Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea
The Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea is a dance troupe founded in 1962 by Sun Myung Moon, the founder of the Unification Church, to project a positive image of South Korea to the world. In 1973 they performed at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City; the group’s dances are based on Korean legends and regional dances, its costumes on traditional Korean styles. Choral singing by the troupe in many languages is featured. In 2010 the Little Angels traveled to the United States to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Korean War; this was sponsored by the Korean War 60th Anniversary Memorial Committee, whose chairman, Bo Hi Pak, is the president of the Little Angels. That year they traveled to the other 15 nations that had sent troops to support South Korea in the United Nations force; the Little Angels are supported financially by the Tongil Group, a South Korean business group associated with the Unification Church, through the Tongil Foundation. Korean dance Korean War 60th Anniversary Memorial
Gifts of Deceit
Gifts of Deceit: Sun Myung Moon, Tongsun Park, the Korean Scandal is a 1980 non-fiction book on Koreagate and the Fraser Committee, a congressional subcommittee which investigated South Korean influence in the United States by the KCIA and the Unification Church, written by Robert Boettcher, with Gordon L. Freedman. Freedman had served on the US Senate Watergate Committee staff and had been a producer for ABC News 20/20 prior to his service on the subcommittee. Boettcher graduated with an M. S. in international relations from Georgetown University and served as a United States Foreign Service officer. Boettcher was the staff director to the House Subcommittee on International Relations, which headed an investigation into Tongsun Park, Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church; the subcommittee was chaired by Congressman Donald M. Fraser. Boettcher died in a fall in 1984. Boettcher's work is cited extensively in the Democratic Century; the book itself was noted in United States Congressional investigations on "The Cult Phenomenon in the United States", in 1979.
Gifts of Deceit is cited in Breen's The Koreans: Who They Are, What They Want, Where Their Future Lies, Anderson's Inside the League, is recommended reading by Olsen's Korea, the Divided Nation and Kim's Dictionary of Asian-American History. In addition to political books, Gifts of Deceit is cited in books which analyze new religious movements, including Another Gospel, The Future of New Religious Movements, Crime and Religion, Spiritual Warfare, more in Jenkins' Mystics and Messiahs, in 2000. In his work, The Ethics of Citizenship, James Stockdale recommends Gifts of Deceit and states that it is "very revealing", deals with the "questionable conduct." The New Republic called it a "most complete account." The Washington Post reviewed the work, but stated that portions of the Koreagate Scandal may have been due to media hype. Koreagate Fraser Committee Tongsun Park Unification Church political activities Unification Church and North Korea
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, hierarchy and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity; the more extreme elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand during the period of Bourbon Restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. Associated with right-wing politics, the term has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time, thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues.
Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Great Britain in the 1790s. According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959: "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself". In contrast to the tradition-based definition of conservatism, some political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism in terms of a general defense of social and economic inequality. From this perspective, conservatism is less an attempt to uphold traditional institutions and more, "a meditation on—and theoretical rendition of—the felt experience of having power, seeing it threatened, trying to win it back". Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy.
Individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation. Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism, influenced by liberal stances; as these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism has a wide variety of meanings. The term referred to the combination of economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values, it contrasted itself with classical liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres. Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism.
This is the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition such as the United States and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain, the terms liberal and conservative may be synonymous; the liberal conservative tradition in the United States combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism. A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in Europe is a combination of more modern conservative views with those of social liberalism; this has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. This involves stressing what are now conservative views of free market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights and support for a limited welfare state. In continental Europe, this is sometimes translated into English as social conservatism.
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or more the right-wing of the liberal movement. The roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism; until the two World Wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. Events after World War I brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative type of liberalism. Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within the United States and Canada which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism, its four main branches are constitutionalism, paleolibertarianism, small government conservatism and Christian libertarianism. They differ from paleoconservatives, in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom. Agorists such as Samuel Edward Konkin III labeled libertarian conservatism right-libertarianism.
In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare and other areas of economic intervention. Many conservatives in the United States, be
The Making of a Moonie
The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? is a 1984 book written by British sociologist Eileen Barker, Blackwell Publishers, United Kingdom, ISBN 0-631-13246-5. The book describes the religious conversion process to the Unification Church, whose members are sometimes informally referred to as "Moonies". Barker spent close to seven years studying Unification Church members, she interviewed in depth and/or gave probing questionnaires to Unification Church members, ex-members, "non-joiners," and control groups of uninvolved individuals from similar backgrounds, as well as parents and friends of members. She attended numerous Unification Church workshops and communal facilities. Barker writes that she rejects the "brainwashing" theory as an explanation for conversion to the Unification Church, because, as she wrote, it explains neither the many people who attended a Unification Church recruitment meeting and did not become members, nor the voluntary disaffiliation of members. Reviewers have quoted her conclusions: "I have not been persuaded that they are brainwashed zombies," and "Moonies are no more to stagnate into mindless robots than are their peers who travel to the city on the 8.23 each morning."In 2006 Laurence Iannaccone of George Mason University, a specialist in the economics of religion, wrote that The Making of a Moonie was "one of the most comprehensive and influential studies" of the process of conversion to new religious movements.
Australian psychologist Len Oakes and British psychiatry professor Anthony Storr, who have written rather critically about cults, new religious movements, their leaders have praised The Making of a Moonie. It was given the Distinguished Book Award for 1985 by the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
Frontline (U.S. TV program)
Frontline is the flagship investigative journalism program of the Public Broadcasting Service, producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, broadcasting them on air and online. Produced at WGBH-TV in Boston and distributed through PBS in the United States, the critically acclaimed program has received every major award in broadcast journalism, its investigations have helped breathe new life into terrorism cold cases, freed innocent people from jail, prompted U. N. resolutions, spurred both policy and social change. Since the program's debut in 1983, Frontline has broadcast for 35 seasons, producing over 600 documentaries from both in-house and independent filmmakers; the program has produced original digital reporting and analysis, worked to innovate the documentary form through interactive documentaries and virtual reality journalism projects. More than 200 Frontline documentaries are available on the program's website, with new Frontline documentaries made available for free online streaming at the same time as their PBS television broadcast.
The program debuted in 1983, with NBC anchorwoman Jessica Savitch as the show's first host, but Savitch died after the first-season finale. PBS NewsHour's Judy Woodruff took over as host in 1984, hosted the program for five years, combining her job with a sub anchor place on The MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour when Jim Lehrer was away. In 1990, episodes of Frontline began airing without a host, the narrator was left to introduce each episode. Since 1988, Frontline has aired "The Choice"—a special edition aired during the lead-up to the presidential election every four years, focusing on the Democratic and Republican candidates contending for the office of President of the United States. "The Choice 2016" is the most recent installment, aired on September 27, 2016, featuring Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. The previous version aired on October 9, 2012, featured a dual biography tracing the lives and careers of incumbent President Barack Obama and his challenger, Mitt Romney. A prior installment aired on October 14, 2008, using the same dual-biography format for Barack Obama and John McCain.
The 2008 documentary, produced by Michael Kirk, generated favorable reviews from The New York Times, which stated that the program helped viewers "gain perspective" about the "idea-oriented campaign", Los Angeles Times, which labeled it "refreshingly clear" and "informative". Most Frontline reports are an hour in length, but some are extended to 90 minutes, 2 hours, or beyond. Frontline produces and transmits such occasional specials as From Jesus to Christ, The Farmer's Wife, Country Boys. Since 1995, Frontline has been producing deep-content, companion web sites for all of its documentaries; the program publishes extended interview transcripts, in-depth chronologies, original essays, sidebar stories, related links and readings, source documents including photographs and background research. Frontline has made many of its documentaries available via streaming Internet video, from its website. Will Lyman is the distinctive voice who has narrated most of the installments of the program since its inception in 1983.
However, certain reports have been narrated by David Ogden Peter Berkrot. The show is produced by the WGBH Educational Foundation, the parent company of WGBH-TV in Boston, responsible for its content. WGBH is the creator of The Documentary Consortium, with another 4 PBS stations, including WNET in New York and KCTS in Seattle. In 2015, the creator and founding executive producer of Frontline, David Fanning, retired after more than 32 years as executive producer of the program, Raney Aronson-Rath succeeded him in senior grade. Fanning, remains editor-at-large of Frontline as a founding member. On September 14, 2017, the program launched; the podcast is a production of PBS and WGBH in Boston alongside PRX. Frontline/World is a spin-off program from Frontline, first transmitted on May 23, 2002, transmitted four to eight times a year on Frontline until it was canceled in 2010, it focused on issues from around the globe, used a "magazine" format, where each hour-long episode had three stories that ran about 15 to 20 minutes in length.
Its tagline was: Stories from a small planet. A co-production of WGBH, Boston and KQED, San Francisco, Frontline/World was based in part at the University of California at Berkeley's Graduate School of Journalism, where the program's producers recruited a new generation of reporters and producers to the Frontline program. Frontline/World streamed stories on its website, which won two Webby awards in 2008 for its original program of online videos called "Rough Cuts." In 2005, the Overseas Press Club of America gave the program its Edward R. Murrow Award for the best TV coverage of international events, citing producers David Fanning, Stephen Talbot, Sharon Tiller and Ken Dornstein; the program broke new ground in 2007 by winning two Emmys. Other Frontline reports focus on political and criminal justice issues. Ofra Bikel, a producer for Frontline since the first season, has produced a significant number of films on the criminal justice system in the United States; the films have focused on issues ranging from post-conviction DNA testing, the use of drug snitches and mandatory minimum sentencing laws, the plea system, the use of eyewitness testimony.
As a result of the films, 13 people have been released from prison. After the September 11 attacks, the White House requested a copy of "Hunting Bin Laden". In 1999, Frontlin