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Insomnia known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping. They may have difficulty staying asleep as long as desired. Insomnia is followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, a depressed mood, it may result in an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, as well as problems focusing and learning. Insomnia can be short term, lasting for weeks, or long term, lasting more than a month. Insomnia can occur as a result of another problem. Conditions that can result in insomnia include psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, certain medications, drugs such as caffeine and alcohol. Other risk factors include working night shifts and sleep apnea. Diagnosis is based on an examination to look for underlying causes. A sleep study may be done to look for underlying sleep disorders. Screening may be done with two questions: "do you experience difficulty sleeping?" and "do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"Sleep hygiene and lifestyle changes are the first treatment for insomnia.

Sleep hygiene includes a consistent bedtime, exposure to sunlight, a quiet and dark room, regular exercise. Cognitive behavioral therapy may be added to this. While sleeping pills may help, they are associated with injuries and addiction; these medications are not recommended for five weeks. The effectiveness and safety of alternative medicine is unclear. Between 10% and 30% of adults have insomnia at any given point in time and up to half of people have insomnia in a given year. About 6% of people have insomnia, not due to another problem and lasts for more than a month. People over the age of 65 are affected more than younger people. Females are more affected than males. Descriptions of insomnia occur at least as far back as ancient Greece. Symptoms of insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep, including difficulty finding a comfortable sleeping position Waking during the night, being unable to return to sleep and waking up early Not able to focus on daily tasks, difficulty in remembering daytime sleepiness, depression or anxiety Feeling tired or having low energy during the day Trouble concentrating Being irritable, acting aggressive or impulsiveSleep onset insomnia is difficulty falling asleep at the beginning of the night a symptom of anxiety disorders.

Delayed sleep phase disorder can be misdiagnosed as insomnia, as sleep onset is delayed to much than normal while awakening spills over into daylight hours. It is common for patients who have difficulty falling asleep to have nocturnal awakenings with difficulty returning to sleep. Two-thirds of these patients wake up in the middle of the night, with more than half having trouble falling back to sleep after a middle-of-the-night awakening. Early morning awakening is an awakening occurring earlier than desired with an inability to go back to sleep, before total sleep time reaches 6.5 hours. Early morning awakening is a characteristic of depression. Anxiety symptoms may well lead to Insomnia; some of these symptoms include tension, compulsive worrying about the future, feeling overstimulated, overanalyzing past events Poor sleep quality can occur as a result of, for example, restless legs, sleep apnea or major depression. Poor sleep quality is defined as the individual not reaching stage 3 or delta sleep which has restorative properties.

Major depression leads to alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, causing excessive release of cortisol which can lead to poor sleep quality. Nocturnal polyuria, excessive nighttime urination, can be disturbing to sleep; some cases of insomnia are not insomnia in the traditional sense, because people experiencing sleep state misperception sleep for a normal amount of time. The problem is that, despite sleeping for multiple hours each night and not experiencing significant daytime sleepiness or other symptoms of sleep loss, they do not feel like they have slept much, if at all; because their perception of their sleep is incomplete, they incorrectly believe it takes them an abnormally long time to fall asleep, they underestimate how long they remain asleep. Symptoms of insomnia can be caused by or be associated with: Use of psychoactive drugs, including certain medications, caffeine, cocaine, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake.

Use of or withdrawal from alcohol and other sedatives, such as anti-anxiety and sleep drugs like benzodiazepines. Use of or withdrawal from pain-relievers such as opioids. Previous thoracic surgery. Heart disease. Deviated nasal septum and nocturnal breathing disorders. Restless legs syndrome, which can cause sleep onset insomnia due to the discomforting sensations felt and the need to move the legs or other body parts to relieve these sensations. Periodic limb movement disorder, which occurs during sleep and can cause arousals of which the sleeper is unaware. Pain, an injury or condition that causes pain can preclude an individual from finding a comfortable position in which to fall asleep, can in addition cause awakening. Hormone shifts such as those that precede menstruation and those during menopause. Life events such as fear, anxiety, emotional or mental tension, work problems, financial stress, birth of a child, bereavement. Gastrointestinal issues such as heartburn or constipation. Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, ADHD.

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Fleet Marston

Fleet Marston is a civil parish and deserted medieval village in the Aylesbury Vale district of Buckinghamshire, about 2.5 miles northwest of the centre of Aylesbury. The parish measures about 2.5 miles north – south, but east – west it is nowhere more than about 3⁄4 mile wide. It is bounded to the southeast by the River Thame, to the east by a stream that joins the Thame, to the west by field boundaries, it has an area of 934 acres. The A41 main road between Aylesbury and Waddesdon runs through the middle of the parish. Aylesbury Vale Parkway railway station is on the A41 road, just outside the parish's eastern boundary. In 2010 the Office for National Statistics estimated the parish population to be 47; the 2011 Census included its population in that of the civil parish of Waddesdon. The course of the former Akeman Street Roman road passes northwest – southeast through the parish. A "heavy scatter of Roman pottery" has been found in the parish on the course of the former road, indicating the site of a former Romano-British settlement.

Excavations carried out between 2007 and 2016 uncovered evidence for a late prehistoric territorial boundary, a middle Iron Age settlement and the agricultural hinterland of the putative nucleated Roman settlement of Fleet Marston. The latter included a "remarkable collection" of organic finds, included four hen's eggs, leather shoes, wooden tools and a basketry tray made of woven oak bands and willow rods, in addition to evidence of malting and brewing, other roadside trades and crafts, burials and a possible pyre site; the toponym "Marston" is derived from the Old English for "marsh farm". The prefix "Fleet" refers to the stream along eastern side of the parish, was added to distinguish the village from nearby North Marston; the Domesday Book of 1086 records the village as Mersetone. In the 13th century the village name was recorded as Flettemerstone; the oldest parts of St Mary's parish church are 12th-century. There are records of parish rectors from 1223 onwards; the baptismal font may be 13th-century and the present chancel arch and north porch were added in the 14th century.

One of the windows is 15th-century. Parish registers from 1630 onwards survive. John Wesley is known to have preached his first sermon at Fleet Marston shortly after his ordination as deacon in 1725; the building was restored in 1868–69 under the direction of George Gilbert Scott. It is now a Grade II* listed building, it is a redundant church in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. Some buildings in the village, including Fleet Marston Farm, are 17th-century; the manor house referred to below stood near the church, was demolished in 1772. In 1806 Daniel and Samuel Lysons described Fleet Marston in their Magna Britannia: FLEET-MARSTON, in the hundred of Ashendon and deanery of Waddesdon, lies about three miles from Aylesbury, on the road to Bicester; the manor, for many years in the Lees, has been purchased of their representative, Lord Dillon, by James Dupré esq. of Wilton Park. The advowson of the rectory being the property of John Tirrel-Morin esq. was advertised for sale in the month of May 1805.

By 1851 the parish was in decline. The religious census of 1851 recorded its population as 30, with just eight attending church on Sunday 30 March. By 1871 the population had fallen to 23. Little remains of the village today. In the south of the parish is the farm at Putlowes and Putlowes Cottages just to the southwest of the A41 road. In the centre of the parish, just northeast of the A41 are St Mary's church. In the north of the parish are Fleet Marston Farm, Fleet Marston Cottages and Lower Fleetmarston Farm; the latter can be reached only via Berryfields Road in adjoining Quarrendon parish. The Aylesbury and Buckingham Railway was built through the parish in the 1860s and opened in 1868; the Metropolitan Railway took it over in 1891 and opened Waddesdon railway station about 2 miles northwest of Fleet Marston in 1897. The line became part of the Metropolitan and Great Central Joint Railway in 1906. Waddesdon station was closed in 1936. British Railways withdrew passenger services in 1963 and reduced the line to single track.

However, in 2011 Chiltern Railways opened Aylesbury Vale Parkway railway station where the line crosses the A41 road, just outside the eastern boundary of the parish. The station has an hourly service to London Marylebone via Aylesbury. Legg, Edward, ed.. Buckinghamshire Religious Census 1851. Aylesbury: Buckinghamshire Record Society. P. 79. Page, WH, ed.. "Fleet Marston". A History of the County of Buckingham. Victoria County History. 4. London: The St Katherine Press. Pp. 74–76. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Buckinghamshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. P. 136. ISBN 0-14-071019-1. RCHME, ed.. "Fleet Marston". An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the County of Buckinghamshire. 1 – South. London: Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England. Pp. 158–159. Media related to Fleet Marston at Wikimedia Commons

Canon EOS 2000D

The Canon EOS 2000D, known as the Rebel T7 in the Americas, as the Kiss X90 in Japan and as the 1500D in southeast Asia, is a 24.0 megapixels digital single-lens reflex camera made by Canon. It was announced on February 25, 2018 with a suggested retail price of US$549.99 including the EF-S 18-55 f/3.5-5.6 IS II lens. The 2000D is an entry-level DSLR that supersedes the EOS 1300D. A key-added-feature was the introduction of the new 24.0 megapixels sensor. 24.0 effective megapixel APS-C CMOS sensor 9 AF points with 1 cross-type point in the center at f/5.6, extra sensitivity at f/2.8 or faster ISO sensitivity 100 – 6400 1080p Full HD video recording at 24p, 25p and 30p with drop frame timing 720p HD video recording at 60p and 50p 3.0" in 4:3 ratio colour TFT LCD screenDifferences compared to the 1300D: 24.0 megapixels sensor EOS Rebel T7 EF-S 18-55mm IS II Kit

2008 BCR Open Romania

The 2008 BCR Open Romania was a men's tennis tournament played on outdoor clay courts. It was the 16th edition of the event known that year as the BCR Open Romania, was part of the International Series of the 2008 ATP Tour, it took place at the Arenele BNR in Bucharest, from 8 September through 14 September 2008. The singles field was led by ATP No. 12, Stuttgart runner-up, Canada Masters quarterfinalist Richard Gasquet and Indianapolis titlist, Bucharest defending champion Gilles Simon, Costa do Sauípe and Acapulco winner, Valencia finalist Nicolás Almagro. Other seeded players were Marseille and Munich semifinalist Paul-Henri Mathieu, French Open quarterfinalist Ernests Gulbis, Carlos Moyá, Marcel Granollers and José Acasuso. Second-seeded and defending champion Gilles Simon won the singles title. Gilles Simon defeated Carlos Moyá, 6–3, 6–4 It was Gilles Simon's 3rd title of the year, his 5th overall, it was his 2nd consecutive win at the event. Nicolas Devilder / Paul-Henri Mathieu defeated Mariusz Fyrstenberg / Marcin Matkowski, 7–6, 6–7, Official website Singles draw Doubles draw Qualifying Singles draw

Luis Bográn

Luis Bográn Barahona was a President of Honduras, who served two consecutive presidential terms from 30 November 1883 to 30 November 1891. He was born in the northern Honduran department of Santa Bárbara on 3 June 1849 to Saturnino Bográn Bonilla and Gertrudis Barahona Leiva, he was a member of a wealthy political family. The last name "Bográn" derives from the French surname "Beaugrand". Luis Bográn was half-brother and first cousin of future president Francisco Bográn and first cousin of future president Miguel Paz Barahona. After completing his secondary school studies in his home town, a young Luis Bográn pursued a law degree at the University of San Carlos in Guatemala, pursued a career in the military. Bográn reached the rank of General within a few years, after successful military campaigns against Salvadoran military adversaries attempting to infiltrate national territory, he married Teresa Morejon Ferrera in 1878. Soon after, he became involved in politics, became ex-president Marco Aurelio Soto's protégé.

His two consecutive terms as president were considered to be prosperous for the nation. He is known for expanding the educational system by establishing a number of learning institutions around the country, attracting considerable foreign investment, improving the infrastructure of the capital city, encouraging research and investigation of the ancient Mayan city of Copán; as a strong supporter of Francisco Morazán's ideal, President Bográn was a unionist and attempted to bring about, with the help of Guatemalan President Justo Rufino Barrios, the unification of the five Central American states. The unionist agenda was defeated as the ultra-conservative power elites in these states thwarted unification attempts. Luis Bográn died in Guatemala city, Guatemala on 9 July 1895. Luis Bográn is renowned in Honduras for expanding the educational system throughout the major cities and towns of Honduras, he founded the Escuela de Artes y Oficios, the Academia Científico-Literario, the Tipografia Nacional.

He attracted substantial foreign investment into the agricultural arena, which resulted in job creation and economic development of the northern coast. He improved the infrastructure of Tegucigalpa. President Luis Bográn initiated the process of research and investigation in the ruins of the ancient Mayan city of Copan by inviting foreign universities to study the artifacts and architecture left behind by the Mayans, he was one of the founding members of the Partido Nacional de Honduras, PNH. brief biography on HRN website

Release consistency

Release consistency is one of the synchronization-based consistency models used in concurrent programming. In modern parallel computing systems, memory consistency must be maintained to avoid undesirable outcomes. Strict consistency models like sequential consistency are intuitively composed but can be quite restrictive in terms of performance as they would disable instruction level parallelism, applied in sequential programming. To achieve better performance, some relaxed models are explored and release consistency is an aggressive relaxing attempt. Sequential consistency can be achieved by hardware implementation, while release consistency is based on an observation that most of the parallel programs are properly synchronized. In programming level, synchronization is applied to schedule a certain memory access in one thread to occur after another; when a synchronized variable is accessed, hardware would make sure that all writes local to a processor have been propagated to all other processors and all writes from other processors are seen and gathered.

In release consistency model, the action of entering and leaving a critical section are classified as acquire and release and for either case, explicit code should be put in the program showing when to do these operations. In general, a distributed shared memory is release consistent if it obeys the following rules:1. Before an access to a shared variable is performed, all previous acquires by this processor must have completed. 2. Before a release is performed, all previous writes by this process must have completed. 3. The acquire and release accesses must be processor consistent. If the conditions above are met and the program is properly synchronized, the results of any execution will be the same as they would have been executed following sequential consistency. In effect, accesses to shared variables are separated into atomic operation blocks by the acquire and release primitives so that races and interleaving between blocks will be prevented. A lock release can be considered as a type of release synchronization.

Assume a loop operation is concerned as the code shown to the right. Two threads intend to enter a critical section and read the most recent value of a exit the critical section; the code shows that thread 0 enters the critical section. In order to execute P1 must read the latest value of ‘a’ written by P0. In that case, only one thread can be in the critical section at a time. Therefore, the synchronization itself has ensured that the successful lock acquisition at P1 occurs after lock release by P0. Besides, the S2 -> S3 ordering has to be ensured, since the P0 must propagate the new value of ‘a’ to P1. For the same reason, S5 must occur after S4, it is noticeable that correctness is not affected if memory accesses following the unlock issue before the unlock complete or memory accesses prior to a lock issue after the lock acquisition. However, the code in critical section can not be issued prior to the lock acquisition is complete because mutual exclusion may not be guaranteed. Post-wait synchronization is another implementation form of release consistency.

As shown in the code to the right, correctness can be ensured if post operations occur only after all memory access are complete the store to ‘a’. Apart from that, read operation should not be executed. S2 acts as S3 acts as an acquire synchronization. Therefore, S2 needs to prevent previous execution from occurring after it, S3 needs to prevent any execution from occurring before it. S2 does not need to prevent execution from occurring before it, Likewise, S3 does not need to prevent any previous execution from occurring after it. Lazy release consistency is a further optimization of release consistency, it assumes that the thread executing an acquire access does not need the values written by other threads until the acquire access has completed. Hence, all behavior of coherence can be delayed and timing for write propagation can be tweaked. Consider the scenarios described in the image to the right; this case shows when write propagation is performed on a cache coherent system based on the release consistency model.

The variable datum is propagated before the propagation of datumIsReady. But the value of datum is not needed until after the acquire synchronization access in P1 and it can be propagated along with datumIsReady without harming the result of the program; the second image displays. Considering this scenario, all values written ahead of the release synchronization are delayed and propagated together with the propagation of the release access itself. Hence and datumIsReady are propagated together at the release point. "TreadMarks" is an actual application of lazy release consistency. Lazy release consistency can outperform release consistency in certain cases. If there is a system with little bandwidth between processors or it suffers badly from the higher overheads because of frequent propagation of small block of data versus infrequent large data block propagation, LRC can help the performance. Consider a system employs a software level shared memory abstraction rather than an actual hardware implementation.

In this system, write propagation is executed at a page granularity, which makes it expensive to propagate a whole page when only one block in this page is modified. Therefore, write propagation is delayed until a release synchronization point is reached and the entire page will be modified at this time and the whole page will be propagated. LRC