part in determining the more national and familiar note of his poetry. In 1548 appeared the Art poétique of Thomas Sébillet, who enunciated many of the ideas that Ronsard and his followers had at heart, though with essential differences in the point of view, since he held up as models Clément Marot and his disciples. Ronsard and his friends dissented violently from Sébillet on this and other points, they doubtless felt a natural resentment at finding their ideas forestalled and, inadequately presented.
The famous manifesto of the Pléiade, the Défense et illustration de la langue française, was at once a complement and a refutation of Sébillet's treatise. This book was the expression of the literary principles of the Pléiade as a whole, but although Ronsard was the chosen leader, its redaction was entrusted to du Bellay; this work bolstered French political debate as a means of learned men to reform their country. To obtain a clear view of the reforms aimed at by the Pléiade, the Defence should be further considered in connection with Ronsard's Abrégé d'art poétique and his preface to the Franciade. Du Bellay maintained that the French language as it was constituted was too poor to serve as a medium for the higher forms of poetry, but he contended that by proper cultivation it might be brought on a level with the classical tongues, he condemned those who despaired of their mother tongue, used Latin for their more serious and ambitious work. For translations from the ancients he would substitute imitations, though he does not in the Defense explain how one is to go about this.
Not only were the forms of classical poetry to be imitated, but a separate poetic language and style, distinct from those employed in prose, were to be used. The French language was to be enriched by a development of its internal resources and by discreet borrowing from Italian and Greek. Both du Bellay and Ronsard laid stress on the necessity of prudence in these borrowings, both repudiated the charge of wishing to Latinize their mother tongue; the book was a spirited defence of poetry and of the possibilities of the French language. The violent attacks made by du Bellay on Marot and his followers, on Sébillet, did not go unanswered. Sébillet replied in the preface to his translation of the Iphigenia of Euripides. Aneau pointed out the obvious inconsistency of inculcating imitation of the ancients and depreciating native poets in a work professing to be a defence of the French language. Du Bellay replied to his various assailants in a preface to the second edition of his sonnet sequence Olive, with which he published two polemical poems, the Musagnaeomachie, an ode addressed to Ronsard, Contre les envieux fioles.
Olive, a collection of sonnets modeled after the poetry of Petrarch and contemporary Italians published by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari, first appeared in 1549. With it were printed thirteen odes entitled Vers lyriques. Olive has been supposed to be an anagram for the name of a Mlle Viole, but there is little evidence of real passion in the poems, they may be regarded as a Petrarchan exercise as, in the second edition, the dedication to his lady is exchanged for one to Marguerite de Valois, daughter of Henry II. Du Bellay did not introduce the sonnet into French poetry, but he acclimatized it.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC