click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds, which are the subjects of organic chemistry; the distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, surfactants, medications and agriculture. Many inorganic compounds are ionic compounds, consisting of cations and anions joined by ionic bonding. Examples of salts are magnesium chloride MgCl2, which consists of magnesium cations Mg2+ and chloride anions Cl−. In any salt, the proportions of the ions are such that the electric charges cancel out, so that the bulk compound is electrically neutral; the ions are described by their oxidation state and their ease of formation can be inferred from the ionization potential or from the electron affinity of the parent elements.

Important classes of inorganic compounds are the oxides, the carbonates, the sulfates, the halides. Many inorganic compounds are characterized by high melting points. Inorganic salts are poor conductors in the solid state. Other important features include their high melting ease of crystallization. Where some salts are soluble in water, others are not; the simplest inorganic reaction is double displacement when in mixing of two salts the ions are swapped without a change in oxidation state. In redox reactions one reactant, the oxidant, lowers its oxidation state and another reactant, the reductant, has its oxidation state increased; the net result is an exchange of electrons. Electron exchange can occur indirectly as well, e.g. in batteries, a key concept in electrochemistry. When one reactant contains hydrogen atoms, a reaction can take place by exchanging protons in acid-base chemistry. In a more general definition, any chemical species capable of binding to electron pairs is called a Lewis acid.

As a refinement of acid-base interactions, the HSAB theory takes into account polarizability and size of ions. Inorganic compounds are found in nature as minerals. Soil may contain iron sulfide as calcium sulfate as gypsum. Inorganic compounds are found multitasking as biomolecules: as electrolytes, in energy storage or in construction; the first important man-made inorganic compound was ammonium nitrate for soil fertilization through the Haber process. Inorganic compounds are synthesized for use as catalysts such as vanadium oxide and titanium chloride, or as reagents in organic chemistry such as lithium aluminium hydride. Subdivisions of inorganic chemistry are organometallic chemistry, cluster chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry; these fields are active areas of research in inorganic chemistry, aimed toward new catalysts and therapies. Inorganic chemistry is a practical area of science. Traditionally, the scale of a nation's economy could be evaluated by their productivity of sulfuric acid.

The top 20 inorganic chemicals manufactured in Canada, Europe, India and the US:Aluminium sulfate, Ammonium nitrate, Ammonium sulfate, Carbon black, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, oxygen, phosphoric acid, sodium carbonate, sodium chlorate, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, sodium sulfate, sulfuric acid, titanium dioxide. The manufacturing of fertilizers is another practical application of industrial inorganic chemistry. Descriptive inorganic chemistry focuses on the classification of compounds based on their properties; the classification focuses on the position in the periodic table of the heaviest element in the compound by grouping compounds by their structural similarities. Classifications of inorganic chemistry: Classical coordination compounds feature metals bound to "lone pairs" of electrons residing on the main group atoms of ligands such as H2O, NH3, Cl−, CN−. In modern coordination compounds all organic and inorganic compounds can be used as ligands; the "metal" is a metal from the groups 3-13, as well as the trans-lanthanides and trans-actinides, but from a certain perspective, all chemical compounds can be described as coordination complexes.

The stereochemistry of coordination complexes can be quite rich, as hinted at by Werner's separation of two enantiomers of 6+, an early demonstration that chirality is not inherent to organic compounds. A topical theme within this specialization is supramolecular coordination chemistry. Examples: −, 3+, TiCl42; these species feature elements from groups II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, 0 of the periodic table. Due to their similar reactivity, the elements in group 3 and group 12 are generally included, the lanthanides and actinides are sometimes included as well. Main group compounds have been known since the beginnings of chemistry, e.g. elemental sulfur and the distillable white phosphorus. Experiments on oxygen, O2, by Lavoisier and Priestley not only identified an important diatomic gas, but opened the way for describing compounds and reactions according to stoichiometric ratios; the discovery of a practical synthesis of ammonia using iron catalysts by Carl Bosch and Fritz Habe

Scottish National League Division Two

The Scottish National League Division Two is the third tier of the Scottish League Championship for amateur rugby union clubs in Scotland. The division was established in its current format in 2014 after the creation of three national leagues below the Premiership; this replaced the two Championship Leagues. The top two teams are promoted to Scottish National League Division One and the bottom two teams relegated to Scottish National League Division Three. Promoted from 2018–19 Scottish National League Division Three Gordonians RFC Newton Stewart RFC Relegated from 2018–19 Scottish National League Division One Hamilton RFC Kirkcaldy RFC Winners of the third tier competition – includes National League Division Three, Premiership Division Three and National League Division Two

Eeebuntu OS

Aurora was an operating system for netbooks. The latest version is based on Ubuntu, though newer versions were planned to be based on Debian Unstable. Eeebuntu was designed for the Asus Eee PC line of netbooks. Four versions are available for install: Standard, NBR, Base and LXDE. Works out of the box on Asus Eee PC 700, 701, 900, 900A, 901, 904HD, 1000, 1000H, 1000HA, 1000HD and 1000HE. Recent versions work out of the box on the Acer Aspire One A110L. Includes an Asus Eee PC specific kernel, tuned for Eee's hardware. VLC, Flash and Java installed out of the box. Can create a bootable USB stick or SD card using UNetbootin. Integrates the eeepc-tray ACPI utility to control ACPI events and toggle certain devices on the Eee on/off. Eeebuntu was created in Dec 2007 by Steve Wood. At that time Eeebuntu was little more than a collection of scripts applied to a live Ubuntu image; as the project matured the post install scripts were dropped in favour of a modified kernel that contained pre-compiled hardware drivers.

Other developers took interest in the project and by December 2008 Eeebuntu had grown into a Linux distribution in its own right with around 1,500 registered forum users. Eeebuntu 2.0 was the first Eeebuntu version to remove Ubuntu branding and use its own artwork and themes. Eeebuntu has 4 versions: Base - reduced number of pre-installed applications. Standard - A compiz enabled full desktop with a number of pre-installed applications. NBR - Using the Ubuntu Netbook interface with a number of pre-installed applications. LXDE - Utilising the LXDE desktop and a number of pre-installed applications; the latest release of Eeebuntu is based on Ubuntu 9.04. It addresses a number of issues with the integrated Intel graphics cards and provides Eee PC specific optimization. List of Ubuntu-based distributions EasyPeasy Ubuntu Netbook Edition Aurora OS Aurora OS on distrowatch.com

Alex Saviuk

Alex Saviuk is an American comics artist known for his work on the Marvel Comics character Spider-Man. Alex Saviuk grew up on Long Island, New York, graduating from Floral Park Memorial High School in 1970, he attended the School of Visual Arts, where he studied with Will Eisner, graduating in 1974 with a degree in Illustration. Saviuk studied biology at Hofstra University and York College. Saviuk's professional career began in 1977 at DC Comics, where he illustrated such titles as Green Lantern, The Flash, Superman. Saviuk's first work for DC was a one-page story titled "The Victim!" in House of Mystery #255. His first full work for the company, Green Lantern #100, introduced an updated version of the Air Wave character. Saviuk drew The Flash #275 wherein the title character's wife, Iris West Allen was killed. In the early 1980s, Saviuk was the regular backup feature artist on Action Comics, where he drew the exploits of Air Wave and the Atom in collaboration with writer Bob Rozakis. Rozakis stated in a 2014 interview.

It may have been that all three had names that began with'A' and it was a backup in Action Comics". Saviuk drew the "Whatever Happened to...?" Backup feature in DC Comics Presents. He and writer E. Nelson Bridwell introduced the Global Guardians in DC Comics Presents #46. In 1986, Saviuk moved to Marvel Comics, where he established himself as a key Spider-Man artist with a seven-year run on Web of Spider-Man, it was the longest run of a single artist on that series. In 1989, he drew The Amazing Spider-Man: Parallel Lives graphic novel. From 1994–1997, Saviuk worked on the series Spider-Man Adventures. Since 1997, Saviuk has drawn The Amazing Spider-Man Sunday newspaper comic strip, written by Stan Lee and inked by Joe Sinnott. Starting in 2003, he has inked the daily Spider-Man strip, pencilled by Lee's brother Larry Lieber. After Lieber retired from the daily strip in September 2018, Saviuk took over as penciller as well and stayed on until the cancellation of the strip in March 2019, he created variant covers for Symbiote Spider-Man #1–5.

In 1997–1998, he spent a one-year stint at Topps Comics drawing The X-Files until the end of its run. For writer and filmmaker Robert Tinnell, Saviuk did the artwork for the comic strip Feast of the Seven Fishes, first published online and, in 2005, as a collected print edition, nominated for an Eisner Award as "Best Graphic Album - Reprint" in 2006. In 2018, Tinnell adapted it for an eponymous movie. In 2004, Alex Saviuk returned to The Phantom, a character he had drawn in Defenders of the Earth in 1987, this time for European publisher Egmont, he has drawn numerous Fantomen comics since then. In 2018, he inked the first issue of the new anthology series The Phantom Strikes; some of the characters Saviuk has co-created include Arkiss Chummuck and Malet Dasim of the Green Lantern Corps, Olympian, Tombstone and the New Enforcers. In addition to comics, Saviuk does storyboards for advertising agencies and film and animation studios. Among the films he storyboarded. Saviuk lives in Florida with his wife, they have two children.

The Amazing Spider-Man, The Amazing Spider-Man Sunday Page Alex Saviuk at the Comic Book DB "DC Profiles #53: Alex Saviuk" at the Grand Comics Database "DC Profiles #77: Jodi Saviuk" at the Grand Comics Database Alex Saviuk at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Alex Saviuk at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators

Geoffroy IV de la Tour Landry

Geoffrey IV de la Tour Landry was a nobleman of Anjou who fought in the Hundred Years War. In 1371–1372 Geoffrey compiled the Livre pour l'enseignement de ses filles for the instruction of his daughters—La Tour Landry stands between Cholet and Vezins. Geoffroy fought in the Hundred Years War, his name again appears in a military muster in 1363. He married Jeanne de Rougé, younger daughter of Bonabes de Rougé, sieur of Derval, vicomte de La Guerche, chamberlain to the king. In 1378, as a "knight banneret", he sent a contingent of men to join the siege of Cherbourg, but he did not serve in person. In 1380 Geoffroy was fighting in Brittany, was last mentioned in 1383, he made a second marriage with Marguerite des Roches, dame de La Mothe de Pendu, the widow of Jean de Clerembault, knight. Geoffrey compiled the Livre pour l'enseignement de ses filles for the instruction of his daughters, in 1371–1372. A similar book he had written for his sons, according to his opening text, has disappeared; the work became the most popular educational treatise of the Late Middle Ages.

It was translated into German, as Der Ritter vom Turn, at least twice into English, once by William Caxton, who printed it as The Book of the Knight of the Tower in 1483. A Dutch adaptation, titled Dē spiegel der duecht, appeared in 1515 by the Brussels printer Thomas van der Noot; the Livre pour l'enseignement de ses filles served as a tutorial for De la Tour Landry's daughters on proper behaviour when visiting the royal court, the knight warns, is filled with smooth-talking courtiers who could disgrace them and embarrass the family. The author was a widower, concerned for his daughters' welfare, he takes a strong moral stance against the behaviour of his peers and warns his daughters about the dangers of vanity. Landricus Dunesis is the name of the first known member of the De La Tour Landry family. 1061. He built a tower and fortress; the site of the subsequently rebuilt castle still stands in the canton of Maine-et-Loire. De la Tour Landry's grandfather, Geoffroy III de la Tour Landry, had married Olive de Belleville, the daughter of a neighboring grand seigneur.

She is mentioned in the Livre as enjoying the company of minstrels, lauded for her generosity and piety. In the fifteenth century, Pontus de la Tour Landry commissioned the romance of Pontus et la belle Sidonie, glamorizing the family's origins in the train of Pontus, the son of the king of Galicia who fell in love with the fair Sidonia, daughter of the king of Brittany, where part of the ancestral possessions of the lords of La Tour lay. In the novel The Once and Future King, by T. H. White, a reference is made that states "before King Arthur had made his chivalry, the Knight of the Tower Landry had been compelled to warn his daughter against entering her own dining hall in the evening unaccompanied – for fear of what might happen in the dark corners". In the novel Timeline, by Michael Crichton, a reference is made which states As the Professor left, Marek said, "I pray God look with favor upon your journey and deliver you safe back." That was. It had been a favorite phrase of the Count Geoffrey de la Tour, six hundred years before."

Crichton, Timeline, New York: Knopf White, T. H; the Once and Future King, New York: Berkley Publishing Wright, Thomas, "Introduction", Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, London D. B. Wyndham Lewis, G. S. Taylor, Book of the Knight of La Tour Landry. Simon, Anne. "Framing Lives: The Narratives of Behaviour in Der Ritter vom Turn". Daphnis. 28: 35–59. Doi:10.1163/18796583-90001144. Geoffrey de la Tour Landry on "jangling" in church LaTour Landry Chivalric Manuals Genealogical Data Text of The Book of the Knight of the Tower Book of the Knight of La Tour-Landry, London 1906 Ponthus et Sidoine

Sooner or Later (1979 film)

Sooner or Later is a 1979 American made-for-television teen romantic drama film directed by Bruce Hart, starring Denise Miller, Rex Smith, Barbara Feldon and Judd Hirsch which premiered on NBC on March 25, 1979. As a up-and-coming recording artist, Rex Smith became an overnight teen idol following the film's telecast and he achieved pop star status in America with his hit single from the film's soundtrack entitled "You Take My Breath Away", which reached No. 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 and spent two weeks at No. 7 on the Cash Box Top 100. Jessie Walters is a buoyant 13-year-old girl who goes to the Eddie Nova Guitar Institute and is stunned to discover that her guitar instructor is Michael Skye, a 17-year-old aspiring musician she has just seen play with his rock band at the local shopping mall in upstate New York and with whom she is smitten. Through the grace of make-up, Jessie enters the world of a 16-year-old, she tells Michael that's her age when he gives her a ride home from class one week.

They start to flirt. When Michael invites her to a band rehearsal, they kiss for the first time. Denise Miller as Jessie Walters Rex Smith as Michael Skye Barbara Feldon as Lois Walters Judd Hirsch as Bob Walters Lilia Skala as Grandma Esther Morey Amsterdam as Eddie Nova Vivian Blaine as Make-up Artist Lynn Redgrave as The Teacher Rex Smith's self-titled LP, released by Columbia Records, is a soundtrack album featuring the pop/rock songs he performed in the film; the album's first four tracks are the soundtrack songs from the film composed by Stephen Lawrence and Bruce Hart: "You Take My Breath Away" "Sooner or Later" "Simply Jessie" "Better Than It's Ever Been Before" In an interview, Rex Smith recalled his experience of achieving instant fame with Sooner or Later and the hit single "You Take My Breath Away": On March 25, 1979, my life changed overnight. I was one of the stars of a made-for-TV movie called Sooner or Later, along with Barbara Feldon and Denise Miller. In the film, I was a guitar instructor, I fell for one of my young students who lied about her age.

The movie was written and directed by Bruce Hart, who wrote the Sesame Street theme. The day before the movie aired, I could walk the streets without being noticed, but that next day, I was swamped by five hundred girls when I tried to go shopping for clothes. I was this teen idol with a hit record from the film called "You Take My Breath Away", which I recorded for Columbia in one take; when it was played back in the studio, I said. There, crying, I just knew I'd just recorded a big hit record. You can just tell, it was an amazing time in my life. A paperback novelization of the film was written by Bruce and Carole Hart and published by Avon Books as a promotional tie-in. On March 13, 2001, Sooner or Later was released on DVD in Region 1 by Henstooth Video. Sooner or Later on IMDb Sooner or Later at AllMovie Sooner or Later at the TCM Movie Database Sooner or Later at Rotten Tomatoes