Inosine is a nucleoside, formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. Inosine is found in tRNAs and is essential for proper translation of the genetic code in wobble base pairs. Knowledge of inosine metabolism has led to advances in immunotherapy in recent decades. Inosine monophosphate is oxidised by the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, yielding xanthosine monophosphate, a key precursor in purine metabolism. Mycophenolate mofetil is an anti-metabolite, anti-proliferative drug that acts as an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, it is used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases including granulomatosis with polyangiitis because the uptake of purine by dividing B cells can exceed 8 times that of normal body cells, therefore, this set of white cells is selectively targeted by the purine deficiency resulting from inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibition. Adenine is converted to adenosine or inosine monophosphate, either of which, in turn, is converted into inosine, which pairs with adenine and uracil.
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase intraconverts hypoxanthine. Inosine is an intermediate in a chain of purine nucleotides reactions required for muscle movements. In the 1970s, inosine was used by athletes in Eastern countries in an attempt to improve performance. Subsequent studies in humans suggest that inosine supplementation has no effect on athletic performance. Animal studies have suggested, it has been proposed for spinal cord injury and for administration after stroke, because observation suggests that inosine induces axonal rewiring. After ingestion, inosine is metabolized into uric acid, suggested to be a natural antioxidant and peroxynitrite scavenger with potential benefits to patients with multiple sclerosis. Peroxynitrite has been correlated with axon degeneration In 2003, a study was initiated at the University of Pennsylvania MS Center to determine whether raising the levels of uric acid by the administration of inosine would slow the progression of MS; the study was completed in 2006 but the results were not reported to NIH.
A subsequent publication hinted at potential benefits but the sample size was too small for a definitive conclusion. In addition, the side effect of the treatment was the development of kidney stones in four of 16 patients. Thus, additional studies are necessary to prove the treatment's efficacy. With phase II trials for Parkinson's disease completed, inosine will continue to phase III trials. Earlier trials suggested that patients with the highest serum urate levels had slower progression of Parkinson's symptoms; the trial uses inosine to raise urate levels in those with levels lower. Alseres Pharmaceuticals patented the use of inosine to treat stroke and was investigating the drug in the MS setting. In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, it is classified as an antiviral. Inosine is a natural ligand for the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABA A receptor; when designing primers for polymerase chain reaction, inosine is useful in that it can pair with any natural base.
This allows for design of primers that span a single-nucleotide polymorphism, without the polymorphism disrupting the primer's annealing efficiency. However, inosine pairs preferentially with cytidine and its introduction to RNA, e.g. by the action of ADARs, thereby destabilizes double-stranded RNA by changing AU base-pairs to IU mismatches. Despite lack of clinical evidence that it improves muscle development, inosine remains an ingredient in some fitness supplements. Inosine has been found to be an important feed stimulant by itself or in combination with certain amino acids in some species of farmed fish. For example and inosine-5-monophosphate have been reported as specific feeding stimulants for turbot fry, Japanese amberjack; the main problem of using inosine and/or inosine-5-monophosphate as feeding attractants is their high cost. However, their use may be economically justified within larval feeds for marine fish larvae during the early weaning period, since the total quantity of feed consumed is small.
Under the Stars of Capri is a 1953 West German romantic comedy film directed by Otto Linnekogel and starring Hanna Rucker, Helmuth Schneider and Hans Leibelt. Hanna Rucker as Christa Helmuth Schneider as Vincenz Rainalter Hans Leibelt as Kapitän Hagedorn Wera Frydtberg as Nina Karin Andersen as Uschi Eva Pflug as Waltraut Margarete Slezak as Singer Charlotte Agotz as Henriette Gerd Andree Siegfried Breuer as Reeder Bramfeld Hans Friedrich as Hans Holthusen Karl Hackenberg as Peter Bolz Trude Hesterberg Thessy Kuhls as Erste Bewerberin Anni Marle as Lotti Bolz Dr. Prasch as Erster Vorsitzender Lotte Rausch as Frau Erkens Rudi Schuricke as Singer Max Walter Sieg as Redakteur Werner Stock as Czerny Michel ter Wee as Francisco fabri Tilo von Berlepsch as Claus Carl Voscherau as Knorr Sonja Wilken as Lisa Herta Worell as Bell Gerald Grote. Der Kommissar: eine Serie und ihre Folgen. Schwarzkopf und Schwarzkopf, 2003. Under the Stars of Capri on IMDb
Aeromachus pygmaeus, the pygmy scrub-hopper is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. The species range is Nilgiris, Coorg, Assam to Burma and Thailand. Male. Upperside uniform olive-brown, without any markings. Cilia concolorous with the wings paler at the tips. Underside paler. Hindwing covered with minute white scales, traces of a whitish outwardly curved discal band and a indistinct series of sub-marginal spots a little darker than the ground colour. Antennge black, ringed with white, club whitish on the underside, all except its tip. Female similar to the male; the larvae feed on Polytrias indica, Cyrtococcum trigonum, Stenotaphrum secundatum
HMS Vivid was an iron screw yacht purchased from civilian service in 1891, where she had been named SS Capercailzie. She became the Devonport base ship and flagship in 1893 and was used as the yacht for the Commander-in-Chief and was sold in 1912 being wrecked in 1913. SS Capercailzie was built by Barclay, Co. in 1883 on the Clyde. She was owned by George Burns, a shipping company owner, who sold her to the Royal Navy in 1891. On 26 September 1891, SS Capercailzie was purchased by the Royal Navy and renamed SS Vivid for use as tender for the Devonport naval base, Plymouth and as a yacht for the port admiral, she was designated flagship for the Commodore-in-Command of the Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport. Staff Commander W. Way was in command in early 1900. Captain Sir Richard Poore, 4th Baronet was appointed flag captain for command of the RN Barracks on 9 March 1900, succeeded by Captain Harry Seawell Niblett in December 1902. In 1912, she was sold to Glasgow for use as a training ship; the purchase was a major investment for the college, spending an estimated £3000 on the ship and refit.
On 8 July 1913 she ran aground and was wrecked at Colonsay en route from Rhu to Stornoway on her first voyage as a civilian training ship. HMS Vivid on Wreck Site SS Capercailzie on the Clyde-built ships database The loss of the Vivid – The biography of a shipwreck Detailed article describing the history behind the purchase of HMS Vivid as a training ship by the Royal Technical College, her wreck and aftermath
The Manchester and Salford Weavers' Association was a trade union representing weavers in part of Lancashire, in England. In 1902, a group of women weavers founded District Power Loom Weavers' Association. Unlike other local unions of weavers, all of its officials were women, it saw initial success, by the end of the year had 700 members, but this dropped to only 320 the following year. It began growing again, by 1907 it had 1,107 members. All other local weavers' unions were affiliated to the Amalgamated Weavers' Association, in 1907 it decided to establish an affiliated union for the area, the Manchester and Pendleton Weavers' Association, its leader, S. J. Bardsley, claimed that the women's union had done nothing to improve wages or working conditions, but that as soon as trade improved, he would do so, he struggled to attract members, with only 270 by the end of 1908. The Manchester and Salford Trades Council was concerned about conflict between the two unions, in 1909 it was asked to adjudicate on the dispute.
It recommended that the women's union ballot their members on affiliation to the Weavers' Amalgamation. The leaders of the women's union were dubious about the idea, when they took it to a ballot, the members voted unanimously against affiliation; the dispute took its toll on both organisations, by the end of 1910, the women's union was down to 300 members, while the amalgamated union had just 100. The following year, the editor of the Cotton Factory Times offered to arbitrate between the two, but Bardsley stated that he planned to organise the women's union out of existence; the women's union retained full membership in a few mills over the next years, but disappeared during World War I. The amalgamated union survived and, without competition, grew reaching 3,700 members by 1920. Membership began falling, but in 1925 Bardsley was replaced by the far more effective Cecil Heap. Heap doubled membership within four years, but by 1934 he was eager for a new challenge, was replaced by his assistant, Bert Starkie.
The union's membership fell again, in line with employment in the Lancashire cotton industry, by 1950 it had only 1,020 members. The following year, it merged into the Ashton-under-Lyne Weavers', Winders' and Warpers' Association. 1907: S. J. Bardsley 1925: Cecil Heap 1934: Bert Starkie
Gerson Fraga Vieira, or Gerson, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Tanzanian Premier League club Simba S. C. as a centre back. Born in Porto Alegre, Gerson joined the youth academy of Grêmio at the age of eight. On 17 January 2012, he was loaned out to Oeste for the Paulista championship. On 8 January 2013, during the preseason, he was promoted to the senior team. However, he failed to make a significant impact in the first team and soon speculation arose in the media of him joining French second tier club Angers on a loan deal. On 13 December 2013, Gerson was loaned out to Red Bull Brasil, for the 2014 Paulista A2. On 20 April, he scored his first goal for the club in a 3–2 victory against Rio Branco. On 28 July 2014, he joined Uruguyan club Atenas on a loan deal. Gerson joined Red Bull Brasil, again on loan on 10 July 2015. Gerson switched clubs and countries and joined Indian Super League franchise Mumbai City on 28 June 2016, he went on to score for the franchise in a 3–2 semifinal defeat against ATK.
After the season ended, he returned to his native country and joined Atlético Tubarão in January 2017. On 28 July, Mumbai City announced, he captained the team five times during the season, with manager Alexandre Guimarães describing him as a key player during the two seasons. After the season ended, he terminated his contract with the club and moved to Japanese second tier club Renofa Yamaguchi on 20 March 2018. On 30 July 2018, Gerson returned to India and joined ATK. On 10 November he scored his first goal for ATK from a header in the 82 minute of the match as ATK won against FC Pune City by 1–0. On 25 June 2019 he joined Simba Sports Club which plays in Tanzania premier league as well as CAF Champions League Gerson has been capped at the youth international level, he went on to win the Mediterranean International Cup with the under-15 and under-17 team and was awarded the best player of the tournament of the 2009 Sendai Cup held at Japan. He has played for the under-17 team in the 2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup and went on to collect 14 caps for the side.