The musical short can be traced back to the earliest days of sound films. Performers in the Lee De Forest Phonofilms of 1923-24 included Eddie Cantor, George Jessel, Abbie Mitchell and comic singer-dancer Molly Picon, plus the team of Noble Sissel and Eubie Blake; the husband-and-wife vaudeville team of Eva Puck and Sammy White starred in the Phonofilm Opera vs. Jazz. Max Fleischer used the Phonofilm process in 1924 when he introduced his animated Song Car-Tunes series; the nearly 2,000 Vitaphone short subjects produced by Warner Bros. and its sister studio First National from 1926 to 1930 included vaudevillians, opera singers, Broadway stars, dancers and popular vocalists. One and two-reel short musical films were valuable to the movie studios as springboards for new talents. Performers who made their film debuts in short films include Joan Blondell, Humphrey Bogart and Allen, Sammy Davis, Jr. Judy Garland, Cary Grant, Bob Hope, Bert Lahr and Ginger Rogers. Ruth Etting sang "My Mother's Eyes" and "That's Him Now" in the Paramount Movietone Ruth Etting in Favorite Melodies, filmed in a single take at the Astoria Studios in Queens, New York.
Astoria Studios was built by Paramount in the early days of sound films to provide the company with an audio-capable facility close to the Broadway theater district. Many features and short subjects were filmed there between 1928 and 1933, including the 16-minute St. Louis Blues, the only film of Bessie Smith. Orchestra leader Phil Spitalny made a series of musical shorts beginning with Phil Spitalny at MGM, followed by shorts for both Vitaphone and Paramount, including Big City Fantasy, Phil Spitalny and His Musical Queens, Ladies That Play, Phil Spitalny and His All Girl Orchestra and Sirens of Syncopation. For promotional purposes, major film stars, including Gary Cooper and Clark Gable, made guest appearances in such musical shorts as MGM's Star Night at the Cocoanut Grove and Starlit Days at the Lido, while others featured a single band, such as Freddie Rich and His Orchestra. Richard Barrios provided notes for Kino Video's compilation, The Best of Big Bands and Swing: During the "Dawn of Sound," musical short subjects were the hors d'œuvre before the main feature, an effective means for the studio to test their freshly signed talent in front of the camera.
Aggressively pursuing the top singers and musicians of Tin Pan Alley, Paramount's roster of contract players was composed of some of the top names in the world of entertainment. Cary Grant makes his film debut as a sailor cruising the Far East in search of whoopee in Singapore Sue. Artie Shaw presents a master class in the elementals of swingband construction. A young Bing Crosby croons three ballads in Dream House, a comedy-musical directed by slapstick impresario Mack Sennett; this collection showcases several top female vocalists, including Ethel Merman, Ruth Etting (Favorite Melodies and Lillian Roth. There's a two-edged homage to that icon of 1930s naughtiness, Betty Boop, with appearances by Betty's prototype, "Boop-a-Doop Girl" Helen Kane, Betty's actual voice, Mae Questel; the gem of this collection, however, is Office Blues, in which a pre-Astaire and pre-stardom Ginger Rogers cavorts with Broadway chorines in an Art Deco extravaganza. With artists like these on the bill it's clear that the short subject -- not the feature -- was the highlight of the program!
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Betty Hutton made a half-dozen musical shorts before her feature debut in The Fleet's In and continued to make shorts for the war effort. She was seen in Paramount Headliner: Queens of the Air, Vitaphone's Vincent Lopez and His Orchestra, Broadway Brevities: One for the Book, Paramount Headliner: Three Kings and a Queen, Broadway Brevities: Public Jitterbug Number One, Paramount Victory Short No. T2-1: A Letter from Bataan, Army-Navy Screen Magazine #20: Strictly G. I. Paramount's Skirmish on the Home Front and Hollywood Victory Caravan, produced on the Paramount lot by the Treasury Department for the 1945 Victory Loan Drive. Several of Hutton's musical shorts have been shown on Turner Classic Movies in recent years. Modern jazz was added to the mix in such films as the 16-minute Artistry in Rhytym, with Stan Kenton and Anita O'Day re-edited into another short and Groovy, which featured Chico Hamilton and The Hi-Los. In the mid-1940s, Louis Jordan made short music films, some of which were spliced together into a feature-length musical Western, Look-Out Sister.
During the 1950s, musical shorts were revived for telecasting on local stations. Feature films in that decade were not edited to fit. Instead, if a feature ended 20 minutes before the hour, footage from musical shorts was used to fill the gap. Snader Telescriptions were musical shorts made for television from 1950 to 1954. There were thousands of these three- and four-minute films, covering various genres from jazz and pop to R&B and country. Louis "Duke" Goldstone directed for Louis D. Snader. Dance in film List of big bands List of musical films by year Music video Musical films Scopitone Soundies Bradley, Edwin R; the First Hollywood Sound Shorts, 1926-1931, McFarland, 2005. Teachers Paradise: "Music video" TV's First Music Videos Joe Venuti and Ed
Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. As a narrative, philosophical or didactic device, it is chiefly associated in the West with the Socratic dialogue as developed by Plato, but antecedents are found in other traditions including Indian literature. In the 20th century, philosophical treatments of dialogue emerged from thinkers including Mikhail Bakhtin, Paulo Freire, Martin Buber, David Bohm. Although diverging in many details, these thinkers have articulated a holistic concept of dialogue as a multi-dimensional and context-dependent process of creating meaning. Educators such as Freire and Ramón Flecha have developed a body of theory and techniques for using egalitarian dialogue as a pedagogical tool; the term dialogue stems from the Greek διάλογος. The first extant author who uses the term is Plato, in whose works it is associated with the art of dialectic. Latin took over the word as dialogus.
Dialogue as a genre in the Middle East and Asia dates back to ancient works, such as Sumerian disputations preserved in copies from the late third millennium BC, Rigvedic dialogue hymns and the Mahabharata. In the East, In 13th century Japan, dialogue was used in important philosophical works. In the 1200s, Nichiren Daishonin wrote some of his important writings in dialogue form, describing a meeting between two characters in order to present his argument and theory, such as in "Conversation between a Sage and an Unenlightened Man", "On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land", while in other writings he used a question and answer format, without the narrative scenario, such as in "Questions and Answers about Embracing the Lotus Sutra"; the sage or person answering the questions was understood as the author. In the West, Plato has been credited with the systematic use of dialogue as an independent literary form. Ancient sources indicate, that the Platonic dialogue had its foundations in the mime, which the Sicilian poets Sophron and Epicharmus had cultivated half a century earlier.
These works and imitated by Plato, have not survived and we have only the vaguest idea of how they may have been performed. The Mimes of Herodas, which were found in a papyrus in 1891, give some idea of their character. Plato further simplified the form and reduced it to pure argumentative conversation, while leaving intact the amusing element of character-drawing. By about 400 BC he had perfected the Socratic dialogue. All his extant writings, except the Apology and Epistles, use this form. Following Plato, the dialogue became a major literary genre in antiquity, several important works both in Latin and in Greek were written. Soon after Plato, Xenophon wrote his own Symposium. Two French writers of eminence borrowed the title of Lucian's most famous collection. Contemporaneously, in 1688, the French philosopher Nicolas Malebranche published his Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion, thus contributing to the genre's revival in philosophic circles. In English non-dramatic literature the dialogue did not see extensive use until Berkeley employed it, in 1713, for his treatise, Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous.
His contemporary, the Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. A prominent 19th-century example of literary dialogue was Landor's Imaginary Conversations. In Germany, Wieland adopted this form for several important satirical works published between 1780 and 1799. In Spanish literature, the Dialogues of Valdés and those on Painting by Vincenzo Carducci are celebrated. Italian writers of collections of dialogues, following Plato's model, include Torquato Tasso, Galiani, a host of others. In the 19th century, the French returned to the original application of dialogue; the inventions of "Gyp", of Henri Lavedan, of others, which tell a mundane anecdote wittily and maliciously in conversation, would present a close analogy to the lost mimes of the early Sicilian poets. English writers including Anstey Guthrie adopted the form, but these dialogues seem to have found less of a popular following among the English than their counterparts written by French authors; the Platonic dialogue, as a distinct genre which features Socrates as a speaker and one or more interlocutors discussing some philosophical question, experienced something of a rebirth in the 20th century.
Authors who have employed it include George Santayana, in his eminent Dialogues in Limbo. Edith Stein and Iris Murdoch used the dialogue form. Stein imagined a dialogue between Thomas Aquinas. Murdoch included not only Socrates and Alcibiades as interlocutors in her work Acastos: Two Platonic Dialogues, but featured a young Plato himself as well. More Timothy Williamson wrote Tetralogue, a philosophical exchange on a train between four people with radically different epistemological views. Martin Buber assigns dialogue a pivotal position in his theology, his most influential wor
Slow motion is an effect in film-making whereby time appears to be slowed down. It was invented by the Austrian priest August Musger in the early 20th century; this style is achieved when each film frame is captured at a rate much faster than it will be played back. When replayed at normal speed, time appears to be moving more slowly. A term for creating slow motion film is overcranking which refers to hand cranking an early camera at a faster rate than normal. Slow motion can be achieved by playing recorded footage at a slower speed; this technique is more applied to video subjected to instant replay than to film. A third technique, becoming common using current computer software post-processing is to fabricate digitally interpolated frames to smoothly transition between the frames that were shot. Motion can be slowed further by interpolating between overcranked frames; the traditional method for achieving super-slow motion is through high-speed photography, a more sophisticated technique that uses specialized equipment to record fast phenomena for scientific applications.
Slow motion is ubiquitous in modern filmmaking. It is used by a diverse range of directors to achieve diverse effects; some classic subjects of slow-motion include: Athletic activities of all kinds, to demonstrate skill and style. To recapture a key moment in an athletic game shown as a replay. Natural phenomena, such as a drop of water hitting a glass. Slow motion can be used for artistic effect, to create a romantic or suspenseful aura or to stress a moment in time. Vsevolod Pudovkin, for instance, used slow motion in a suicide scene in The Deserter, in which a man jumping into a river seems sucked down by the splashing waves. Another example is Face/Off, in which John Woo used the same technique in the movements of a flock of flying pigeons; the Matrix made a distinct success in applying the effect into action scenes through the use of multiple cameras, as well as mixing slow-motion with live action in other scenes. Japanese director Akira Kurosawa was a pioneer using this technique in his 1954 movie Seven Samurai.
American director Sam Peckinpah was another classic lover of the use of slow motion. The technique is associated with explosion effect shots and underwater footage; the opposite of slow motion is fast motion. Cinematographers refer to fast motion as undercranking since it was achieved by cranking a handcranked camera slower than normal, it is used for comic, or occasional stylistic effect. Extreme fast motion is known as time lapse photography; the concept of slow motion may have existed before the invention of the motion picture: the Japanese theatrical form Noh employs slow movements. There are two ways. Both involve a projector. A projector refers to a classical film projector in a movie theater, but the same basic rules apply to a television screen and any other device that displays consecutive images at a constant frame rate. For the purposes of making the above illustration readable a projection speed of 10 frames per second has been selected, in fact film is projected at 24 frame/s making the equivalent slow overcranking rare, but available on professional equipment.
The second type of slow motion is achieved during post production. This is known as digital slow motion; this type of slow motion is achieved by inserting new frames in between frames that have been photographed. The effect is similar to overcranking. Since the necessary frames were never photographed, new frames must be fabricated. Sometimes the new frames are repeats of the preceding frames but more they are created by interpolating between frames.. Many complicated algorithms exist that can track motion between frames and generate intermediate frames within that scene, it is similar to half-speed, is not true slow-motion, but longer display of each frame. Slow motion is used in action films for dramatic effect, as well as the famous bullet-dodging effect, popularized by The Matrix. Formally, this effect is referred to as speed ramping and is a process whereby the capture frame rate of the camera changes over time. For example, if in the course of 10 seconds of capture, the capture frame rate is adjusted from 60 frames per second to 24 frames per second, when played back at the standard film rate of 24 frames per second, a unique time-manipulation effect is achieved.
For example, someone pushing a door open and walking out into the street would appear to start off in slow motion, but in a few seconds within the same shot the person would appear to walk in "realtime". The opposite speed-ramping is done in The Matrix when Neo re-enters the Matrix for the first time to see the Oracle; as he comes out of the warehouse "load-point", the camera zooms into Neo at normal speed but as it gets closer to Neo's face, time seems to slow down visually accentuating Neo pausing and reflecting a moment, alluding to future manipulation of time itself within the Matrix on in the movie. Slow-motion is used in sport broadcasting and its origins in this domain extend right back to the earliest days of television, one example being the European Heavyweight Title in 1939 where Max Schmeling knocked out Adolf Heuser in 71 sec
In photography and video production, a long shot shows the entire object or human figure and is intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings. These are shot now using wide-angle lenses. However, due to sheer distance, establishing shots and wide shots can use any camera type; this type of filmmaking was a result of filmmakers trying to retain the sense of the viewer watching a play in front of them, as opposed to just a series of pictures. The wide shot has been used since films have been made as it is a basic type of cinematography. In 1878, one of the first true motion pictures, Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, was released. Though this wouldn't be considered a film in the current motion picture industry, it was a huge step towards complete motion pictures, it is arguable that it is basic but it still remains that it was displayed as a wide angle as both the rider and horse are visible in the frame. After this innovation, in the 1880s celluloid photographic film and motion picture cameras became available so more motion pictures could be created in the form of Kinetoscope or through projectors.
These early films maintained a wide angle layout as it was the best way to keep everything visible for the viewer. Once motion pictures became more available in the 1890s there were public screenings of many different films only being around a minute long, or less; these films again adhered to the wide shot style. One of the first competitive filming techniques came in the form of the close-up as George Albert Smith incorporated them into his film Hove. Though unconfirmed as the first usage of this method it is one of the earliest recorded examples. Once the introduction of new framing techniques were introduced more and more were made and used for their benefits that they could provide that wide shots couldn't; this was the point at which motion pictures evolved from short, minute long, screening to becoming full-length motion pictures. More and more cinematic techniques appeared, resulting in the wide shot being less used. However, it still remained as it is irreplaceable in what it can achieve.
When television entered the home, it was seen as a massive hit to the cinema industry and many saw it as the decline in cinema popularity. This in turn resulted in films having to stay ahead of television by incorporating superior quality than that of a television; this was done by adding color but it implemented the use of widescreen. This would allow a massive increase amount of space usable by the director, thus allowing an wider shot for the viewer to witness more of whatever the director intends to evoke with any given shot. Most modern films will use the different types of wide shots as they are a staple in filmmaking and are impossible to avoid unless deliberately chosen to. In the current climate of films, the technical quality of any given shot will appear with much better clarity which has given life to some incredible shots from modern cinema. Given the quality of modern home entertainment mediums such as Blu Ray, 3D and Ultra HD Blu Rays this has allowed the scope and size of any given frame to encompass more of the scene and environment in greater detail.
There are a variety of ways of framing. In the case of a person, head to toe; this achieves a clear physical representation of a character and can describe the surroundings as it is visible within the frame. This results in the audience having a desired view/opinion of the location. Wide shot – The subject is only just visible in the location; this can find a balance between a ‘wide shot’ and an ‘Extreme Wide Shot’ by keeping an emphasis on both the characters and the environment finding a harmony between the two of them. Enabling the ability to use the benefits of both type, by allowing the scale of the environment but maintaining an element of focus on the character or object in frame. Extreme wide shot – The shot is so far away from the subject that they are no longer visible; this is used to create a sense of a character being lost or engulfed by the sheer size of their surroundings. Which can result in a character being made small or insignificant due to their situation/surroundings. Establishing shot – A shot used to display a location and is the first shot in a new scene.
These establish the setting of a film, whether, the physical location or the time period. But it gives a sense of place to the film and brings the viewer to wherever the story requires them to. Master Shot – This shot can be mistaken for an establishing shot as it displays key characters and locations. However, it is a shot in which all relevant characters are in frame. With inter cut shots of other characters to shift focus; this is a useful method for retaining audience focus as most shots in this style refrain from using cuts and therefore will keep the performances and the dialogue in the forefront of what is going on for the duration of the scene. Many directors are known for their use of the variety of wide shots. A key example of them is the frequent use of establishing shots and wide shots in Peter Jackson’s The Lord of the Rings trilogy showing the vast New Zealand landscape to instil awe in the audience. In the 1993 film Schindler's List, there is a running image of a small girl trapped within a concentration camp wearing a red coat (the only
In photography and cinematography, a multiple exposure is the superimposition of two or more exposures to create a single image, double exposure has a corresponding meaning in respect of two images. The exposure values may not be identical to each other. Ordinarily, cameras have a sensitivity to light, a function of time. For example, a one-second exposure is an exposure in which the camera image is responsive to light over the exposure time of one second; the criterion for determining that something is a double exposure is that the sensitivity goes up and back down. The simplest example of a multiple exposure is a double exposure without flash, i.e. two partial exposures are made and combined into one complete exposure. Some single exposures, such as "flash and blur" use a combination of electronic flash and ambient exposure; this effect can be approximated by a Dirac delta measure and a constant finite rectangular window, in combination. For example, a sensitivity window comprising a Dirac comb combined with a rectangular pulse, is considered a multiple exposure though the sensitivity never goes to zero during the exposure.
In the historical technique of chronophotography, dating back to the Victoria era, a series of instantaneous photographs were taken at short and equal intervals of time. These photographs could be overlayed for a single multiple exposure print. In photography and cinematography, multiple exposure is a technique in which the camera shutter is opened more than once to expose the film multiple times to different images; the resulting image contains the subsequent image/s superimposed over the original. The technique is sometimes used as an artistic visual effect and can be used to create ghostly images or to add people and objects to a scene that were not there, it is used in photographic hoaxes. It is considered easiest to have a manual winding camera for double exposures. On automatic winding cameras, as soon as a picture is taken the film is wound to the next frame; some more advanced automatic winding cameras have the option for multiple exposures but it must be set before making each exposure.
Manual winding cameras with a multiple exposure feature can be set to double-expose after making the first exposure. Since shooting multiple exposures will expose the same frame multiple times, negative exposure compensation must first be set to avoid overexposure. For example, to expose the frame twice with correct exposure, a −1 EV compensation have to be done, −2 EV for exposing four times; this may not be necessary when photographing a lit subject in two different positions against a dark background, as the background area will be unexposed. Medium to low light is ideal for double exposures. A tripod may not be necessary. In some conditions, for example, recording the whole progress of a lunar eclipse in multiple exposures, a stable tripod is essential. More than two exposures can be combined, with care not to overexpose the film. Digital technology enables images to be superimposed over each other by using a software photo editor, such as Adobe Photoshop or the GIMP; these enable the opacity of the images to be altered and for an image to be overlaid over another.
They can set the layers to multiply mode, which'adds' the colors together rather than making the colors of either image pale and translucent. Many digital SLR cameras allow multiple exposures to be made on the same image within the camera without the need for any external software, and some bridge cameras can take successive multiple exposures in one shot. It is the same with High Dynamic Range which takes multiple shots in one burst captures combines all the proper shots into one frame. Iskiography is a computerized video processing technique, used to depict, in a single image, the tracks of bird flight paths recorded in numerous video frames, invented by German photographer Lothar Schiffler; the digital processing takes advantage of the silhouette effect of photographing flying birds against the bright sky, combining the bird images from multiple video frames into a single multiple exposure photograph. The software, developed by Nikolai Klassen, solves the challenges of selecting the best subset from the thousands of frames captured in the 50 frame per second video, of removing the disruptive silhouettes of insects flying close to the camera.
Lothar presented his photo-art project "AIRLINES - Bird Tracks in the Air" at the Fifth International Swift Conference, held in March 2018 in Tel Aviv. In addition to direct photographic usage of the technique, fine artists' work has been inspired by the multiple exposure effect. Examples include Joan Semmel's oil on canvas "Transitions" from 2012, Ian Hornak's acrylic on canvas "Hanna Tillich's Mirror: Rembrandt's Three Trees Transformed Into The Expulsion From Eden", from 1978. With traditional film cameras, a long exposure is a single exposure, whereas with electronic cameras a long exposure can be obtained by integrating together many exposures; this averaging permits there to be a time-windowing function, such as a Gaussian, that weights time periods near the center of the exposure time more strongly. Another possibility for synthesizing long exposure from a multiple exposure is to use an exponential decay in which the current frame has the strongest weight, previous frames are faded out with a sliding exponential window.
Multiple exposure technique can be used when scanning transparencies like slides, film or negatives using a film scanner for increasing dynamic range. With multiple exposure the original gets scanned several times with dif
A two shot is a type of shot in which the frame encompasses two people. The subjects do not have to be next to each other, there are many common two shots which have one subject in the foreground and the other subject in the background. Classic two shots are shot with a medium lens, head to knees or closer, show the characters so that you can see both of their faces. Common variations include two people in profile, one person in profile and the other 3/4 or full towards camera, two people looking towards camera either side by side or with one behind the other, one person with their back to the other while the other looks at them, either profile, 3/4, or full face, or the mirror two shot. An "American two shot" shows the two heads facing each other in profile to the camera. In a "two shot west," one character will turn 180º away from the other character while the other character looks at them. In a "full two shot," the two characters are shown from head to toe. A "wide two shot" is a master shot showing two people using a wider lens, including an overview of their surroundings.
A "close two shot" is a close-up with two people's heads in the frame, shot with a long lens. This framing is used for shots of two people kissing or in moments of great dramatic tension. In classic movies, long takes were used in which several types of shots were used without cutting. For instance, if two people are talking facing the camera in a medium shot and the foreground character turns their back to the camera, the shot turns into an "over the shoulder" or "OTS" shot. If that character walks towards the character in the background with both characters in profile, the shot turns into a full two shot. If the camera moves closer, the shot becomes a medium two shot again, so on. A three shot has three people featured prominently in the composition of the frame. However, a "one shot" has another meaning, it is used to describe a film in a single take continuous footage with no cuts. Cinematography: Theory and Practice, Image Making for Cinematographers and Directors: Second Edition by Blain Brown Page 20 Mittell, Jason.
Television and American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 191–192