Martin Ingerman, known professionally as Marty Ingels, was an American actor, comedy sketch writer and theatrical agent, best known as the co-star of the 1960s television series I'm Dickens, He's Fenster and for voicing Pac-Man in the 1982 Hanna-Barbera animated television series of the same name. Ingels was born Martin Ingerman to a Jewish family in 1936 in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, the son of Jacob and Minnie Ingerman, his uncle was Abraham Beame, the mayor of New York City from 1974 to 1977. Ingels' acting career dates back to the early 1960s. In 1960, he appeared twice as himself in NBC's short-lived crime drama, Dan Raven, starring Skip Homeier and set on the Sunset Strip of West Hollywood, California, he had his own short-lived ABC television series, I'm Dickens, He's Fenster with John Astin, which lasted one season of thirty-two episodes. He guest-starred on the CBS sitcoms: Pete and Gladys, The Ann Sothern Show, Hennesey, he appeared in one episode of ABC's Bewitched as "Diaper Dan", who plants a microphone bug in Tabitha's rattle so a competing advertising agency can scoop and steal Darrin's ideas.
He appeared twice as Sol Pomeroy, a United States Army buddy of the character Rob Petrie, on CBS's The Dick Van Dyke Show. In 1978, Ingels guest starred in Episode One of The Love Boat, his voice-overs and commercials include those for Paul Masson wines, with his uniquely raspy voice. He played Autocat in the Motormouse and Autocat cartoons featured first on The Cattanooga Cats and in a series of their own, was Beegle Beagle in The Great Grape Ape Show, he appeared in Pac-Man as the title character. As as 2010, Ingels was cast in an episode of CBS's CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, he acted in films, including Armored Command, The Horizontal Lieutenant and Wonderful, The Busy Body, A Guide for the Married Man, For Singles Only, The Picasso Summer, If It's Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium, Linda Lovelace for President, Instant Karma. Beginning in the 1970s, Ingels worked as an agent, specializing in representing actors in celebrity endorsement ads. Ingels was married twice: first to Jean Marie Frassinelli in 1964.
Despite some drastically different personalities and several separations, the couple remained married until his death in 2015. Ingels died from a massive stroke at Tarzana Medical Center in Tarzana, California, on October 21, 2015, at the age of 79, he was survived by his wife, Shirley Jones, his stepsons. After Ingels' death, Jones stated "He drove me crazy, but there's not a day I won’t miss him and love him to my core." Ingels was known for frequent legal actions, so much that in his obituary in The New York Times Margalit Fox wrote: " always seemed to be suing someone, someone always seemed to be suing him". In 1993, Ingels sued actress June Allyson for his agency commission. Allyson had appeared in commercials for Depend, Ingels alleged he was not paid his proper commission as her agent. Allyson countersued. Ingels pleaded no contest to making annoying phone calls to Allyson. In 2003, he sued radio personality Tom Leykis and Westwood One, saying that comments made about him constituted age discrimination.
Ingels had called into Leykis's radio program objecting to the content, Leykis declared on the air that Ingels was "not just older than my demographic, you’re the grandfather of my demographic." In June 2005, Ingels's lawsuit was dismissed and Ingels was ordered to pay Leykis's $25,000 in legal fees. Jones, Shirley. Shirley and Marty: An Unlikely Love Story. New York: William Morrow & Company. ISBN 0-688-08457-5. Marty Ingels on IMDb C. A. Rejects Age Bias Suit Over Exclusion From Radio Talk Show An Interview with Marty Ingels Part One, June 2012 An Interview with Marty Ingels Part Two, June 2012 An Interview with Marty Ingels Part Three, July 2012 Marty Ingels
Orson Bean is an American film and stage actor, as well as a stand-up comedian and producer. He appeared on televised game shows from the 1960s through the 1980s and was a long-time panelist on the television game show To Tell the Truth. Orson Bean was born in Burlington, the son of Marian Ainsworth and George Frederick Burrows, his father was a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union, a fund-raiser for the Scottsboro Boys' defense, a 20-year member of the campus police of Harvard College. Among his other relatives is Calvin Coolidge, president of the United States at the time of his birth and was his first cousin twice removed. Bean graduated from the Cambridge Latin School. While stationed in postwar Japan, he refined a magic act during his off-duty hours. Following his military service, Bean began working in small venues as a stage magician before transitioning in the early 1950s to stand-up comedy, he studied theatre at HB Studio It was during that time when he stopped using his birth name professionally and adopted the stage name Orson Bean.
In an interview on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson in 1974, Bean recounted the source of his new name. He credited its origin to a piano player named Val at "Hurley's Log Cabin", a restaurant and nightclub in Boston, where he had once performed. According to Bean, every evening before he went on stage at the nightclub, Val would suggest to him a silly name to use when introducing himself to the audience. One night, for example, the piano player suggested "Roger Duck", but the young comedian got few laughs after using that name in his performance. On another night, the musician suggested "Orson Bean", the comedian received a great response from the audience, a reaction so favorable that it resulted in a job offer that same evening from a local theatrical booking agent. Given his success on that occasion, Bean decided to keep using the memorable name. In 1952, Bean made a guest appearance on NBC Radio's weekly hot-jazz series The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street, his vocal mannerisms were ideal for the mock-serious tone of the show, he became the show's master of ceremonies for its final season.
Bean was a frequent guest on The Tonight Show, appeared on game shows originating from New York. He was a regular panelist on To Tell the Truth in versions from the late 1950s through 1991. On July 5, 1965, his father appeared as a subject of the panel and he had to disqualify himself from participating, he appeared among other game shows. He hosted a pilot for a revamped version of Concentration in 1985, picked up on in 1987 as Classic Concentration with Alex Trebek. Although Bean was placed on the Hollywood blacklist for attending Communist Party meetings while dating a member, he continued to work through the 1950s and 60s, he played the title character in the 1960 Twilight Zone episode "Mr. Bevis". In 1961, for the CBS anthology series The DuPont Show with June Allyson, he starred as John Monroe in "The Secret Life of James Thurber", based on the works of the American humorist James Thurber. On Broadway he starred in the original cast of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? in 1955. In 1961, he was featured in Subways Are for Sleeping, for which he received a Tony Award nomination as Best Featured Actor in a Musical, as well as performing in Never Too Late the following year.
In 1964, he produced the Off-Off-Broadway musical Home Movies—which won an Obie Award—and the same year appeared in the Broadway production I Was Dancing. He starred in Illya Darling, the 1967 musical adaptation of the film Never on Sunday. Bean was a regular in Mary Hartman and its spin-off Fernwood 2Nite, he portrayed the shrewd businessman and storekeeper Loren Bray on the television series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman throughout its six-year run on CBS in the 1990s, he played John Goodman's homophobic father on Ohio. He played the main characters Bilbo and Frodo Baggins in the 1977 and 1980 Rankin/Bass animated adaptations of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, The Return of the King, he played Dr. Lester in Spike Jonze's 1999 film, Being John Malkovich. Bean appeared as a patient in the final two episodes of 7th Heaven's seventh season in 2003. In 2005, Bean appeared in the sitcom Two and a Half Men in an episode titled "Does This Smell Funny to You?", playing a former playboy whose conquests included actresses Tuesday Weld and Anne Francis.
He appeared in the 2007 How I Met Your Mother episode "Slapsgiving" as Robin Scherbatsky's 41-year-old boyfriend, Bob. In 2009 he was cast in the recurring role of Roy Bender, a steak salesman, Karen McCluskey's love interest on the ABC series Desperate Housewives. At the age of 87, Bean in 2016 appeared in "Playdates", an episode of the American TV sitcom Modern Family, he appeared in a 2017 episode of Teachers. He appeared as the elderly Holocaust survivor in the 2018 film The Equalizer 2. An admirer of Laurel and Hardy, Bean, in 1964, served as a founding member of The Sons of the Desert, the international organization devoted to sharing information about the lives of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy and studying and enjoying their films. In 1966 he helped founding the 15th Street School in New York City. A primary school using the radical democratic free school Summerhill as a model. Bean wrote an autobiographical account about his life-changing experience with the orgone therapy developed by Austrian-born psychoanaly
Fandango is an American ticketing company that sells movie tickets via their website as well as through their mobile app. Industry revenue increased for several years after the company's formation. However, as the Internet grew in popularity and medium-sized movie-theater chains began to offer independent ticket sale capabilities through their own websites. In addition, a new paradigm of moviegoers printing their own tickets at home emerged, in services offered by PrintTixUSA and by point-of-sale software vendor operated websites like "ticketmakers.com". An overall slump in moviegoing continued into the 2000s, as home theaters, DVDs, high definition televisions proliferated in average households, turning their homes into a preferred place to screen films. On April 11, 2007, Comcast acquired Fandango, with plans to integrate it into a new entertainment website called "Fancast.com," set to launch the summer of 2007. In June 2008, the domain Movies.com was acquired from Disney. With Comcast's purchase of a majority stake in NBCUniversal in January 2011, Fandango and all other Comcast media assets were merged into the company.
In March 2012, Fandango announced a partnership with Yahoo! Movies, becoming the official online and mobile ticketer serving over 30 million registered users of the Yahoo! service. On January 29, 2016, Fandango announced its acquisition of M-GO, a joint venture between Technicolor SA and DreamWorks Animation which it would rebrand as "FandangoNOW". In February of that same year Fandango announced its acquisition of Flixster and Rotten Tomatoes from Time Warner's Warner Bros. Entertainment; as part of the deal, Warner Bros. would become a 30% shareholder of the combined Fandango company. In December 2016, Fandango Media purchased Cinepapaya, a Peru-based website for purchasing movie tickets, for an undisclosed amount. Fandango charges a premium to use its services, ranging from 75¢ to $2.50, which reserves a ticket to be printed out upon arrival at a movie theater, thereby avoiding lines. Seating was promised for sold-out shows, but this feature was discontinued for most theaters, as not all were equipped to handle reserved seating and will call lines.
With ticket prices in many areas exceeding US$10.00, purchasing tickets through Fandango and other ticketing websites can make movie-going an expensive proposition. Fandango's advertisements play before previews at participating movie-theater chains and feature lunch bag puppets telling various one or two-line jokes and riddles centering on the company's name; the company produced an advertising segment, based on the song, "We are the World". Fandango's website offers exclusive film clips, celebrity interviews, reviews by users, movie descriptions, some web-based games to their members; as of March 5, 2015, Fandango provides customers with memberships the ability to refund or exchange their orders 2 hours before the showtime of their film. Fandango's Android app was listed among Techlands 50 Best Android Applications for 2013. Fandango is one of three major online advance movie ticket sale sites, along with MovieTickets.com and AtomTickets.com. Before being acquired by Comcast in April 2007, Fandango was owned, with the major stakeholder being the second largest movie-theater chain in the U.
S. Regal Entertainment Group, including the United Artists and Hoyts theater chains. Along with other partners, Regal founded Fandango to prevent the older MovieTickets.com from establishing a monopoly on phone and online ticketing services. It's advertising agency decided on its name because it sounded "fun and smart," "easily pronounce and remember--even though it has nothing to do with movies."Mergers of movie chains have complicated matters regarding which company provides online ticketing for a particular chain. Upon Regal's acquisition of Consolidated Theatres, that chain was under contract to MovieTickets.com. On the other hand, Regal's acquisition of the Hoyts chain resulted in Fandango taking over their online ticketing. Prior to 2012, Fandango did not provide online ticketing for many AMC Theatres. However, it provided online ticketing for those AMC Theatres part of the Loews Cineplex Entertainment chain, due to contractual obligations in place prior to the 2005 merger of the two movie chains.
Loews had attempted to break the contract in 2002 under pressure of bankruptcy and from AOL Moviefone and its partner, Loews' Cineplex subsidiary. As of February 8, 2012, Fandango began providing ticketing for all AMC Theatres in the US, after which MovieTickets.com's fellow shareholders sued AMC for breach of contract. AMC and MovieTickets.com settled in 2013, with an agreement that the theater chain's online ticketing would be available on both Fandango and MovieTickets.com. In May 2012, Fandango announced a partnership with former partner of MovieTickets.com. Atom Tickets, a movie ticketing app and website, launched in 2014, has been called a "serious competitor" for Fandango. In July 2009, it was revealed that Fandango along with other websites, including buy.com and Orbitz, were linked with controversial Web loyalty
David Bruce Cassidy was an American actor, singer and guitarist. He was known for his role as Keith Partridge, the son of Shirley Partridge, in the 1970s musical-sitcom The Partridge Family, which led to his becoming one of popular culture's teen idols and superstar pop singers of the 1970s, his career included acting in addition to singing. Cassidy was born at Flower Fifth Avenue Hospital in New York City, the son of singer and actor Jack Cassidy and actress Evelyn Ward, his father was of half Irish and half German ancestry, his mother was descended from Colonial Americans, along with some Irish and Swiss roots. His mother's ancestors were among the founders of New Jersey; as his parents were touring on the road, he spent his early years being raised by his maternal grandparents in a middle-class neighborhood in West Orange, New Jersey. In 1956, he found out from neighbors' children that his parents had been divorced for over two years and had not told him. In 1956, Cassidy's father married actress Shirley Jones.
They had three children: David's half-brothers, Shaun and Ryan. In 1968, after completing one final session of summer school to obtain credits necessary to get a high-school diploma, David moved into the rental home of Jack Cassidy and Shirley Jones in Irvington, New York, where his half-brothers lived. David remained there, seeking fame as an actor/musician, while working half-days in the mailroom of a textile firm, he moved out. Cassidy's father, Jack, is credited with setting his son up with his first manager. After signing with Universal Studios in 1969, Jack introduced him to former table tennis champion and close friend Ruth Aarons, who found her niche as a talent manager, given her theater background. Aarons had represented Jack and Shirley Jones for several years, represented Cassidy's half-brother, Shaun. Aarons became an authority figure and close friend to Cassidy, was the driving force behind his on-screen success. After making small wages from Screen Gems for his work on The Partridge Family during season one, Aarons discovered a loophole in his contract that he had been under-aged when he signed it, renegotiated it with far superior terms, a four-year duration, a rare stipulation at the time.
On January 2, 1969, Cassidy made his professional debut in the Broadway musical The Fig Leaves Are Falling. It closed after four performances, but a casting director saw the show and asked Cassidy to make a screen test. In 1969, he moved to Los Angeles. After signing with Universal Studios in 1969, Cassidy was featured in episodes of the television series Ironside, Marcus Welby, M. D. Adam-12, Medical Center and Bonanza. In 1970, Cassidy took the role of Keith Partridge on the musical television show The Partridge Family. After demonstrating his singing talent, Cassidy was allowed to join the studio ensemble as the lead singer; the show proved popular. In the midst of his rise to fame, Cassidy felt stifled by the show and trapped by the mass hysteria surrounding his every move. In May 1972, to alter his public image, he appeared nude on the cover of Rolling Stone in a cropped Annie Leibovitz photo. Within the first year, he had produced his own single, a cover of The Association's "Cherish", he began tours that featured his own hits.
Cassidy achieved far greater solo chart success in the UK than in his native America, including a cover of The Young Rascals' "How Can I Be Sure" and the double A-side single "Daydreamer" / "The Puppy Song" – two UK number ones which failed to chart in the States. In Britain, Cassidy the solo star remains best known for "Daydreamer", "How Can I Be Sure" and "Could It Be Forever", all released during his 1972–73 solo chart peak. Though he wanted to become a respected rock musician along the lines of Mick Jagger, his channel to stardom launched him into the ranks of teen idol, a brand he loathed until much in life, when he managed to come to terms with his bubblegum pop beginnings. Ten albums by The Partridge Family and five solo albums by Cassidy were produced during the series, with most selling more than a million copies each. Internationally, Cassidy's solo career eclipsed the phenomenal success of The Partridge Family, he became an instant drawing card, with sellout concert successes in major arenas around the world.
These concerts produced mass hysteria, resulting in the media coining the term "Cassidymania". For example, he played to two sellout crowds of 56,000 each at the Houston Astrodome in Texas over one weekend in 1972, his concert in New York's Madison Square Garden sold out in one day and resulted in riots after the show. His concert tours of the United Kingdom included sellout concerts at Wembley Stadium in 1973. In Australia in 1974, the mass hysteria was such that calls were made to have him deported from the country after the madness at his 33,000-person audience concert at Melbourne Cricket Ground. A turning point in Cassidy's live concerts was a gate stampede. At a show in London's White City St
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, other substantial subjective changes in thoughts and consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics and deliriants. Although hallucinations are a common symptom of amphetamine psychosis, amphetamines are not considered hallucinogens, as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While hallucinations can occur when abusing stimulants, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium. A debate persists on criteria which would differentiate a substance which is'psychedelic' from one'hallucinogenic'. Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 coined the term'hallucination' from the Latin word "alucinari" meaning "to wander in the mind"; the term'psychedelic' is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, or "mind-revealing".'A hallucinogen' and'a psychedelic' may refer to the same substance.'Hallucinations' and'psychedelia' may both refer to the same aspects of subjective experience in a given instance.
The term psychedelia carries an added reference to psychedelic substance culture, and'psychedelics' are considered by many to be the'traditional' or'classical hallucinogens' including DMT, Psilocybin, LSD.'A hallucinogen' in this sense broadly refers to any substance which causes changes in perception or hallucinations, while psychedelics carry a positive connotation of general perceptual enhancement. In contrast to Hollister's original criteria, adverse effects may predominate with some hallucinogens with this application of the term; the word psychedelic was coined to express the idea of a drug that makes manifest a hidden but real aspect of the mind. It is applied to any drug with perception-altering effects such as LSD and other ergotamine derivatives, DMT and other tryptamines including the alkaloids of Psilocybe spp. mescaline and other phenethylamines. The term "psychedelic" is applied somewhat interchangeably with "psychotomimetic" and "hallucinogen", The classical hallucinogens are considered to be the representative psychedelics and LSD is considered the prototypical psychedelic.
In order to refer to the LSD-like psychedelics, scientific authors have used the term "classical hallucinogen" in the sense defined by Glennon: "The classical hallucinogens are agents that meet Hollister's original definition, but are agents that: bind at 5-HT2 serotonin receptors, are recognized by animals trained to discriminate 1--2-aminopropane from vehicle. Otherwise, when the term "psychedelic" is used to refer only to the LSD-like psychedelics, authors explicitly point that they intend "psychedelic" to be understood according to this more restrictive interpretation. One explanatory model for the experiences provoked by psychedelics is the "reducing valve" concept, first articulated in Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception. In this view, the drugs disable the brain's "filtering" ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions and thoughts from reaching the conscious mind; this effect has been described as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding, for the drug "expands" the realm of experience available to conscious awareness.
While possessing a unique mechanism of action, cannabis or marijuana has been regarded alongside the classic psychedelics. A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance, designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug while at the same time avoid being classified as illegal and/or avoid detection in standard drug tests. Many designer drugs and research chemicals are hallucinogenic in nature, such as those in the 2C and 25-NB families. Dissociatives produce analgesia and catalepsy at anesthetic doses, they produce a sense of detachment from the surrounding environment, hence "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient seems disassociated from his environment." Dissociative symptoms include the disruption or compartmentalization of "...the integrated functions of consciousness, identity or perception."p. 523 Dissociation of sensory input can cause derealization, the perception of the outside world as being dream-like or unreal.
Other dissociative experiences include depersonalization, which includes feeling detached from one's body. Simeon offered "...common descriptions of depersonalisation experiences: watching oneself from a distance. However, dissociation is remarkably administered by salvinorin A's potent κ-opioid receptor agonism, though sometimes described as an atypical psychedelic; some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or heart rate to levels resulting in death (w
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once