Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. His work is known for its influence on the philosophy of science, he is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, dubbed "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field; this led him to develop his special theory of relativity during his time at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could be extended to gravitational fields, he published a paper on general relativity in 1916 with his theory of gravitation.
He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe. Except for one year in Prague, Einstein lived in Switzerland between 1895 and 1914, during which time he renounced his German citizenship in 1896 received his academic diploma from the Swiss federal polytechnic school in Zürich in 1900. After being stateless for more than five years, he acquired Swiss citizenship in 1901, which he kept for the rest of his life. In 1905, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich; the same year, he published four groundbreaking papers during his renowned annus mirabilis which brought him to the notice of the academic world at the age of 26. Einstein taught theoretical physics at Zurich between 1912 and 1914 before he left for Berlin, where he was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
In 1933, while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Because of his Jewish background, Einstein did not return to Germany, he settled in the United States and became an American citizen in 1940. On the eve of World War II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt alerting him to the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type" and recommending that the US begin similar research; this led to the Manhattan Project. Einstein supported the Allies, but he denounced the idea of using nuclear fission as a weapon, he signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. He was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955. Einstein published more than 150 non-scientific works, his intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with "genius". Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March 1879.
His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, Pauline Koch. In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current; the Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews, Albert attended a Catholic elementary school in Munich, from the age of 5, for three years. At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium, where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left the German Empire seven years later. In 1894, Hermann and Jakob's company lost a bid to supply the city of Munich with electrical lighting because they lacked the capital to convert their equipment from the direct current standard to the more efficient alternating current standard; the loss forced the sale of the Munich factory. In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and a few months to Pavia; when the family moved to Pavia, Einstein 15, stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium.
His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method. He wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning. At the end of December 1894, he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. During his time in Italy he wrote a short essay with the title "On the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field". Einstein always excelled at math and physics from a young age, reaching a mathematical level years ahead of his peers; the twelve year old Einstein taught himself algebra and Euclidean geometry over a single summer. Einstein independently discovered his own original proof of the Pythagorean theorem at age 12. A family tutor Max Talmud says that after he had given the 12 year old Einstein a geometry textbook, after a short time " had worked through the whole book, he thereupon devoted himself to higher mathematics...
Soon the flight of his mathematical genius was so high I could not follow." His passion for geometry and algebra led the twelve year old to become convinced that nature could be understood as a "mathematical structure". Einstein started teaching himself calculus at
Theory of relativity
The theory of relativity encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity applies to elementary particles and their interactions, describing all their physical phenomena except gravity. General relativity explains the law of its relation to other forces of nature, it applies to the astrophysical realm, including astronomy. The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created by Isaac Newton, it introduced concepts including spacetime as a unified entity of space and time, relativity of simultaneity and gravitational time dilation, length contraction. In the field of physics, relativity improved the science of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions, along with ushering in the nuclear age. With relativity and astrophysics predicted extraordinary astronomical phenomena such as neutron stars, black holes, gravitational waves. Albert Einstein published the theory of special relativity in 1905, building on many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert A. Michelson, Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and others.
Max Planck, Hermann Minkowski and others did subsequent work. Einstein developed general relativity between 1907 and 1915, with contributions by many others after 1915; the final form of general relativity was published in 1916. The term "theory of relativity" was based on the expression "relative theory" used in 1906 by Planck, who emphasized how the theory uses the principle of relativity. In the discussion section of the same paper, Alfred Bucherer used for the first time the expression "theory of relativity". By the 1920s, the physics community accepted special relativity, it became a significant and necessary tool for theorists and experimentalists in the new fields of atomic physics, nuclear physics, quantum mechanics. By comparison, general relativity did not appear to be as useful, beyond making minor corrections to predictions of Newtonian gravitation theory, it seemed to offer little potential for experimental test, as most of its assertions were on an astronomical scale. Its mathematics seemed difficult and understandable only by a small number of people.
Around 1960, general relativity became central to astronomy. New mathematical techniques to apply to general relativity streamlined calculations and made its concepts more visualized; as astronomical phenomena were discovered, such as quasars, the 3-kelvin microwave background radiation and the first black hole candidates, the theory explained their attributes, measurement of them further confirmed the theory. Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime, it was introduced in Einstein's 1905 paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics: The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another; the speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the light source. The resultant theory copes with experiment better than classical mechanics. For instance, postulate 2 explains the results of the Michelson–Morley experiment.
Moreover, the theory has many counterintuitive consequences. Some of these are: Relativity of simultaneity: Two events, simultaneous for one observer, may not be simultaneous for another observer if the observers are in relative motion. Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more than an observer's "stationary" clock. Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer. Maximum speed is finite: No physical object, message or field line can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum; the effect of Gravity can only travel through space at the speed of light, not faster or instantaneously. Mass -- energy equivalence: E = mc2, energy and mass are transmutable. Relativistic mass, idea used by some researchers; the defining feature of special relativity is the replacement of the Galilean transformations of classical mechanics by the Lorentz transformations.. General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Einstein in the years 1907–1915.
The development of general relativity began with the equivalence principle, under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field are physically identical. The upshot of this is that free fall is inertial motion: an object in free fall is falling because, how objects move when there is no force being exerted on them, instead of this being due to the force of gravity as is the case in classical mechanics; this is incompatible with classical mechanics and special relativity because in those theories inertially moving objects cannot accelerate with respect to each other, but objects in free fall do so. To resolve this difficulty Einstein first proposed. In 1915, he devised the Einstein field equations which relate the curvature of spacetime with the mass and any momentum within it; some of the consequences of general relativity are: Gravitational time dilation: Clocks run slower in deeper gravitational wells. Precession: Orbits precess in a way unexpected in Newton's theory of gravity
Joseph Raymond McCarthy was an American politician who served as a Republican U. S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period in the United States in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion, he is known for alleging that numerous Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers had infiltrated the United States federal government, film industry, elsewhere. The smear tactics that he used led him to be censured by the U. S. Senate; the term "McCarthyism", coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist activities. Today, the term is used more broadly to mean demagogic and unsubstantiated accusations, as well as public attacks on the character or patriotism of political opponents. Born in Grand Chute, Wisconsin, McCarthy commissioned in to the Marine Corps in 1942, where he served as an intelligence briefing officer for a dive bomber squadron.
Following the end of World War II, he attained the rank of major. He volunteered to fly twelve combat missions as a gunner-observer, acquiring the nickname "Tail-Gunner Joe"; some of his claims of heroism were shown to be exaggerated or falsified, leading many of his critics to use "Tail-Gunner Joe" as a term of mockery. McCarthy ran for the U. S. Senate in 1946, defeating Robert M. La Follette Jr. After three undistinguished years in the Senate, McCarthy rose to national fame in February 1950 when he asserted in a speech that he had a list of "members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring" who were employed in the State Department. In succeeding years after his 1950 speech, McCarthy made additional accusations of Communist infiltration into the State Department, the administration of President Harry S. Truman, the Voice of America, the U. S. Army, he used various charges of communism, communist sympathies, disloyalty, or sex crimes to attack a number of politicians and other individuals inside and outside of government.
This included a concurrent "Lavender Scare" against suspected homosexuals. Former U. S. Senator Alan K. Simpson has written: "The so-called'Red Scare' has been the main focus of most historians of that period of time. A lesser-known element... and one that harmed far more people was the witch-hunt McCarthy and others conducted against homosexuals". With the publicized Army–McCarthy hearings of 1954, following the suicide of Wyoming Senator Lester C. Hunt that same year, McCarthy's support and popularity faded. On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted to censure Senator McCarthy by a vote of 67–22, making him one of the few senators to be disciplined in this fashion, he continued to speak against communism and socialism until his death at the age of 48 at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Bethesda, Maryland, on May 2, 1957. His death certificate listed the cause of death as "Hepatitis, cause unknown". Doctors had not reported him to be in critical condition; some biographers say this was exacerbated by alcoholism.
McCarthy was born in 1908 on a farm in the town of Grand Chute in Outagamie County, the fifth of seven children. His mother, was from County Tipperary, Ireland, his father, Timothy McCarthy, was born in the United States, the son of an Irish father and a German mother. McCarthy dropped out of junior high school at age 14 to help his parents manage their farm, he entered Little Wolf High School, in Manawa, when he was 20 and graduated in one year. He attended Marquette University from 1930 to 1935. McCarthy worked his way through college, studying first electrical engineering for two years law, receiving an LL. B. degree in 1935 from Marquette University Law School in Milwaukee. McCarthy was admitted to the bar in 1935. While working at a law firm in Shawano, Wisconsin, he launched an unsuccessful campaign for district attorney as a Democrat in 1936. During his years as an attorney, McCarthy made money on the side by gambling. In 1939, McCarthy had better success when he ran for the nonpartisan elected post of 10th District circuit judge.
McCarthy became the youngest circuit judge in the state's history by defeating incumbent Edgar V. Werner, a judge for 24 years. In the campaign, McCarthy exaggerated Werner's age of 66, claiming that he was 73, so too old and infirm to handle the duties of his office. Writing of Werner in Reds: McCarthyism In Twentieth-Century America, Ted Morgan wrote: "Pompous and condescending, he was disliked by lawyers, he had been reversed by the Wisconsin Supreme Court, he was so inefficient that he had piled up a huge backlog of cases."McCarthy's judicial career attracted some controversy because of the speed with which he dispatched many of his cases as he worked to clear the backlogged docket he had inherited from Werner. Wisconsin had strict divorce laws, but when McCarthy heard divorce cases, he expedited them whenever possible, he made the needs of children involved in contested divorces a priority; when it came to other cases argued before him, McCarthy compensated for his lack of experience as a jurist by demanding and relying upon precise briefs from the contesting attorneys.
The Wisconsin Supreme Court reversed a low percentage of the cases he heard, but he was censured in 1941 for having lost evidence in a price fixing case. In 1942, shortly after the U. S. entered World War II, McCarthy joined the United States Marine Corps, despite the fact that his judicial office exempted him from military service. His college education qua
Jeremy Jack Thomas, CBE is a British film producer and chairman of Recorded Picture Company. He produced Bernardo Bertolucci's The Last Emperor, which won the 1988 Academy Award for Best Picture. In 2006 he received a European Film Award for Outstanding European Achievement in World Cinema, his father was director Ralph Thomas, while his uncle Gerald Thomas directed all of the films in the Carry On franchise. Thomas was born in London, England into a filmmaking family with his father, Ralph Philip Thomas, uncle, both directors, his childhood ambition was to work in cinema. As soon as he left school he went to work in various positions, ending up in the cutting rooms working on films such as The Harder They Come, Family Life and The Golden Voyage of Sinbad, worked through the ranks to become a film editor for Ken Loach on A Misfortune. After editing Philippe Mora's Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?, he produced his first film Mad Dog Morgan in 1974 in Australia. He returned to England to produce Jerzy Skolimowski's The Shout, which won the Grand Prix de Jury at the Cannes Film Festival.
Thomas' films are all individual and his independence of spirit has paid off both artistically and commercially. His extensive output of over forty films includes three films directed by Nicolas Roeg: Bad Timing and Insignificance, Julien Temple's The Great Rock'n' Roll Swindle, Nagisa Oshima's Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence, The Hit directed by Stephen Frears. In 1986, Thomas produced Bernardo Bertolucci's epic, The Last Emperor, an independently financed project, three years in the making. A commercial and critical triumph, the film swept the board at the 1987 Academy Awards, garnering an outstanding nine Oscars including Best Picture. Thomas has since completed many films including Karel Reisz's film of Arthur Miller's screenplay Everybody Wins, Bertolucci's film of Paul Bowles' The Sheltering Sky, Little Buddha and Stealing Beauty, David Cronenberg's films of William S. Burroughs' Naked Lunch, J. G. Ballard's Crash and Christopher Hampton's A Dangerous Method. In 1997 Thomas directed All the Little Animals, starring John Hurt and Christian Bale, in Official Selection at Cannes.
Notable recent credits include Jonathan Glazer's debut film Sexy Beast, Takeshi Kitano's Brother, Khyentse Norbu's The Cup, Phillip Noyce's Rabbit-Proof Fence, David Mackenzie's film of Alexander Trocchi's Young Adam, Bernardo Bertolucci's The Dreamers, Terry Gilliam's Tideland, Wim Wenders' Don't Come Knocking, Richard Linklater's Fast Food Nation and Gerald McMorrow's Franklyn, starring Eva Green, Sam Riley and Ryan Phillippe. His film, Jon Amiel's Creation, about the life of Charles Darwin, with Paul Bettany and Jennifer Connelly in the leads, was the Opening Gala of the 2009 Toronto International Film Festival. In 2010, Thomas premiered Jerzy Skolimowski's Essential Killing and Takashi Miike's 13 Assassins at the Venice Film Festival, both of which he executive-produced. Essential Killing went on to win the Jury Prize and two others, a triple win unprecedented in the Festival's history, he executive-produced Wim Wenders' 3D dance film Pina, which premiered at the 2011 Berlinale. At Cannes 2011, Thomas premiered Takashi Miike's new film, Hara-Kiri: Death of a Samurai, the first 3D film to show in Competition.
Thomas' recent releases include David Cronenberg's A Dangerous Method, written by Christopher Hampton and starring Keira Knightley, Viggo Mortensen, Michael Fassbender and Vincent Cassel, which premiered at Venice and Toronto Film Festivals 2011. In 2012, he launched the epic Kon-Tiki, the true story of Thor Heyerdahl's legendary raft adventure directed by Joachim Roenning and Espen Sandberg, nominated for a Golden Globe and Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. In 2014, Thomas released Jim Jarmusch's vampire opus Only Lovers Left Alive starring Tilda Swinton, Tom Hiddleston, Mia Wasikowska and John Hurt, Richard Shepard's black comedy Dom Hemingway starring Jude Law, Richard E. Grant, Demian Bichir and Emilia Clarke. Recent releases include an adaptation of J. G. Ballard's 1970s dystopian novel High-Rise, written by Amy Jump and directed by Ben Wheatley, starring Tom Hiddleston, Jeremy Irons, Sienna Miller, Luke Evans and Elisabeth Moss, Tale of Tales directed by Matteo Garrone starring Salma Hayek, Vincent Cassel, John C.
Reilly and Toby Jones. Thomas has said of his ethos: In 1998, Thomas founded his international sales arm, HanWay Films, to service his own productions. HanWay has since expanded to sell third party projects as well as handling the libraries of many of the world's best-known filmmakers. Thomas was Chairman of the British Film Institute from August 1992 until December 1997 and has been the recipient of many awards throughout the world, including the Michael Balcon Award for Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema from BAFTA, the European Film Award for Outstanding European Achievement in World Cinema, he has been President of the Jury at Tokyo Film Festival, San Sebastian Film Festival, Berlin Film Festival and Cannes Film Festival and has served on the main jury at Cannes. He was made a Life Fellow of the British Film Institute in 2000. Thomas was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 New Year Honours, he was made Honorary Associate of London Film School. Jeremy Thomas on IMDb
Tony Curtis was an American film actor whose career spanned six decades but who achieved the height of his popularity in the 1950s and early 1960s. He acted in more than 100 films in roles covering a wide range of genres, from light comedy to serious drama. In his years, Curtis made numerous television appearances. Although his early film roles took advantage of his good looks, by the latter half of the 1950s he had demonstrated range and depth in numerous dramatic and comedy roles. In his earliest parts he acted in a string of mediocre films, including swashbucklers, light comedies, sports films and a musical. However, by the time he starred in Houdini with his wife Janet Leigh, "his first clear success," notes critic David Thomson, his acting had progressed immensely, he achieved his first serious recognition as a dramatic actor in Sweet Smell of Success with co-star Burt Lancaster. The following year he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor in The Defiant Ones alongside Sidney Poitier.
Curtis gave what could arguably be called his best performance: three interrelated roles in the comedy Some Like It Hot. Thomson called it an "outrageous film," and an American Film Institute survey voted it the funniest American film made; the film co-starred Jack Lemmon and Marilyn Monroe, was directed by Billy Wilder. That was followed by Blake Edwards’s Operation Petticoat with Cary Grant, they were both frantic comedies, displayed his impeccable comic timing. He collaborated with Edwards on films. In 1960, Curtis played a supporting role in Spartacus, his stardom and film career declined after 1960. His most significant dramatic part came in 1968 when he starred in the true-life drama The Boston Strangler, which some consider his last major film role; the part reinforced his reputation as a serious actor with his chilling portrayal of serial killer Albert DeSalvo. He starred alongside Roger Moore in the ITC TV series The Persuaders!, with Curtis playing American millionaire Danny Wilde. The series ran twenty-four episodes.
Curtis is the father of actresses Jamie Lee Curtis and Kelly Curtis by his first wife, actress Janet Leigh. Tony Curtis was born Bernard Schwartz on June 3, 1925, at the Flower-Fifth Avenue Hospital on 105th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to Helen and Emanuel Schwartz. Biographies have propagated a misconception that he was born in the Bronx due to the family's moves when he was young, but Tony pointedly corrected this in a TV interview, his parents were Jewish emigrants from Czechoslovakia and Hungary: his father was born in Ópályi, near Mátészalka, his mother was a native of Nagymihály. S. from Válykó. He did not learn English until he was six, delaying his schooling, his father was a tailor and the family lived in the back of the shop—his parents in one corner and Curtis and his brothers Julius and Robert in another. His mother once made an appearance as a participant on the television show You Bet Your Life, hosted by Groucho Marx. Curtis said, "When I was a child, Mom beat me up and was aggressive and antagonistic."
His mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia. His brother Robert was institutionalized with the same mental illness; when Curtis was eight, he and his brother Julius were placed in an orphanage for a month because their parents could not afford to feed them. Four years Julius was struck and killed by a truck. Curtis joined a neighborhood gang whose main crimes were playing hooky from school and minor pilfering at the local dime store; when Curtis was 11, a friendly neighbor saved him from what he felt would have led to a life of delinquency by sending him to a Boy Scout camp, where he was able to work off his energy and settle down. He attended Seward Park High School. At 16, he had his first small acting part in a school stage play. Curtis enlisted in the United States Navy after the attack on war was declared. Inspired by Cary Grant's role in Destination Tokyo and Tyrone Power's in Crash Dive, he joined the Pacific submarine force. Curtis served aboard the USS Proteus, until the end of the Second World War.
On September 2, 1945, Curtis witnessed the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay from his ship's signal bridge about a mile away. Following his discharge from the Navy, Curtis attended City College of New York on the G. I. Bill, he studied acting at The New School in Greenwich Village under the influential German stage director Erwin Piscator. His contemporaries included Elaine Stritch, Harry Belafonte, Walter Matthau, Beatrice Arthur, Rod Steiger. While still at college, Curtis was discovered by Joyce Selznick, the notable talent agent, casting director, niece of film producer David O. Selznick. In 1948, Curtis arrived in Hollywood at age 23. In his autobiography, Curtis described how by chance he met Jack Warner on the plane to California, how he dated Marilyn Monroe before either was famous. Under contract at Universal Pictures, he changed his name from Bernard Schwartz to Tony Curtis and met unknown actors Rock Hudson, James Best, Julie Adams and Piper Laurie; the first name was from the novel Anthony Adverse and "Curtis" was from Kurtz, a surname in his mother's family.
Although Universal Pictures taught him fencing and riding, in keeping with the cinematic themes of the era, Curtis admitted he was at first interested only in girls and money. Neither was he hopeful of his chances of becoming a major star. Curtis's biggest fear was having to return home to the Bronx as a failure: I wa
The Palme d'Or is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. From 1939 to 1954, the highest prize at the festival was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film. In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975; the Palme d'Or is considered to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry. In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist; the festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes. The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien. In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for Marty. From 1964 to 1974, the Festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix.
In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the winning film, presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede. As of 2018, Jane Campion is the only female director to have won the Palme d'Or, for her work on The Piano. However, in 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's director Abdellatif Kechiche, as well as the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux; this marks the first time. The jury decided to award the actresses alongside the director due to a Cannes policy that forbids the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, thereby preventing the jury from rewarding both the film and the film's actresses separately. Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said that "had the casting been 3% wrong, it wouldn't have worked like it did for us". Kechiche auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, expressed mixed feelings about the festival having given out multiple trophies in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter.
Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, a new design, created by Caroline Scheufele from Chopard, was created; the winner of the 2014 Palme d'Or, Winter Sleep—a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan—occurred during the same year as the 100th anniversary of Turkish cinema. Upon receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated the prize to both the "young people" involved in the ongoing political unrest in Turkey and the workers who were killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day prior to the commencement of the awards event. In 2017, the award was re-designed to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary; the diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council. * Director's nationality given at time of film's release.
§ Denotes unanimous win ‡ The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II; the organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Goodbye Mr. Chips, La Piste du Nord, Lenin in 1918, The Four Feathers, The Wizard of Oz, Union Pacific, Boefje. Eight directors or co-directors have won the award twice: 1946 & 1951 Alf Sjöberg 1974 & 1979 Francis Ford Coppola 1988 & 1992 Bille August 1985 & 1995 Emir Kusturica 1983 & 1997 Shohei Imamura 1999 & 2005 Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne 2009 & 2012 Michael Haneke 2006 & 2016 Ken Loach In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or. In 2011 the festival announced that the award would be given out annually, however plans for this fell through and it was not awarded again until four years in 2015.
American director Woody Allen was the inaugural recipient while pioneering French filmmaker Agnès Varda was the first woman to receive the award in 2015. In 2016, Jean-Pierre Léaud became the first person to be awarded for acting. In 2018, the Cannes jury awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time. Golden Bear, the highest prize awarded at the Berlin Film Festival Golden Lion, the highest prize awarded at the Venice Film Festival Palme d'Or Winners, 1976 to present, by gross box-office Festival-cannes.com Cannes Film Festival IMDB
Judith Davis is an Australian actress known for her work in film and theatre. With a career spanning over 40 years she is commended for her versatility and is regarded as one of the finest actresses of her generation with frequent collaborator Woody Allen describing her as "one of the most exciting actresses in the world", she is the recipient of eight AACTA Awards, three Emmy Awards, two BAFTA Awards, two Golden Globe Awards and has received two Academy Award nominations. Davis is a 1977 graduate of the National Institute of Dramatic Art, where she starred opposite Mel Gibson in Romeo and Juliet. Most of Davis's stage work has been in Australia, including Piaf, Hedda Gabler and The Seagull, but she starred in the 1982 London production of Insignificance, for which she was nominated for the Olivier Award for Best Actress, the 1989 Los Angeles production of Hapgood, she returned to the National Institute of Dramatic Art in 2017 to direct Money. She went on to win the British Academy Film Awards for both Best Actress and Most Promising Newcomer for the 1979 film My Brilliant Career, two Australian Film Institute Awards as Best Actress for Winter of Our Dreams and Supporting Actress for Hoodwink, went onto receive Academy Award nominations for A Passage to India and Husbands and Wives.
This making her the first Australian to receive nominations in both categories and the fourth Australian actress to receive an Academy Award nomination. Her other film roles include High Rolling, Who Dares Wins, High Tide, Alice, George Sand in Impromptu, Barton Fink, Dark Blood, Absolute Power, Deconstructing Harry, The Man Who Sued God, The Break-up, Anne d'Arpajon in Marie Antoinette, The Eye of the Storm, To Rome with Love, The Young and Prodigious T. S. Spivet and The Dressmaker. For her television work, Davis won Primetime Emmy Awards for Serving in Silence: The Margarethe Cammermeyer Story, for playing Judy Garland in Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows and The Starter Wife and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film for Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows and One Against the Wind. Other television roles include Water Under the Bridge, A Woman Called Golda, A Cooler Climate, Nancy Reagan in The Reagans, Coast to Coast, Sante Kimes in A Little Thing Called Murder, Page Eight, Hedda Hopper in Feud: Bette and Joan and Mystery Road Davis was born in Perth, Western Australia, had a strict Catholic upbringing.
She was educated at Loreto Convent and the Western Australian Institute of Technology and graduated from the National Institute of Dramatic Art, Sydney in 1977. She has been married to actor and fellow NIDA graduate Colin Friels since 1984, they have a son and a daughter. The relationship was in the media when an argument led to a court order against Friels – however, they remained together at that time, they live in the Sydney area of New South Wales. After making her feature film debut in the 1977 buddy comedy High Rolling, Davis first came to prominence for her role as Sybylla Melvyn in the coming-of-age saga My Brilliant Career, for which she won BAFTA Awards for Best Actress and Best Newcomer. Davis was praised for her performance; the term “once in a lifetime” tends to be slapped around like a bumper sticker, but this meaty role lives up to the accolade." Her breakthrough success continued with lead roles in the Australian New Wave classics Winter of Our Dreams, as a waif-like heroin addict, the drama Heatwave, as a radical tenant organizer, the thriller Hoodwink, as a sexually-repressed clergyman's wife.
Of her performance in Winter of Our Dreams, Roger Ebert noted, "Davis brought a kind of wiry, feisty intelligence to My Brilliant Career, playing an Australian farm woman who rather felt she would do things her own way. She's wonderful again this time, in a different role as an insecure, skinny street waif. Performs her movement magnificently."Her international film career began in 1981 when she played the younger version of Ingrid Bergman's Golda Meir in the television docudrama A Woman Called Golda, a role for which she was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress – Miniseries or a Movie, followed by the role of a terrorist in the controversial British film Who Dares Wins. In 1984, she was cast as Adela Quested in David Lean's final film A Passage to India, an adaptation of E. M. Forster's novel, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress; the film became a critics' favourite, opening to tremendous praise worldwide and Variety praised Davis for having "the rare gift of being able to look plain at one moment and uncommonly beautiful at another.
The Washington Post wrote, "With makeup the color of smudged ivory, her pallor enhanced by the off-white linens she wears, Davis is daringly unattractive for a leading lady. Davis' neuroticism, her way of twitching and thrusting her jaw and looking up hungrily beneath the brim of her straw hat, brings to life the ravenous sexuality beneath Miss Quested's decorous exterior."She retur