New Zealand Security Intelligence Service
The New Zealand Security Intelligence Service is New Zealand's primary national intelligence agency, responsible for national security and foreign intelligence. The First National Government established the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service on 28 November 1956 as the New Zealand Security Service, aiming to counter perceived increased Soviet intelligence operations in Australia and New Zealand in the wake of the Petrov Affair of 1954, which had damaged Soviet-Australian relations; the New Zealand Security Service was modelled on the British domestic intelligence agency MI5 and its first Director of Security was Brigadier William Gilbert, a former New Zealand Army officer. The organization's existence remained a state secret until 1960. According to the journalist and author Graeme Hunt, domestic intelligence and counter-subversion prior to the establishment of the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service was in the hands of the New Zealand Police Force and of the New Zealand Police Force Special Branch.
Another predecessor to the NZSIS during the Second World War was the short-lived New Zealand Security Intelligence Bureau. The SIB, modelled after the British MI5, was headed by a junior MI5 officer; the conman Syd Ross duped Major Folkes into believing. Due to this embarrassment, Prime Minister Peter Fraser dismissed Folkes in February 1943 and the SIB merged into the New Zealand Police. Following the end of World War II in 1945, the Police Force resumed responsibility for domestic intelligence; the NZ Intelligence Community developed further in the 1960s due to the growing concern about political terrorism, improvements in weaponry, news media coverage, frequent air travel. As terrorist threats grew along with potential connections to wider groups, the adaption of counter-insurgency techniques increased in New Zealand; these developments culminated into the 1961 Crimes Act, enacted by Parliament, the Act would allow mindful targeting of possible terrorist suspects and scenarios. In 1969 the New Zealand Security Service was formally renamed the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service.
That same year the New Zealand Parliament passed an Act covering the agency's functions and responsibilities: the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Act. Parliament subsequently made various amendments to the Security Intelligence Act – the most controversial Robert Muldoon's 1977 amendment, which expanded the SIS's powers of monitoring considerably; the 1977 Amendment Act went on to define terrorism as: "planning, using or attempting to use violence to coerce, deter, or intimidate." This was in order to a new emerging threat of international terrorism. Following the 1977 Amendment Act, Parliament enacted the Immigration Amendment Act of 1978, which went on to further expand the definition of terrorism. In 1987 Gerald Hensley, the Chair of NZIC stated that the State Services Commission became attracted to the concept of "comprehensive security." This took into account both man-made threats such as natural hazards. This was in response to the severing of intelligence-sharing arrangements New Zealand had with the United States in 1985 over nuclear policy..
Following the attempted hijacking of an Air New Zealand Flight and the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior in 1985, Parliament enacted the International Terrorism Act 1987. The Act contained censorship powers given to the government around matters of national security and terrorism; this was in stark contrast to New Zealand's respect of international laws previously. At the end of the 20th Century and beginning of the 21st, New Zealand's Intelligence Community adapted to emerging chemical and cyber threats; these three areas became a key point of integration between the intelligence community agencies to meet the challenges of the 21st Century. Cases of terrorism overseas promoted the NZ Intelligence Community to exchange information and meet the growing demands of non-state actors; as a civilian organisation, the Security Intelligence Service takes no part in the enforcement of security. Its role is intended to be advisory, providing the government with information on threats to national security or national interests.
It advises other government agencies about their own internal security measures, is responsible for performing checks on government employees who require security clearance. The SIS is responsible for most of the government's counter-intelligence work; the NZSIS is a civilian security organisation. Its threefold roles are: to investigate threats to security and to work with other agencies within Government, so that the intelligence it collects are actioned and threats which have been identified are disrupted to collect foreign intelligence to provide a range of protective security advice and services to Government. In 2007, it was reported; the NZSIS is based with branches in Auckland and Christchurch. It has close to 300 full-time equivalent staff,The Director-General of the NZSIS reports to the minister in charge of the NZSIS, as of 2018 Andrew Little and the parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee. Independent oversight of its activities is provided by the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security.
The NZSIS is administered by a Director. As of 2014 the NZSIS has had seven directors: Brigadier Sir William Gilbert KBE DSO Judge Paul Molineaux CMG Brigadier Lindsay Smith CM
Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management (New Zealand)
The Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management is the public service department of New Zealand responsible for providing leadership and support around national and regional emergencies. Established within the Department of Internal Affairs in 1959, it now operates as a business unit of the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet; the Ministry reports to the Minister of Civil Defence Kris Faafoi. No formal civil defence or emergency management structure existed in New Zealand until the 1930s, when the increasing threat of war prompted the formation of the Emergency Precautions Scheme, controlled by the Department of Internal Affairs. In addition to war, earthquake risk was another concern of the Scheme, prompted in part by the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake. During World War II, the name of the EPS was changed to Civil Defence. While EPS/Civil Defence did not need to respond to any invasion attempts, it was twice called upon to assist with earthquake recovery efforts in Wellington and the Wairarapa region in 1942.
Following the war, responsibility for civil defence was assumed by the Department of Internal Affairs. A Review of Defence white paper, issued by the Second Labour Government amid the fear of nuclear war, proposed the establishment of a separate Ministry of Civil Defence; the first Director of Civil Defence was J. V. Meech, though in practice much of the work was delegated to Andrew Sharp; the Civil Defence Act 1962 set out in legislation the duties of the Ministry. In 1964, the first full-time Director of Civil Defence was appointed: Brigadier R. C. Queree. A new Ministry for Emergency Management was established under the National/New Zealand First Coalition Government by Civil Defence Minister Jack Elder on 1 July 1999, following the Review of Emergency Services; this replaced the existing Ministry of Civil Defence. The department name changed again to become the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management, its current title; the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management moved from the Department of Internal Affairs to the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet on 1 April 2014.
This was intended to reflect DMPC's role as the government's lead agency in national security planning. The Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management administers the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002 and: provides advice to government on civil defence emergency management matters identifies hazards and risks develops and evaluates the effectiveness of the civil defence emergency management strategic framework ensures coordination at local and national levels promotes civil defence emergency management and deliver public awareness about how to prepare for, what to do in, an emergency supports civil defence emergency management sector capability development and operations, including developing guidelines and standards monitors and evaluates the performance of the 16 regional Civil Defence Emergency Management Groups maintains and operates the National Crisis Management Centre, including the maintenance of a duty team to staff the Centre, issue warnings and public information manages the central government response to, recovery from, large scale emergencies resulting from geological and infrastructure failure.
Official website Get Ready Get Thru, the Ministry's multilingual public education campaign
Cabinet National Security Committee (New Zealand)
The Cabinet National Security Committee is a cabinet-level committee of the New Zealand Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, created in October 2014 by the Fifth National Government. This body is modelled after the British National Security Council and the Australian National Security Committee of Cabinet; the NSC is headed by the Minister of National Intelligence. The NSC is given oversight over New Zealand's intelligence community and security services and tasked with considering policies and proposals relating to those departments. Another function of the Cabinet National Security Committee is to coordinate and direct national responses to major crises or national security problems; the members of the Committee are the Prime Minister and Ministers responsible for the Civil Defence, the Defence, Foreign Affairs, Government Communications Security Bureau, New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, Police portfolios
Minister of National Security and Intelligence (New Zealand)
The Minister of National Security and Intelligence is a minister in the government of New Zealand, responsible for leading and setting the policies and legislative framework of New Zealand's national security system. Some of the Minister's other known responsibilities include chairing the Cabinet National Security Committee and the Intelligence and Security Committee; this portfolio was created by the Fifth National Government on 7 October 2014 and has been held since its creation by the Prime Minister. As of 2017, the ministerial position has been held by the Prime Minister in all 3 governments
State Services Commission
The State Services Commission is the central public service department of New Zealand charged with overseeing and improving the performance of the State sector of New Zealand and its organisations. The SSC's official responsibilities, as defined by the State Sector Act 1988, include: appointing and reviewing Public Service chief executives and developing senior leadership and management capability for the Public Service, providing advice on the training and career development of staff in the Public Service, reviewing the performance of each department, providing advice on the allocation of functions to and between departments and other agencies, providing advice on management systems and organisations in the Public Service and Crown entities, promoting and monitoring equal employment opportunities policies and programmes, any other functions with respect to the administration and management of the Public Service, as directed by the Prime Minister; the role of SSC, as described in the four year plan, is "to work with leaders across the State Services to change the way agencies think and operate".
The State Services Commissioner is the chief executive of the commission and has a range of responsibilities for the public service, the State Services and the wider state sector. The position has been known as the Public Service Commissioner, Chairman of the Public Service Commissioner, Chairman of the State Services Commission, Chief Commissioner of the State Services Commission; the current State Services Commissioner is Peter Hughes. The State Services Commissioner plays a central role in New Zealand's public service. One of the Commissioner's most visible roles is in the employment and dismissal of senior executives in individual Government departments; the Commissioner has power to issue codes of conduct for parts of the public service, to investigate Government departments, to advise the Government on the organisation of the public service. The Commissioner has a statutory duty to act independently of Ministerial direction, except in matters concerning the appointment and dismissal of Departmental chief executives.
Regarding the appointment of Departmental chief executives, the Commissioner plays a key role. The Commissioner is responsible for: Notifying the responsible Minister or Ministers of the vacancy; the Governor-General in Council may override the Commissioner's recommendation by appointing a different person to the vacant executive post. A chief executive may not be appointed for any longer than five years. Under the State Services Act, the Commissioner negotiates terms and conditions of employment with each Departmental chief executive, subject to the approval of the Prime Minister and the Minister of State Services; the Commissioner may recommend that a given chief executive be reappointed when the executive's contract expires, though the Government is free to ignore such a recommendation. The Commissioner is empowered, with the agreement of the Government, to dismiss a Departmental chief executive, "for just cause or excuse"; that is, the Government is by law forbidden from firing any chief executive or instructing a Commissioner to do so, but has the power to retain a chief executive against the Commissioner's advice.
The position of State Services Commissioner is one of the few positions in New Zealand's public service where Ministers are directly involved. The appointment and dismissal procedures and the term of office are set forth in the State Sector Act 1988, as amended from time to time. Section 3 of the Act specifies that the Commissioner is to be appointed by the Governor-General in Council on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Section 13 limits the term of office to five years, though this term may be further reduced in the Order in Council in which the appointment is made. Section 17 of the Act lists a small number of circumstances in which the Commissioner is deemed to have resigned. Otherwise, the Commissioner is well protected; the Governor-General has no power to dismiss the Commissioner. The Governor-General may suspend the Commissioner under Section 16 for misbehaviour or incompetence, but must explain why to the House of Representatives within seven sitting days. Otherwise, the Commissioner is restored to office.
At the end of the first decade of the twentieth century, New Zealand's public sector was considered to be inefficient and wasteful. The incoming MacKenzie administration launched the Hunt Commission on the civil service; the Hunt Commission recommended the establishment of a Board of Management under Cabinet to have'absolute and undisputed power' in'all matters relating to the control and management of the Service –... appointments, promotion, suspensions and indeed everything affecting officers –'. The Hunt Commission and its recommendations lead to the Public Service Act 1912 and the role of the Public Service Commissioner; the Act and the new Commissioner removed Ministers' direct involvement in appointments and personnel administration, separating the'political' and'administrative' func
Leader of the Opposition (New Zealand)
In New Zealand, the Leader of the Opposition is the politician who commands the support of the Official Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition by convention leads the largest party not supporting the government: this is the parliamentary leader of the second largest caucus in the House of Representatives. In the debating chamber the Leader of the Opposition sits directly opposite the Prime Minister; the Leader of the Opposition is elected by her party according to its rules. A new leader may be elected when the incumbent resigns, or is challenged for the leadership; the current Leader of the Opposition is Simon Bridges, elected by the National Party caucus on 27 February 2018. New Zealand has a parliamentary system based on the Westminster model; the term "Opposition" has a specific meaning in the parliamentary sense. The Leader of the Opposition leads a Shadow Cabinet, which scrutinises the actions of the Cabinet led by the Prime Minister; the Opposition leader may be viewed as an alternative prime minister.
There are several ways in which the Leader of the Opposition participates directly in affairs of state. These relate to national security matters, which are supposed to transcend party politics – the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, for example, is required to brief the Leader of the Opposition as well as the Prime Minister on certain matters; the leader of the Opposition receives a higher salary than other members of the Opposition, being paid the same amount as a Cabinet Minister. As at 2016 the Leader of the Opposition's salary is NZ$288,900. In addition, like all other members of parliament, the Leader of the Opposition receives annual allowances for travel and lodging. For much of the country's early history, the role was not a formal one. For most of the 19th century, there was any one person who could be considered Leader of the Opposition – those figures who took leading roles in opposing the government of the day were "first among equals", had no formal office, it was only when the Liberal Party was formed that any unified leadership appeared in Parliament, the role of Leader of the Opposition is traced from this point.
John Ballance, leader of the Liberals is considered the first Leader of the Opposition in the modern sense. When Ballance led the Liberals into government in 1891, they faced no formal opposition in a party sense, though certain MPs were styled Leader of the Opposition. However, their opponents coalesced around a leader, William Massey, who became Opposition leader in 1903, in 1909 became the first leader of the new Reform Party. After this, the Leader of the Opposition would always be the parliamentary leader of the largest party in the House of Representatives that had not undertaken to support the Government of the day. One notable exception to this was during World War I, when the opposition Liberal Party accepted the governing Reform Party's offer to form a wartime coalition. Prime Minister Massey extended the offer to the new Labour Party who rejected it; this made Labour the largest party not in government, however their leader Alfred Hindmarsh was not recognised as the Leader of the Opposition.
Joseph Ward, who became Deputy Prime Minister in the wartime cabinet still retained the title, albeit in name only. During the 1910s and 1920s, the role of Opposition alternated between the Liberal and Reform parties. However, the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s, together with a gradual weakening in support for the Liberals, led to a three-party situation by the mid-1920s, with the Labour and Liberal parties having a similar number of seats. After the 1925 Election there was no official Leader of the Opposition until Rex Mason of Labour won the seat of Eden in the by-election held on 15 April 1926. Labour superseded the Liberals as the official opposition and their leader Harry Holland became Leader of the Opposition; the 1928 general election put the United Party in government for the last time. Reform became the Opposition, however in 1931 Reform entered into coalition with the Liberals, Labour became the Opposition, despite being the third party; the unity of the Coalition, culminating in the formation of the National Party in 1936, created a stable two-party system, with National and Labour alternating between Government and Opposition for much of the remainder of the century.
With the introduction of the MMP voting system, first used in the 1996 general election, the nature of opposition has changed. Now, though the leader of the largest non-Government party still becomes the Leader of the Opposition, there will be several parties who are "in opposition". An example of this arose after the 2002 general election, when the National Party gained only 27 seats, less than half the 58 seats held by opposition parties; this prompted calls from a number of parties, notably New Zealand First and the Greens, for the abolition or reform of the post. It was argued by these parties that the position had become an "anachronism" in the modern multi-party environment, that the days of a united opposition bloc were gone. However, with the revival of the National Party in the 2005 general election, a more traditional relationship between Government and Opposition has been restored. According to Parliamentary Services, the Leader of the Opposition represents and speaks for all parties that are outside Government.
A table of Leaders of the Opposition is below. Those who served as Prime Minister, either before or after being Leader of the Opposition, are indicated. 1 From 4 August 1915 to 21 August 1919, the Reform Pa
Prime Minister of New Zealand
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017; the Prime Minister ranks as the most senior government minister. She or he is responsible for chairing meetings of Cabinet, she or he has ministerial responsibility for the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The office exists by a long-established convention, which originated in New Zealand's former colonial power, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the convention stipulates that the governor-general must select as prime minister the person most to command the support, or confidence, of the House of Representatives. This individual is the parliamentary leader of the political party that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber; the prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their actions to the governor-general, to the House of Representatives, to their political party, to the national electorate.
The head of government was titled "colonial secretary" or "first minister". This was changed in 1869 to "premier"; that title remained in use for more than 30 years, until Richard Seddon informally changed it to "prime minister" in 1901 during his tenure in the office. Following the declaration of New Zealand as a Dominion in 1907, the title of Prime Minister has been used in English. In Māori, the title pirimia, meaning "premier", continues to be used. New Zealand prime ministers are styled as "The Right Honourable", a privilege; the post of prime minister is, like other ministerial positions, an appointment by the governor-general on behalf of the monarch. By the conventions of responsible government, the governor-general will call to form a government the individual most to receive the support, or confidence, of a majority of the elected members of parliament. In making this appointment, convention requires the governor-general to act on the outcome of the electoral process and subsequent discussions between political parties.
In practice, the position falls to the parliamentary leader of the largest political party among those forming the government. The prime minister may lead a coalition government and/or a minority government dependent on support from smaller parties during confidence and supply votes. Once appointed and sworn in by the governor-general, the prime minister remains in the post until dismissal, resignation, or death in office; the prime minister, like other ministers, holds office "during the pleasure of the Governor-General", so theoretically, the governor-general can dismiss the prime minister at any time. The governor-general might exercise reserve power to dismiss the prime minister in circumstances pertaining to a non-confidence motion against the government in parliament; the office is not defined by codified laws, but by unwritten customs known as constitutional conventions which developed in Britain and were replicated in New Zealand. These conventions are for the most part founded on the underlying principle that the prime minister and fellow ministers must not lose the confidence of the democratically elected component of parliament, the House of Representatives.
The prime minister is leader of the Cabinet, takes a coordinating role. The Cabinet Manual 2008 provides an outline of the prime minister's responsibilities. By constitutional convention, the prime minister holds formal power to advise the sovereign; this means that as long as the prime minister has the confidence of parliament, they alone may advise the monarch on: Appointment or recall of the governor-general. Amendments to the letters patent constituting the office of governor-general, which most occurred in 2006; the conferment of New Zealand honours. As head of government, the prime minister alone has the right to advise the governor-general to: Appoint, dismiss, or accept the resignation of ministers. Call general elections by advising the governor-general to dissolve parliament; the governor-general may reject the advice to dissolve parliament if the prime minister has lost a vote of confidence, but so far none have done so. The prime minister is regarded by convention as "first among equals".
They do hold the most senior post in government, but are required to adhere to any decisions taken by Cabinet, as per the convention of collective ministerial responsibility. The actual ability of a prime minister to give direct orders is limited; the ability to appoint and dismiss ministers, allocate portfolios. The influence a prime minister is to have as leader of the dominant party; these powers may give more direct control over subordinates than is attached to the prime minister's role. The power gained from being central to most significant decision-making, from being able to comment on and criticise any decisions taken by other ministers. Since the introduction of the MMP electoral system, there has been an increased need for the prime minist