A job fair referred as a career fair or career expo, is an event in which employers and schools give information to potential employees. Job seekers attend these while trying to make a good impression to potential coworkers by speaking face-to-face with one another, filling out résumés, asking questions in attempt to get a good feel on the work needed. Online job fairs are held, giving job seekers another way to get in contact with probable employers using the internet. In colleges, job fairs are used for entry-level job recruitment. Job seekers use this opportunity to meet with a college and attempt to stand out from other applicants and get an overview of what it is like to work for a company or a sector that seems interesting to the applicant. Career expositions include company or organization tables or booths where resumes can be collected and business cards can be exchanged. Sponsored by career centers, job fairs provide a convenient location for students to meet employers and perform first interviews.
This is an opportunity for companies to meet with students and talk to them about their expectations from them as students and answer their potential questions such as the degree or work experience needed. Online job fairs offer many of the same conveniences of regular career fairs. An online job fair uses a virtual platform which allows employers to discuss with potential new nominees for the job they’re offering; this is a way of interacting with them and practical to get to know who they are. A virtual career fair include many services such as video, live chats, downloadable material and many more to make it the more helpful both for the recruiter and the job seeker. After having applied online to positions, many more people are trying their luck with in-person job fairs
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper and lower classes. "Class" is a subject of analysis for sociologists, political scientists and social historians. However, there is not a consensus on a definition of "class" and the term has a wide range of sometimes conflicting meanings. In common parlance, the term "social class" is synonymous with "socio-economic class", defined as "people having the same social, cultural, political or educational status", e.g. "the working class". However, academics distinguish social class and socioeconomic status, with the former referring to one's stable sociocultural background and the latter referring to one's current social and economic situation and being more changeable over time; the precise measurements of what determines social class in society has varied over time.
Karl Marx thought. His simple understanding of classes in modern capitalist society are the proletariat, those who work but do not own the means of production; this contrasts with the view of the sociologist Max Weber, who argued "class" is determined by economic position, in contrast to "social status" or "Stand", determined by social prestige rather than just relations of production. The term "class" is etymologically derived from the Latin classis, used by census takers to categorize citizens by wealth in order to determine military service obligations. In the late 18th century, the term "class" began to replace classifications such as estates and orders as the primary means of organizing society into hierarchical divisions; this corresponded to a general decrease in significance ascribed to hereditary characteristics and increase in the significance of wealth and income as indicators of position in the social hierarchy. Social class and behavior were sometimes laid down in law. For example, permitted mode of dress in sometimes and places was regulated, with sumptuous dressing only for the high ranks of society and aristocracy, whereas sumptuary laws stipulated the dress and jewelry appropriate for a person's social rank and station.
Definitions of social classes reflect a number of sociological perspectives, informed by anthropology, economics and sociology. The major perspectives have been Marxism and structural functionalism; the common stratum model of class divides society into a simple hierarchy of working class, middle class and upper class. Within academia, two broad schools of definitions emerge: those aligned with 20th-century sociological stratum models of class society and those aligned with the 19th-century historical materialist economic models of the Marxists and anarchists. Another distinction can be drawn between analytical concepts of social class, such as the Marxist and Weberian traditions, as well as the more empirical traditions such as socio-economic status approach, which notes the correlation of income and wealth with social outcomes without implying a particular theory of social structure. For Marx, class is a combination of subjective factors. Objectively, a class shares a common relationship to the means of production.
Subjectively, the members will have some perception of their similarity and common interest. Class consciousness is not an awareness of one's own class interest but is a set of shared views regarding how society should be organized culturally and politically; these class relations are reproduced through time. In Marxist theory, the class structure of the capitalist mode of production is characterized by the conflict between two main classes: the bourgeoisie, the capitalists who own the means of production and the much larger proletariat who must sell their own labour power; this is the fundamental economic structure of work and property, a state of inequality, normalized and reproduced through cultural ideology. Marxists explain the history of "civilized" societies in terms of a war of classes between those who control production and those who produce the goods or services in society. In the Marxist view of capitalism, this is a conflict between wage-workers. For Marxists, class antagonism is rooted in the situation that control over social production entails control over the class which produces goods—in capitalism this is the exploitation of workers by the bourgeoisie.
Furthermore, "in countries where modern civilisation has become developed, a new class of petty bourgeois has been formed". "An industrial army of workmen, under the command of a capitalist, like a real army and sergeants who, while the work is being done, command in the name of the capitalist". Marx makes the argument that, as the bourgeoisie reach a point of wealth accumulation, they hold enough power as the dominant class to shape political institutions and society according to their own interests. Marx goes on to claim that the non-elite class, owing to their large numbers, have the power to overthrow the elite and create an equal society. In The Communist Manifesto, Marx himself argued that it was the goal of the proletariat itself to displace the capitalist system with socialism, changing the so
Application for employment
An application for employment is a standard business document, prepared with questions deemed relevant by an employer in order for the employer to determine the best candidate to be given the responsibility of fulfilling the work needs of the company. Most companies provide such forms to anyone upon request at which point it becomes the responsibility of the applicant to complete the form and returning it to the employer at will for consideration; the completed and returned document notifies the company of the applicants availability and desire to be employed and their qualifications and background so a determination can be made as to which candidate should be hired. From the employer's perspective, the application serves a number of purposes; these vary depending on the nature of the job and the preferences of the person responsible for hiring, as "each organization should have an application form that reflects its own environment". At a minimum, an application requires the applicant to provide information sufficient to demonstrate that he or she is permitted to be employed.
The typical application requires the applicant to provide information regarding relevant skills and experience. The application itself is a minor test of the applicant's literacy and communication skills - a careless job applicant might disqualify themselves with a poorly filled-out application; the application may require the applicant to disclose any criminal record, to provide information sufficient to enable the employer to conduct an appropriate background check. For a business that employs workers on a part-time basis, the application may inquire as to the applicant's specific times and days of availability, preferences in this regard, it is important to note, that an employer may be prohibited from asking applicants about characteristics that are not relevant to the job, such as their political view or sexual orientation. For white collar jobs those requiring communication skills, the employer will require applicants to accompany the form with a cover letter and a résumé; however employers who accept a cover letter and résumé will also require the applicant to complete a form application, as the other documents may neglect to mention details of importance to the employers.
In some instances, an application is used to dissuade "walk-in" applicants, serving as a barrier between the applicant and a job interview with the person with the authority to hire. For many businesses, applications for employment can be filled out online, do not have to be submitted in person. However, it is still recommended that applicants bring a printed copy of their application to an interview. Application blanks are the second most common hiring instrument next to personal interviews. Companies will use two types of application blanks and long, they both help companies with initial screening and the longer form can be used for other purposes as well. The answers that applicants choose to submit are helpful to the company because they can become an interview question for that applicant at a future date; the employment application is not a standardized form so every company may create its own as long as regulations set by the government are adhered. Applications ask the applicant at the minimum for their name, phone number, address.
In addition, applications ask for previous employment information, educational background, emergency contacts, references, as well as any special skills the applicant might have. The three categories application fields are useful for discovering are. If the company has a bona fide occupational qualification to ask regarding a physical condition, they may ask questions about it, for example: The job requires a lot of physical labor. Do you have any physical problems that may interfere with this job? Experience requirements can be separated into two groups on an application, work experience and educational background. Educational background is important to companies because by evaluating applicants' performance in school tells them what their personality is like as well as their intelligence. Work experience is important to companies because it will inform the company if the applicant meets their requirements. Companies are interested when applicants were unemployed and when/why the applicant left their previous job.
Companies are interested in the applicant's social environment because it can inform them of their personality and qualities. If they are active within an organization, that may demonstrate their ability to communicate well with others. Being in management may demonstrate their leadership ability as well as their determination and so on. Customs vary internationally when it comes to the inclusion or non-inclusion of a photograph of the applicant. In the English-speaking countries, notably the United States, this is not customary, books or websites giving recommendations about how to design an application advise against it unless explicitly requested by the employer. In other countries, for instance Germany, the inclusion of a photograph of the applicant is still common, many employers would consider an application incomplete without it. In France, the 2006 Equal Opportunities Act requires companies with more than 50 employees to request an anonymous application; the job application is called Bewerbung in Germany and consists of three parts, such as the Anschreiben, the Lebenslauf and the Zeugnisse.
Anschreiben is the German word for Cover Letter and aims at the same goal: convincing the employer to submit an invitation for a job interview. It i
A skilled worker is any worker who has special skill, training and ability in their work. A skilled worker may have attended a university or technical school. Or, a skilled worker may have learned their skills on the job. Examples of skilled labor include engineers, software development, police officers, physicians, crane operators, truck drivers, drafters, craftsmen and accountants; these workers can be either blue-collar or white-collar workers, with varied levels of training or education. In the northern region of the United States, craft unions may have served as the catalyst to develop a strong solidarity in favor of skilled labor in the period of the Gilded Age. In the early 1880s, the craft unions of skilled workers walked hand in hand with the Knights of Labor but the harmony did not last long and by 1885, the Knights' leadership became hostile to trade unions; the Knights argued that the specialization of industrialization had undermined the bargaining power of skilled labor. This was true in the 1880s but it had not yet made obsolete the existence of craft unionism....
The impact of scientific management upon skilled workers should not be overstressed in the period before World War I. The period between 1901 and 1925 signals the rise and fall of the Socialist Party of America which depended on skilled workers. In 1906, with the publication of The Jungle, the most popular voice of socialism in the early 20th century, Upton Sinclair gave them ignorant "... Negroes and the lowest foreigners —Greeks, Roumanians and Slovaks" hell. There was a divergence in status within the working class between skilled and unskilled labor due to the fall in prices of some products and the skilled workers' rising standard of living after the depression of 1929. Skilled workers were the heart of the labor movement before World War I but during the 1920s, they lost much of their enthusiasm and the movement suffered thereby. In the 20th century, in Nazi Germany, the lower class was subdivided into: agricultural workers and semi-skilled workers, skilled craft workers, other skilled workers and domestic workers.
After the end of World War II, West Germany surpassed France in the employment of skilled labor needed at a time when industrialization was sweeping Europe at a fast pace. West Germany's preponderance in the training of skilled workers in technical schools, was the main factor to outweigh the balance between the two countries. In the period between 1950 and 1970, the number of technicians and engineers in West Germany rose from 160,000 to 570,000 by promoting skilled workers through the ranks so that those who were performing skilled labor in 1950 had become technicians and engineers by 1970. In the first decade of the 21st century, the average wage of a skilled machinist in the United States of America is $3,000 to $4,000 per month. In China, the average wage for a factory worker is $150 a month. In addition to the general use of the term, various agencies or governments, both federal and local, may require skilled workers to meet additional specifications; such definitions can affect matters such as immigration and eligibility for travel or residency.
For example, according to US Citizenship and Immigration Services, skilled worker positions are not seasonal or temporary and require at least two years of experience or training. Skilled work varies in education requirements and availability. Euch differences are reflected in titling, opportunity and salary. Both skilled and non-skilled workers are vital and indispensable for the smooth-running of a free-market and/or capitalist society. According to Alan Greenspan, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank, "Enhancing elementary and secondary school sensitivity to market forces should help restore the balance between the demand for and the supply of skilled workers in the United States."Generally, individual skilled workers are more valued to a given company than individual non-skilled workers, as skilled workers tend to be more difficult to replace. As a result, skilled workers tend to demand more in the way of financial compensation because of their efforts. According to Greenspan, corporate managers are willing to bid up pay packages to acquire skilled workers as they identify the lack of skilled labor as one of today's greatest problems.
Education can be received in a variety of manners, is acknowledged through various means. Below is a sampling of educational conventions. On-the-job training - Apprenticeship - Vocational certification - Associate Degree - Higher Apprenticeship - Undergraduate Degree - Professional Degree - Graduate Degree - In American industry, there has been a change in the concentration of skilled workers from the areas of past economic might e. g. steel, automobile and chemicals to the more recent industry developments e. g. computers, telecommunications and information technology, stated to represent a plus rather than a minus for the American standard o
Chilean land reform
The Chilean land reform was a process of land ownership restructuring that occurred from 1962 to 1973 in different phases. For much of the 20th century agriculture was one of the most backward sectors of Chilean economy; the land reform was supported by Chilean right and left political parties plus the Catholic Church and the United States. After the 1973 Chilean coup d'état the ruling right-wing dictatorship initiated a counter-reform that reverted part of it and directed Chilean agriculture into a "neoliberal" model. Chilean intellectuals like Camilo Vial had placed no particular emphasis on agriculture for the development of Chile while others like Francisco Encina considered Chilean agriculture irrelevant for economic and social development. Francisco Encina considered. Conditions in for early 20th century rural workers was harsh with Tancredo Pinochet denouncing the poor conditions of workers in the hacienda of president Juan Luis Sanfuentes during his presidency. Within a dual sector economic model the 20th century Chilean hacienda has been characterized as a prime example of a primitive and rural component.
McBride, a Briton who visited Chile in the 1930s, is reported to have been "astounded" to see haciendas with "agricultural methods that reminds of ancient Egypt, Greece or Palestine." Demands for a land reform appeared in Chile in the early 20th century and while neglected by the Radical governments that favoured urban industrialization, in the early 1960s land reform ideas in Chile received support from both the Catholic Church and, through the Alliance for Progress, from the United States. Among Chilean politicians Eduardo Frei Montalva expressed his view in 1958 that both minifundia and latifundia were detrimental for Chilean agriculture; the agrarian production in Chile contracted from 1950 onwards. A government plan set up in 1954 to address this ended with meager results and in 1958 a new plan was presented; that plan allowed CORFO to develop investments in dairy plants, refrigerated slaughterhouses, sugar refineries and transport infrastructure. In 1962, during the government of Jorge Alessandri, the first land reform law was promulgated.
This law allowed for the distribution of state-owned land among campesinos. The next land reform law was passed in 1967 under the Christian Democrat government of Eduardo Frei Montalva, giving legal status to farmers syndicates. A total of 100 thousand campesinos became syndicalized in 400 syndicates; this law served to expropriate 1400 land holdings totaling 3.5 million ha. In the case of the Catholic Church, it began in the 1960s to distribute its lands among campesinos. Besides state reforms in the 1960s, Chilean communists and socialists engaged in the formation of agriculture syndicates through La Frontera and semi-arid Norte Chico; the Christian Democrats did the same around Valparaíso and Aconcagua Valley and in the Central Valley locations of Curicó, Linares and Talca. The Popular Unity government led by Salvador Allende that came to power in 1970 continued the land reform and, using the legal tools it inherited, attempted to expropriate all Chilean latifundia. Around 59% of Chile's agricultural lands were redistributed during the Chilean land reform.
The hacienda and inquilinaje institutions that characterized large parts of Chilean agriculture were eliminated by land reform. Economist and Pinochet collaborator José Piñera claims that a "socialist paradigm" was behind the land reform, he adds that the reform evolved into a general attack against property rights and traces the origins of the Chilean nationalization of copper during the Allende years to the Chilean land reform. Following the 1973 coup that ousted Allende and brought Pinochet to power individuals and organizations that had benefited from the land reform were oppressed, notably in the first years of dictatorship. In 1974 the military dictatorship begun an agrarian counter-reform. Of the lands expropriated during the land reform about 30% were returned to its former owners during the military dictatorship era, an additional 5% was auctioned. Reformed lands owned by cooperatives were divided into individual properties; the 16½ years of military dictatorship neoliberal economic policies bought a new generation of capitalists to the rural world.
Due to the lack of capital or credit to invest in their lands many campesinos sold their lands after the land reform was over. After the land reform there was a process of reconcentration of land ownership so that by 1997 the land ownership was more concentrated than it had been in 1955. According to scholar Patricio Silva the "neo-liberal" agriculture model implemented by the Pinochet dictatorship was only possible thanks to the land reform. Complejo Forestal y Maderero Panguipulli Great Drought of 1968–69
A green-collar worker is a worker, employed in the environmental sectors of the economy. Environmental green-collar workers satisfy the demand for green development, they implement environmentally conscious design and technology to improve conservation and sustainability. Formal environmental regulations as well as informal social expectations are pushing many firms to seek professionals with expertise with environmental, energy efficiency, clean renewable energy issues, they seek to make their output more sustainable, thus more favorable to public opinion, governmental regulation, the Earth's ecology. Green collar workers include professionals such as conservation movement workers, environmental consultants, council environmental services/waste management/recycling managers/officers, environmental or biological systems engineers, green building architects, landscape architects, holistic passive solar building designers, solar energy and wind energy engineers and installers, nuclear engineers, green vehicle engineers, "green business" owners, green vehicle, organic farmers, environmental lawyers, ecology educators, ecotechnology workers, sales staff working with these services or products.
Green collar workers include vocational or trade-level workers: electricians who install solar panels, plumbers who install solar water heaters, recycling centre/MRF attendants, process managers and collectors, construction workers who build energy-efficient green buildings and wind power farms, construction workers who weatherize buildings to make them more energy efficient, or other workers involved in clean, sustainable future energy development. There is a growing movement to incorporate social responsibility within the green industries. A sustainable green economy values the importance of natural resources and inclusive and healthy opportunities for all communities. In the context of the current world economic crisis, many experts now argue that a massive push to develop renewable sources of energy could create millions of new jobs and help the economy recover while improving the environment, increasing labour conditions in poor economies, strengthening energy and food security. Of or pertaining to both employment and the environment or environmentalism.
1976, Patrick Heffernan, “Jobs for the Environment — The Coming Green Collar Revolution”, in Jobs and Prices in the West Coast Region: Hearing before the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session, U. S. Government Printing Office, page 134, 1997, Geoff Mulgan, Perri 6 et al; the British Spring: A Manifesto for the Election After Next, page 26, The United States, Canada and Denmark are all generating hundreds of thousands of new'green collar' jobs for young people, achieving remarkable reductions in energy, waste disposal and materials costs. 2001, Diane Warburton and Ian Christie, From Here to Sustainability: Politics in the Real World, page 75, Studies for the UK suggest that the more than 100,000 existing'green collar' workers in environmental occupations could be joined by many thousands more, both in the private sector and in the'social economy' of community enterprises. 2007, U. S. Green Jobs Act 2007, U. S. Energy Independence and Security Act - Title X: "Green Jobs - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Worker Training Program" 2008, during the U.
S. Presidential Campaign, both Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama promised more green collar jobs, green vehicle bonds. Other candidates' energy policy of the United States recommendations all included increased green development, which should accelerate the creation of millions of new green jobs. 2008, January 22 U. S. Federal Reserve Board unprecedented mid-term 3/4% interest rate cut to soon be followed by other economic stimulus to avoid recession and support new job development in green building construction, remodeling/weatherization and green manufacturing industry sectors. Widespread bipartisan and Congressional support for immediate economic stimulus funding, with a bias toward increasing sustainable green-collar jobs. Of or pertaining to rural, agricultural employment. 1983, U. S. Senate Subcommittee on Forestry, Water Resources, Environment, Cultivation of Marihuana in National Forests: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Forestry, Water Resources, Environment, U. S. Government Printing Office, page 32, American growers, who have more become known as America's "green-collar" workers because of the bright green color of their product, 2004, Martin Heidenreich et al.
Regional Innovation Systems: The Role of Governances in a Globalized World, Routledge UK, page 394, Al Gore states that economists across the spectrum — including Martin Feldstein and Lawrence Summers — agree that large and rapid investments in a jobs-intensive infrastructure initiative is the best way to revive the economy in a quick and sustainable way. A report from the Center for American Progress concludes that a $100 billion federal investment in clean energy technologies over 2009 and 2010 would yield 2 million new U. S. jobs, cutting the unemployment rate by 1.3% and put the nation on a path toward a low-carbon economy. The report, prepared by the Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, proposes $50 billion in tax credits for energy efficiency retrofits and renewable energy systems.
Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s; the word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted.
Such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International.
The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades; the process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion.
This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs."
Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning. When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their enthusiasm is unmistakable....it is clear that believe that what they