Intellectual Property Office (United Kingdom)
The Intellectual Property Office of the United Kingdom is, since 2 April 2007, the operating name of The Patent Office. It is the official government body responsible for intellectual property rights in the UK and is an executive agency of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; some work on copyright policy is shared with the Department of Culture and Sport and plant breeders' rights are administered by the Plant Variety Rights Office, an agency of the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs. The IPO has direct administrative responsibility for examining and issuing or rejecting patents, maintaining registers of intellectual property including patents and trade marks in the UK; as in most countries, there is no statutory register of copyright and the IPO does not conduct any direct administration in copyright matters. The IPO is led by the Comptroller General of Patents and Trade Marks, Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar of Designs and Chief Executive of the IPO. Since 1 May 2017 the Comptroller has been Tim Moss, following the resignation of John Alty, Comptroller General since 2010.
The Comptroller General before Alty was Ian Fletcher, who had taken over after the retirement of Ron Marchant on 30 March 2007. The previous Comptroller General was Alison Brimelow; the existence of the Patent Office and the post of Comptroller General are required by the Patents and Designs Act 1907, but the substantive duties of the IPO are set out in other legislation, including: The Registered Designs Act 1949 The Patents Act 1977 The Copyright and Patents Act 1988 The Trade Marks Act 1994Each of these Acts of Parliament has been extensively amended since it was first passed. The Patent Office was established by the Patents Law Amendment Act 1852 and opened on 1 October that year. Patents had been awarded prior to this date – indeed Britain has a continuous history of patent regulation dating back at least as far as the fifteenth century; this Act consolidated patent scrutiny and awards into a single office serving the whole of the United Kingdom. People applying for a patent used to submit a detailed model of their submission.
Despite having been established for the administration of patent law, in time the Patent Office took on other responsibilities, including registered designs in 1875 and registered trade marks in 1876. More having acquired responsibility for copyright regulation, the Patent Office has become known as the Intellectual Property Office. On 1 October 2008, the position of the Company Names Adjudicator was introduced under the Companies Act 2006; the Company Names Adjudicator's powers are enforced through the Company Names Tribunal which forms part of the Intellectual Property Office. From its early days, the Patent Office was based in the Chancery Lane area of London, where it spread to fill the area between Furnival Street and Southampton Buildings; the principal entrance was at 25 Southampton Buildings, where a purpose-built headquarters was constructed in 1899–1902. The principal interior space was the Library, a "harsh but spectacular space 140ft long, lit from skylights and a clerestory, with two tiers of steel-framed, fireproofed galleries on cast iron Corinthian columns".
Designed to allow members of the public to consult patent records, it contained a extensive collection of technical and scientific publications, which in 1967 was transferred to the British Library. In 1991, having outgrown its original premises, the Patent Office moved to Newport, South East Wales, where the IPO headquarters remains to this day. A small branch office in London has been maintained for the benefit of the large professional community based there and for communication with central government. Copyright law of the United Kingdom Departments of the United Kingdom Government Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys Intellectual Property Regulation Board IP Federation Patents County Court Patent office Software patents under United Kingdom patent law Company Names Tribunal Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit – Funded by the Intellectual Property Office Official website UK Patents Act 1977 and Rules
Automotive industry in the United Kingdom
The automotive industry in the United Kingdom is now best known for premium and sports car marques including Aston Martin, Caterham Cars, Jaguar, Land Rover, Lister Cars, Lotus, McLaren, MG, Mini and Rolls-Royce. Volume car manufacturers with a major presence in the UK include Honda, Nissan and Vauxhall Motors. Commercial vehicle manufacturers active in the UK include Alexander Dennis, Ford, IBC Vehicles, Leyland Trucks and London EV Company. In 2008 the UK automotive manufacturing sector had a turnover of £52.5 billion, generated £26.6 billion of exports and produced around 1.45 million passenger vehicles and 203,000 commercial vehicles. In that year around 180,000 people were directly employed in automotive manufacturing in the UK, with a further 640,000 people employed in automotive supply and servicing; this declined to 147,000 including supply industry in 2014 The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing and in 2008 around 3.16 million engines were produced in the country. The UK has a significant presence in auto racing and the UK motorsport industry employs around 38,500 people, comprises around 4,500 companies and has an annual turnover of around £6 billion.
The origins of the UK automotive industry date back to the final years of the 19th century. By the 1950s the UK was the second-largest manufacturer of cars in the world and the largest exporter. However, in subsequent decades the industry experienced lower growth than competitor nations such as France and Japan and by 2008 the UK was the 12th-largest producer of cars measured by volume. Since the early 1990s many British car marques have been acquired by foreign companies including BMW, SAIC, Tata and Volkswagen Group. Rights to many dormant marques, including Austin, Riley and Triumph, are owned by foreign companies. Famous and iconic British cars include the Aston Martin DB5, Aston Martin V8 Vantage, Bentley 4½ Litre, Jaguar E-Type, Land Rover Defender, Lotus Esprit, McLaren F1, MGB, original two-door Mini, Range Rover, Rolls-Royce Phantom III and Rover P5. Notable British car designers include David Bache, Laurence Pomeroy, John Polwhele Blatchley, Ian Callum, Colin Chapman, Alec Issigonis, Charles Spencer King and Gordon Murray.
Motorcars came into use on British roads during the early 1890s, but relied on imported vehicles. The inception of the British motor industry can be traced back to the late 1880s, when Frederick Simms, a London-based consulting engineer, became friends with Gottlieb Daimler, who had, in 1885, patented a successful design for a high-speed petrol engine. Simms acquired the British rights to Daimler's engine and associated patents and from 1891 sold launches using these Cannstatt-made motors from Eel Pie Island in the Thames. In 1893 he formed The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited for his various Daimler-related enterprises. In June 1895 Simms and his friend Evelyn Ellis promoted motorcars in the United Kingdom by bringing a Daimler-engined Panhard & Levassor to England and in July it completed, without police intervention, the first British long-distance motorcar journey from Southampton to Malvern. Simms' documented plans to manufacture Daimler motors and Daimler Motor Carriages were taken over, together with his company and its Daimler licences, by London company-promoter H J Lawson.
Lawson contracted to buy The Daimler Motor Syndicate Limited and all its rights and on 14 January 1896 formed and in February floated in London The Daimler Motor Company Limited. It purchased from a friend of Lawson a disused cotton mill in Coventry for car engine and chassis manufacture where, it is claimed, the UK's first serial production car was made; the claim for the first all-British motor car is contested, but George Lanchester's first cars of 1895 and 1896 did include French and German components. In 1891 Richard Stephens, a mining engineer from South Wales, returned from a commission in Michigan to establish a bicycle works in Clevedon, Somerset. Whilst in America he had seen the developments in motive power and by 1897 he had produced his first car; this was of his own design and manufacture, including the two-cylinder engine, apart from the wheels which he bought from Starley in Coventry. This was the first all-British car and Stephens set up a production line, manufacturing in all, twelve vehicles, including four- and six-seater cars and hackneys, nine-seater buses.
Early motor vehicle development in the UK had been stopped by a series of Locomotive Acts introduced during the 19th century which restricted the use of mechanically propelled vehicles on the public highways. Following intense advocacy by motor vehicle enthusiasts, including Harry J. Lawson of Daimler, the worst restrictions of these acts, was lifted by the Locomotives on Highways Act 1896. Under this regulation, light locomotives were exempt from the previous restrictions, a higher speed limit – 14 mph was set for them. To celebrate the new freedoms Lawson organised the Emancipation Run held on 14 November 1896, the day the new Act came into force; this occasion has been commemorated since 1927 by the annual London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. The early British vehicles of the late 19th century relied upon developments from Germany and France. By 1900 however, the first all-British 4-wheel car had been designed and built by Herb
Natural Environment Research Council
The Natural Environment Research Council is a British Research Council that supports research and knowledge transfer activities in the environmental sciences. NERC began in 1965 when several environmental research organisations were brought under the one umbrella organisation; when most research councils were re-organised in 1994, it had new responsibilities – Earth observation and science-developed archaeology. Collaboration between research councils increased in 2002. Sir Graham Sutton Professor John Krebs, Baron Krebs 1994-1999 Sir John Lawton 1999–2005 Professor Alan Thorpe 2005–2011 Dr Steven Wilson – 2011–2012 Professor Duncan Wingham – from 1 January 2012 The council's head office is at Polaris House in Swindon, alongside the other six Research Councils. NERC's research centres provide leadership to the UK environmental science community and play significant and influential roles in international science collaborations, it supports a number of collaborative centres of excellence and subject-based designated Environmental Data Centres for the storage and distribution of environmental data.
The Natural Environment Research Council delivers independent research, survey and knowledge transfer in the environmental sciences, to advance knowledge of planet Earth as a complex, interacting system. The council's work covers the full range of atmospheric, biological and aquatic sciences, from the deep oceans to the upper atmosphere, from the geographical poles to the equator. NERC's mission is to gather and apply knowledge, create understanding and predict the behaviour of the natural environment and its resources, communicate all aspects of the council's work; the British Meteorological Office is not part of NERC. The NERC Airborne Research Facility collects and processes remotely sensed data for use by the scientific community. Data are collected from one of four Twin Otter research aircraft operated by British Antarctic Survey, processed by a data analysis team at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory and archived at the National Earth Observation Data Centre; the NERC ARF provides radiometrically corrected hyperspectral data from the AISA Fenix and Owl instruments.
Conservation biology Conservation ethic Conservation movement David Carson Ecology Ecology movement Environmentalism Environmental movement Environmental protection Habitat conservation List of environmental organisations Natural environment Natural capital Natural resource Renewable resource Royal Research Ship Sustainable development Sustainability Official website British Antarctic Survey British Geological Survey Centre for Ecology and Hydrology National Centre for Atmospheric Science National Centre for Earth Observation NERC Centre for Population Biology National Oceanography Centre Research Councils UK ARF homepage ARSF-DAN Wiki
Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)
The Medical Research Council is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom. It is part of United Kingdom Research and Innovation, which came into operation 1 April 2018, brings together the UK’s seven research councils, Innovate UK and Research England. UK Research and Innovation is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the MRC focuses on high-impact research and has provided the financial support and scientific expertise behind a number of medical breakthroughs, including the development of penicillin and the discovery of the structure of DNA. Research funded by the MRC has produced 32 Nobel Prize winners to date; the MRC was founded as the Medical Research Committee and Advisory Council in 1913, with its prime role being the distribution of medical research funds under the terms of the National Insurance Act 1911. This was a consequence of the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Tuberculosis, which recommended the creation of a permanent medical research body.
The mandate was not limited to tuberculosis, however. In 1920, it became the Medical Research Council under Royal Charter. A supplementary Charter was formally approved by the Queen on 17 July 2003. In March 1933, MRC established the first scientific published medical patrol named British Journal of Clinical Research and Educational Advanced Medicine, as a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science by reporting new research, it contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, scientific validity, allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field and direct their own research. In August 2012, the creation of the MRC-NIHR Phenome Centre, a research centre for personalised medicine, was announced; the MRC-NIHR National Phenome Centre is based at Imperial College London and is a combination of inherited equipment from the anti-doping facilities used to test samples during the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. and additional items from the Centre's technology partners Bruker and Waters Corporation.
The Centre, led by Imperial College London and King's College London, is funded with two five-year grants of £5 million from the Medical Research Council and the National Institute for Health Research and was opened in June 2013. Important work carried out under MRC auspices has included: the identification of the dietary cause of rickets by Sir Edward Mellanby. Mellanby carried out human experimentation regarding vitamin A and C deficiencies on volunteers at the Sorby Research Institute. Three would receive the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their discovery; this would lead to the 2003 Nobel Prize. Scientists associated with the MRC have received a total of 32 Nobel Prizes, all in either Physiology or Medicine or Chemistry The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and since 6 June 2009 has been answerable to, although politically independent from, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. In the past, the MRC has been answerable to the Office of Science and Innovation, part of the Department of Trade and Industry.
The MRC is governed by a council. Its Council, which directs and oversees corporate policy and science strategy, ensures that the MRC is managed, makes policy and spending decisions. Council members are drawn from industry, academia and the NHS. Members are appointed by the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. Daily management is in the hands of the Executive Chair. Members of the council chair specialist boards on specific areas of research. For specific subj
Universities in the United Kingdom
Universities in the United Kingdom have been instituted by Royal Charter, Papal Bull, Act of Parliament, or an instrument of government under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 or the Higher Education and Research Act 2017. Degree awarding powers and university title are protected by law, although the precise arrangements for gaining these vary between the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. Institutions that hold degree awarding powers are termed recognised bodies, this list includes all universities, university colleges and colleges of the University of London, some higher education colleges, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Degree courses may be provided at listed bodies, leading to degrees validated by a recognised body. Undergraduate applications to all UK universities are managed by the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service. While legally,'university' refers to an institution, granted the right to use the title, in common usage it now includes colleges of the University of London, including in official documents such as the Dearing Report.
The representative bodies for higher education providers in the United Kingdom are Universities UK and GuildHE. Universities in Britain date back to the dawn of mediaeval studium generale, with Oxford and Cambridge taking their place among the world's oldest universities. No other universities were founded in England during this period. Medical schools in London, though not universities in their own right, were among the first to provide medical teachings in England. In Scotland, St Andrew's, Glasgow and King's College, Aberdeen were founded by Papal Bull. Post-Reformation, these were joined by Edinburgh, Marischal College and the short-lived Fraserburgh University. In England, Henry VIII's plan to found a university in Durham came to nothing and a attempt to found a university at Durham during the Commonwealth was opposed by Oxford and Cambridge. Gresham College was, established in London in the late 16th century, despite concerns expressed by Cambridge. In Ireland, Trinity College Dublin was founded as "the mother of a University" by a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth.
The 18th century saw the establishment of medical schools at Edinburgh and Glasgow universities and at hospitals in London. A number of dissenting academies were established, but the next attempt to found a university did not come until the Andersonian Institute was established in Glasgow in 1798. The French Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic wars led to over 40% of universities in Europe closing. From 153 universities in 1789, numbers fell to only 83 in 1815; the next quarter century saw a rebound, with 15 new universities founded, bringing numbers back to 98 by 1840. In England, the late 18th and early 19th centuries saw the arrival of Catholic seminaries driven from the continent by the French Revolution and the establishment of the St Bees Theological College to train Anglican priests in 1816; the first Anglican college to move beyond specialist training to provide a more general university education in Arts was in Wales: St David's College, Lampeter was founded in 1822, opened in 1827, gained a royal charter in 1828.
By the higher education revolution was well under way. Between 1824 and 1834 ten medical schools were established in provincial cities; this would, have required government support. The opinion of Robert Peel – cabinet minister and MP for Oxford University – was sought, he advised against proceeding; this period saw the establishment of Mechanics Institutes in a number of cities. The first of these, established in Edinburgh in 1821, would become Heriot-Watt University, while the London Mechanics Institute, established in 1823, developed into Birkbeck, University of London. Many others would become polytechnics and in 1992, universities; the Polytechnic Institution opened at 309 Regent Street, London, in August 1838, to provide "practical knowledge of the various arts and branches of science connected with manufacturers, mining operations and rural economy". Soon after news of the York scheme broke, Thomas Campbell wrote to The Times proposing a university be founded in London; this would become UCL, founded in 1826 as a joint stock company under the name of London University.
Due to its lack of theology teaching, its willingness to grant degrees to non-Anglicans, its unauthorised assumption of the title of "university", this inspired calls in 1827 for the foundation of a'true and genuine "London University"' by royal charter, to be known as "The College of King George IV in London". This became King's College London, granted a royal charter in 1829 – but as a college rather than a university. UCL was revolutionary not just in admitting non-Anglicans. Neither of the Colleges was residential – a break from the two ancient English un
Renewable energy in the United Kingdom
Renewable energy in the United Kingdom can be divided into the generation of renewable electricity, the generation of renewable heat and renewable energy use in the transport sector. From the mid-1990s renewable energy began to contribute to the electricity generated in the United Kingdom, adding to a small hydroelectricity generating capacity; this has been surpassed by wind power schemes. Interest in renewable energy in the UK has increased in recent years due to new UK and EU targets for reductions in carbon emissions and the promotion of renewable electricity power generation through commercial incentives such as the Renewable Obligation Certificate scheme and Feed in tariffs and the promotion of renewable heat through the Renewable Heat Incentive. Under the 2009 EU Renewable Directive the UK's has a 15% target for reduction in total energy consumption by 2020. In 2017 renewable production generated: 27.9% of total electricity 7.7% of total heat energy 4.6% of total transport energy Renewable heat energy, in the form of biofuels, dates back to 415,000 BP in the UK.
Uranium series dating and thermoluminescence dating give evidence to the use of wood fires at the site of Beeches Pit, Suffolk. Waterwheel technology was imported to the country by the Romans, with sites in Ikenham and Willowford in England being from the 2nd century AD. At the time of the compilation of the Domesday Book, there were 5,624 watermills in England alone, only 2% of which have not been located by modern archaeological surveys. Research estimates a less conservative number of 6,082, it has been pointed out that this should be considered a minimum as the northern reaches of England were never properly recorded. In 1300, this number had risen to between 10,000 and 15,000. Windmills first appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages; the earliest certain reference to a windmill in Europe dates from 1185, in the former village of Weedley in Yorkshire, located at the southern tip of the Wold overlooking the Humber Estuary. The first electricity-generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland.
In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power a single Arc lamp in his art gallery; however all electricity generation thereafter was based on burning coal. In 1964 coal accounted for 88% of electricity generation, oil was 11%; the remainder was supplied by hydroelectric power, which continued to grow its share of electricity generation as coal struggled to meet demand. The world's third pumped-storage hydroelectric power station, the Cruachan Dam in Argyll and Bute, became operational in 1967; the Central Electricity Generating Board attempted to experiment with wind energy on the Llŷn Peninsula in Wales during the 1950s, but this was shelved after local opposition. Renewable energy experienced a turning point in the 1970s with the 1973 oil crisis, miners' strike, growing environmentalism and wind energy development in the United States exerting pressure on the government. In 1974, the Central Policy Review Staff made the recommendation that ‘the first stage of a full technical and economic appraisal of harnessing wave power for electricity generation should be put in hand at once.’ Wave power was seen to be the future of the nation's energy policy, solar and tidal schemes were dismissed as'impractical'.
An alternative energy research centre was opened in Harwell, although it was criticised for favouring nuclear power. By 1978, four wave energy generator prototypes had been designed which were deemed too expensive; the Wave Energy Programme closed in the same year. During this period, there was a large increase in installations of solar thermal collectors to provide hot water. In 1986, Southampton began pumping heat from the geothermal borehole through a district heating network. Over the years, several combined heat and power engines and backup boilers for heating have been added, along with absorption chillers and backupvapour compression machines for cooling. In 1987 a 3.7MW demonstration wind turbine on Orkney began supplying electricity to homes, the largest in Britain at the time. Privatisation of the energy sector in 1989 caused direct governmental research funding to cease. Two years the UK's first onshore windfarm was opened in Delabole, Cornwall; the farm produces enough energy for 2,700 homes.
This was followed by the UK's first offshore windfarm in Wales. The share of renewables in the country's electricity generation has risen from below 2% in 1990 to 14.9% in 2013, helped by subsidy and falling costs. Introduced on 1 April 2002, the Renewables Obligation requires all electricity suppliers who supply electricity to end consumers to supply a set portion of their electricity from eligible renewables sources; the UK Government announced in the 2006 Energy Review an additional target of 20% by 2020-21. For each eligible megawatt hour of renewable energy generated, a tradable certificate called a Renewables obligation certificate is issued by OFGEM. In 2007, the United Kingdom Government agreed to an overall European Union target of generating 20% of the European Union's energy supply from renewable sources by 2020; each European Union member state was given its own allocated target. This was formalised in January 2009 with the passage of the EU Renewables Directive; as renewabl
James Gordon Brown is a British politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010. He served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1997 to 2007. Brown was a Member of Parliament from 1983 to 2015, first for Dunfermline East and for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath. A doctoral graduate of the University of Edinburgh, Brown spent his early career working as both a lecturer at a further education college and a television journalist, he entered Parliament in 1983 as the MP for Dunfermline East. He joined the Shadow Cabinet in 1989 as Shadow Secretary of State for Trade, was promoted to become Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1992. After Labour's victory in 1997, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, becoming the longest-serving holder of that office in modern history. Brown's time as Chancellor was marked by major reform of Britain's monetary and fiscal policy architecture, transferring interest rate setting powers to the Bank of England, by a wide extension of the powers of the Treasury to cover much domestic policy and by transferring responsibility for banking supervision to the Financial Services Authority.
Controversial moves included the abolition of advance corporation tax relief in his first budget, the removal in his final budget of the 10% "starting rate" of personal income tax which he had introduced in 1999. In 2007, Tony Blair resigned as Prime Minister and Labour Leader and Brown was chosen to replace him in an uncontested election. After initial rises in opinion polls following Brown becoming Prime Minister, Labour's popularity declined with the onset of a recession in 2008, leading to poor results in the local and European elections in 2009. A year Labour lost 91 seats in the House of Commons at the 2010 general election, the party's biggest loss of seats in a single general election since 1931, making the Conservatives the largest party in a hung parliament. Brown remained in office as Labour negotiated to form a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats. On 10 May 2010, Brown announced he would stand down as leader of the Labour Party, instructed the party to put into motion the processes to elect a new leader.
Labour's attempts to retain power failed and on 11 May, he resigned as Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party. He was succeeded as Prime Minister by David Cameron, as Leader of the Labour Party by Ed Miliband. Brown played a prominent role in the campaign surrounding the Scottish independence referendum of 2014, galvanising support behind maintaining the union. Brown was born at the Orchard Maternity Nursing Home in Giffnock, Scotland, his father was John Ebenezer Brown, a minister of the Church of Scotland and a strong influence on Brown. His mother was Jessie Elizabeth "Bunty" Brown, she was the daughter of a timber merchant. The family moved to Kirkcaldy – the largest town in Fife, across the Firth of Forth from Edinburgh – when Gordon was three. Brown was brought up there with younger brother Andrew Brown in a manse. Brown was educated first at Kirkcaldy West Primary School where he was selected for an experimental fast stream education programme, which took him two years early to Kirkcaldy High School for an academic hothouse education taught in separate classes.
At age sixteen he wrote that he resented this "ludicrous" experiment on young lives. He was accepted by the University of Edinburgh to study history at the same early age of sixteen. During an end-of-term rugby union match at his old school, he received a kick to the head and suffered a retinal detachment; this left him blind in his left eye, despite treatment including several operations and weeks spent lying in a darkened room. At Edinburgh, while playing tennis, he noticed the same symptoms in his right eye. Brown underwent experimental surgery at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his right eye was saved by a young eye surgeon, Hector Chawla. Brown graduated from Edinburgh with a First-Class Honours MA degree in history in 1972, stayed on to obtain his PhD in history, titled The Labour Party and Political Change in Scotland 1918–29. In his youth at the University of Edinburgh, Brown was involved in a romantic relationship with Margarita, Crown Princess of Romania. Margarita said about it: "It was a solid and romantic story.
I never stopped loving him but one day it didn't seem right any more, it was politics, politics, I needed nurturing." An unnamed friend of those years is quoted by Paul Routledge in his biography of Brown as recalling: "She was sweet and gentle and cut out to make somebody a good wife. She was bright, though not like him, but they seemed made for each other."In 1972, while still a student, Brown was elected Rector of the University of Edinburgh, the convener of the University Court. He served as Rector until 1975, edited the document The Red Paper on Scotland. From 1976 to 1980 Brown was employed as a lecturer in politics at Glasgow College of Technology, he worked as a tutor for the Open University. In the 1979 general election, Brown stood for the Edinburgh South constituency, losing to the Conservative candidate, Michael Ancram. From 1980, he worked as a journalist at Scottish Television serving as current affairs editor until his election to Parliament in 1983. Brown was elected to Parliament on his second attempt as a Labour MP for Dunfermline East in the 1983 general election.
His first Westminster office mate was a newly elected MP from the Sedgefield constituency, Tony Blair. Brown became an opposition spokesman on Trade and Industry in 1985. In