El-Wahat el-Bahariya or el-Bahariya is a depression and oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt. It is 370 km away from Cairo; the oval valley extends from northeast to southwest, has a length of 94 km, a maximum width of 42 km and covers an area of about 2000 km². The valley has numerous springs. Located in Giza Governorate, the main economic sectors are agriculture, iron ore mining, tourism; the main agricultural products are guavas, mangos and olives. Bahariya consists of many villages, of which El Bawiti is the administrative center. Qasr is el-Bawiti's neighboring/twin village. To the east, about ten kilometers away are the villages of el-Zabu. A smaller village called el - ` Aguz lies between El Mandishah. Harrah, the eastern most village, is a few kilometers east of el-Zabu. El Hayz called El-Hayez, is the southern most village, but it may not always be considered as part of Bahariya because it is so far from the rest of the villages, about fifty kilometers south of El Bawiti. There is an oasis at El-Hayez where mummies have been found on which genetic studies have been conducted.
The people of the oasis, or the Waḥātī people, are the descendants of the ancient people who inhabited the oasis, Bedouin tribes from Libya and the north coast, other people from the Nile Valley who came to settle in the oasis. The majority of Waḥātī people in Bahariya are Muslims. There are some mosques in Bahariya; the nature of social settings in the oasis is influenced by Islam. Traditional music is important to the Waḥātī people. Flutes and the simsimeyya are played at social gatherings at weddings. Traditional songs sung in rural style are passed down from generation to generation, new songs are invented as well. Music from Cairo, the greater Middle East, other parts of the world are now accessible to the people of the oasis. In Ancient Egypt the depression was known under two names; the form Djesdjes is first mentioned on a scarab dating back to the Middle Kingdom. In the New Kingdom, this name is found, but does appear for example in the Temple of Luxor or in the account of King Kamose, who occupied the oasis during the war against the Hyksos.
From the 25th Dynasty it was the only name used. The other name Wḥ3.t mḥty.t was exclusively used in the New Kingdom, it appears for instance on the local grave of Amenhotep, is found again in the list of oasis in the Temple at Edfu. From 45 CE the depression is known in Latin as Oasis parva; the Greek historian Strabo calls it the ‘Second Oasis’. In Coptic times it was known as the Oasis of Bemdje and in Islamic times it was called the Oasis of Bahnasa; the modern name is الواحات البحرية, al-Wāḥāt al-Baḥriyya meaning "the Seaside Oasis”. The southern part of the depression around El Heiz never had a separate name. Agriculture is still an important source of income, though now the iron ore industry close to Bahariya provides jobs for many Wahati people. There has been an increase in tourism to the oasis because of antiquities, because of the beautiful surrounding deserts. Wahati and foreign guides lead adventure desert tours based out of Bahariya to the surrounding white and black deserts, sometimes to Siwa or the southern oases.
Tourism is a new and important source of income for locals, it has brought an international presence to the oasis. The depression was populated since the neolithic if there is no archaeological evidence to all times. In el-Haiz, a prehistoric settlement site of hunter-gatherers was found with remains of grindstones, scrapers and ostrich eggshells. In Qārat el-Abyaḍ, a Czech team led by Miroslav Bárta discovered a settlement of the Old Kingdom. Rock inscriptions in el-Harrah and other records upwards; the tomb of Amenhotep called. In the 26th dynasty, the depression was economically flourishing; this can be learned from the chapels in'Ain el-Muftilla, the tombs in Qārat Qasr Salim and Qarat esh-Sheikh Subi, the site of Qasr'Allam. A newly flourishing time occurs at the Greek-Roman time. There is the ruin of a temple to Alexander the Great located in Qasr el-Miqisba, it is believed by some Egyptologists that the Greek conqueror passed through Bahariya while returning from the oracle of Ammon at Siwa Oasis.
Excavations of the Greco-Roman necropolis found in 1995 and known as the Valley of the Golden Mummies began in 1999. Thirty-four tombs have been excavated from this area. In Roman times, a big military fort was erected at Qarat el-Toub. In the spring of 2010, a Roman-era mummy was unearthed in a Bahariya Oasis cemetery in el-Harrah; the 3-foot-tall female mummy was found covered with plaster decorated to resemble Roman dress and jewelry. In addition to the female mummy, archaeologists found clay and glass vessels, anthropoid masks and 14 Greco-Roman tombs. Director of Cairo and Giza Antiquities Mahmoud Affifi, the archaeologist who led the dig, said the tomb has a unique design with stairways and corridors, could date to 300 BC; this find. Carcharodontosaurus and Bahariasaurus (meaning
The Karnak Temple Complex known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels and other buildings near Luxor, in Egypt. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period, although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom; the area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes; the Karnak complex gives its name to the nearby, surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor. The complex includes the Karnak Open Air Museum, it is believed to be the second most visited historical site in Egypt. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is open to the general public; the term Karnak is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public.
There are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, the Luxor Temple. The Precinct of Mut is ancient, being dedicated to an Earth and creation deity, but not yet restored; the original temple was destroyed and restored by Hatshepsut, although another pharaoh built around it in order to change the focus or orientation of the sacred area. Many portions of it may have been carried away for use in other buildings; the key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction of temples continued into Ptolemaic times. Thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features are overwhelming; the deities represented range from some of the earliest worshiped to those worshiped much in the history of the Ancient Egyptian culture.
Although destroyed, it contained an early temple built by Amenhotep IV, the pharaoh who would celebrate a near monotheistic religion he established that prompted him to move his court and religious center away from Thebes. It contains evidence of adaptations, using buildings of the Ancient Egyptians by cultures for their own religious purposes. One famous aspect of Karnak is the Hypostyle Hall in the Precinct of Amun-Re, a hall area of 50,000 sq ft with 134 massive columns arranged in 16 rows. 122 of these columns are 10 meters tall, the other 12 are 21 meters tall with a diameter of over three meters. The architraves on top of these columns are estimated to weigh 70 tons; these architraves may have been lifted to these heights using levers. This would be an time-consuming process and would require great balance to get to such great heights. A common alternative theory regarding how they were moved is that large ramps were constructed of sand, brick or stone and that the stones were towed up the ramps.
If stone had been used for the ramps, they would have been able to use much less material. The top of the ramps would have employed either wooden tracks or cobblestones for towing the megaliths. There is an unfinished pillar in an out-of-the-way location that indicates how it would have been finished. Final carving was executed after the drums were put in place so that it was not damaged while being placed. Several experiments moving megaliths with ancient technology were made at other locations – some of them are listed here. In 2009 UCLA launched a website dedicated to virtual reality digital reconstructions of the Karnak complex and other resources; the sun god's shrine has light focused upon it during the winter solstice. The history of the Karnak complex is the history of Thebes and its changing role in the culture. Religious centers varied by region, when a new capital of the unified culture was established, the religious centers in that area gained prominence; the city of Thebes does not appear to have been of great significance before the Eleventh dynasty and previous temple building there would have been small, with shrines being dedicated to the early deities of Thebes, the Earth goddess Mut and Montu.
Early building was destroyed by invaders. The earliest known artifact found in the area of the temple is a small, eight-sided column from the Eleventh Dynasty, which mentions Amun-Re. Amun was long the local tutelary deity of Thebes, he was identified with the goose. The Egyptian meaning of Amun is, "hidden" or, the "hidden god". Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the Eighteenth dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt; every pharaoh of that dynasty added something to the temple site. Thutmose I erected an enclosure wall connecting the Fourth and Fifth pylons, which comprise the earliest part of the temple still standing in situ. Hatshepsut had monuments constructed and restored the original Precinct of Mut, the ancient great goddess of Egypt, ravaged by the foreign rulers during the Hyksos occupation, she had at the time the tallest in the world, erected at the entrance to the temple. One still stands, as the tallest surviving ancient obelisk on Earth.
Another of her projects at the site, Karnak's Red C
Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne was a French priest, teacher and a critical historian of Christianity and Roman Catholic liturgy and institutions. Descended from a family of Breton sailors, he was born on 13 September 1843 in Saint-Servan, Place Roulais, now part of Saint-Malo on the Breton coast, was orphaned in 1849, after the death of his father Jacques Duchesne. Louis' brother, Jean-Baptiste Duchesne, settled in Oregon City, Oregon in 1849. Louis Duchesne was ordained to the priesthood in 1867, he taught for many years in Saint-Brieuc went to study in Paris. From 1873 to 1876, he was a student at the École française in Rome, he was an amateur archaeologist and organized expeditions from Rome to Mount Athos, to Syria, Asia Minor, from which he gained an interest in the early history of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1877, he obtained the chair of ecclesiastical history of the Catholic Institute, but left the theological faculty in 1883, he taught at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, where he influenced Alfred Firmin Loisy, a founder of the movement of Modernism, formally condemned under Pope Pius X.
In 1895, he was appointed director of the École française. In 1887, he published the results of his thesis, followed by the first complete critical edition of the Liber Pontificalis. At a difficult time for critical historians applying modern methods to Church history, drawing together archaeology and topography to supplement literature and setting ecclesiastical events with contexts of social history, Abbé Duchesne was in constant correspondence with like-minded historians among the Bollandists, with their long history of critical editions of hagiographies, he wrote Les Sources du martyrologe hyéronimien, Origines du culte chrétien, Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule, Les Premiers temps de l'État pontifical. These works were universally praised, he was appointed a commander of the Legion of Honor. However, his Histoire ancienne de l'Église, 1906‑11 was considered too modernist by the Church during the "Modernist crisis" and was placed on the Index of Forbidden Books in 1912. In 1888, he became a member of the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, in 1910, he was elected to the Académie française.
Abbe Duchesne was made an apostolic prothonotary in 1900. He died in 1922, in Rome, is buried in the cemetery of Saint-Servan. Mémoire sur une mission au mont Athos Les Nouveaux textes de Saint Clément de Rome, 1877 De codicibus MSS Graecis Pii II in bibliotheca Alexandrino-Vaticana, Paris 1880 Origines du culte chrétien: etude sur la liturgie latine avant Charlemagne Christian worship: its origin and evolution: a study of the Latin liturgy up to the time of Charlemagne. M. L. McClure. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1903. P. 557.. Next printing 1919 and 1931 in New York: Macmillan Company; the churches separated from Rome. Arnold Harris Mathew. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & co. ltd. 1907. P. 224. Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: I. Provinces du Sud-Est. Paris: Fontemoing. Second edition Early history of the Christian church from its foundation to the end of the third century. 1–2. London: J. Murray. 1909. P. 428. Vol. III Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: II.
L'Aquitaine et les Lyonnaises. Paris: Fontemoing. Second edition Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: III. Paris: Fontemoing. Second edition Scripta minora: études de topographie romaine et de géographie ecclésiastique. Rome: École française de Rome. 1973. - commemorating the 50th anniversary of the death of Louis Duchesne. Hill, Harvey; the Politics of Modernism: Alfred Loisy and the Scientific Study of Religion. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press. Pp. 23–31, 55–56. ISBN 978-0-8132-1094-0. Harvey Hill. J. T. Talar. By Those Who Knew Them: French Modernists Left and Center. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press. Pp. 42–66, 74–76, 82–88. ISBN 978-0-8132-1537-2. Joassart, B. editor Monseigneur Duchesne et les Bollandistes: Correspondance 2002. Waché, Brigitte. Monseigneur Duchesne et son temps Rome: École française de Rome. Waché, Brigitte. Monseigneur Louis Duchesne Rome: École française de Rome. Table of "Personalities and interpreters of the modernist movement" in the Roman Catholic Church
Dakhla Oasis, translates to the inner oasis, is one of the seven oases of Egypt's Western Desert. Dakhla Oasis lies in the New Valley Governorate, 350 km from the Nile and between the oases of Farafra and Kharga, it measures 80 km from east to west and 25 km from north to south. The human history of this oasis started during the Pleistocene, when nomadic tribes settled sometimes there, in a time when the Sahara climate was wetter and where humans could have access to lakes and marshes, but about 6,000 years ago, the entire Sahara became drier, changing progressively into a hyper-arid desert. However, specialists think that nomadic hunter-gatherers began to settle permanently in the oasis of Dakhleh in the period of the Holocene, during new, but rare episodes of wetter times. In fact, the drier climate didn't mean that there was more water than today in what is now known as the Western Desert; the south of the Libyan Desert has the most important supply of subterranean water in the world through the Nubian Aquifer, the first inhabitants of the Dakhla Oasis had access to surface water sources.
In the third millennium BC the nomadic people of the Sheikh Muftah culture lived here. The first contacts between the pharaonic power and the oases started around 2550 BCE. During the late 6th Dynasty, hieratic script was sometimes incised into clay tablets with a stylus, similar to cuneiform. About five hundred such tablets have been discovered in the governor's palace at Ayn Asil in the Dakhla Oasis. At the time the tablets were made, Dakhla was located far from centers of papyrus production; these tablets record inventories, name-lists and fifty letters. The fortified Islamic town of Al Qasr was built at Dakhla Oasis in the 12th century on the remains of a Roman era settlement by the Ayyubid kings of Egypt; the first European traveller to find the Dakhla Oasis was Sir Archibald Edmonstone, in the year 1819. He was succeeded by several other early travellers, but it was not until 1908 that the first egyptologist, Herbert Winlock, visited Dakhla Oasis and noted its monuments in some systematic manner.
In the 1950s, detailed studies began, first by Dr. Ahmed Fakhry, in the late 1970s, an expedition of the Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale and the Dakhla Oasis Project each began detailed studies in the oasis. Dakhla Oasis consists along a string of sub-oases; the main settlements are Mut, El-Masara, Al-Qasr, together with several smaller villages. Some of the communities have identities. Qalamoun has inhabitants that trace their origins to the Ottomans. Dakhla Oasis has typical of much of Egypt; the Dakhleh Oasis Project is a long-term study project of the Dakhleh Oasis and the surrounding palaeoasis, initiated in 1978 when the Royal Ontario Museum and the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities were awarded a joint concession for part of the Oasis. In 1979, the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History at Monash University began to cooperate in the project; the DOP studies the interaction between environmental changes and human activity in the Dakhleh Oasis. The director of the DOP is former curator at the Royal Ontario Museum.
The excavations at Ismant el-Kharab, Mut el-Kharab, Deir Abu Metta and Muzawwaqa are undertaken with the cooperation of Monash University, under the direction of Gillian E. Bowen. Bowen and Colin Hope of Monash, are the principal investigators at Ismant el-Kharab; the DOP has excavated at'Ain el-Gazzareen, El Qasr el-Dakhil, Deir el Hagar and Ain Birbiyeh. As well as the Dakhleh Trust, formed in 1999 to raise money for the DOP, organizations which have supported or participated in the DOP include: the Royal Ontario Museum, the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, Monash University, the University of Durham, the University of Toronto, Columbia University, the American Research Centre in Egypt, the Egyptology Society of Victoria and New York University. In addition, excavations are undertaken at Amheida under the direction of Roger S. Bagnall; these were conducted under the auspices of Columbia University, but are conducted for New York University. Excavations are underway at Balat under the auspices of the IFAO under the direction of Georges Soukiassian in conjunction with the Ministry for State Antiquities.
In 2018, the fossilized remains of a large dinosaur were discovered here. In 2019, two ancient tombs were discovered at Ber El-Shaghala archaeological site, that date back to Roman Egypt; the Dakhleh Trust is a registered charity in Britain. Its declared aim is to advance understanding of the history of the environment and cultural evolution throughout the Quaternary period in the eastern Sahara, in the Dakhla Oasis. To this end, the present trustees have committed themselves to supporting the DOP. Boozer, A. “Archaeology on Egypt’s Edge: Archaeological Research in the Dakhleh Oasis, 1819-1977” in Ancient West & East: 12: 117-156. 2013. Fakhry, A; the Oases of Egypt, I: Siwa Oasis, Le Caire, Amer. Univ. in Cairo Press. Fakhry, A; the Oases of Egypt, II: Bahriyah and Farafra Oases, Le Caire, Univ. in Cairo Press, c. 2003. Giddy, L. Egyptian Oases: Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga during Pharaonic Times, Aris & Philips, 1987. Jackson, R. At Empire's Edge: Exploring Rome's Egyptian Frontier, New Haven et Londres, Yale University Press, 2002.
Thurston, H. Island of the Blessed: the Secrets of Egypt's
Saqqara spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English, is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world-famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of mastabas. Located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo, Saqqara covers an area of around 7 by 1.5 km. At Saqqara, the oldest complete stone building complex known in history was built: Djoser's step pyramid, built during the Third Dynasty. Another 16 Egyptian kings built pyramids at Saqqara, which are now in various states of preservation or dilapidation. High officials added private funeral monuments to this necropolis during the entire pharaonic period, it remained an important complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies for more than 3,000 years, well into Ptolemaic and Roman times. North of the area known as Saqqara lies Abusir; the area running from Giza to Dahshur has been used as a necropolis by the inhabitants of Memphis at different times, it was designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979.
Some scholars believe that the name Saqqara is not derived from the ancient Egyptian funerary deity, but from a local Berber Tribe called Beni Saqqar. The earliest burials of nobles can be traced back to the First Dynasty, at the northern side of the Saqqara plateau. During this time, the royal burial ground was at Abydos; the first royal burials at Saqqara, comprising underground galleries, date to the Second Dynasty. The last Second Dynasty king, was buried in his tomb at Abydos, but built a funerary monument at Saqqara consisting of a large rectangular enclosure, known as Gisr el-Mudir, it inspired the monumental enclosure wall around the Step Pyramid complex. Djoser's funerary complex, built by the royal architect Imhotep, further comprises a large number of dummy buildings and a secondary mastaba. French architect and Egyptologist Jean-Philippe Lauer spent the greater part of his life excavating and restoring Djoser's funerary complex. Tomb of king Hotepsekhemwy tomb of king Nynetjer Buried Pyramid, funerary complex of king Sekhemkhet Gisr el-Mudir, funerary complex of king Khasekhemwy Step Pyramid, funerary complex of king Djoser Nearly all Fourth Dynasty kings chose a different location for their pyramids.
During the second half of the Old Kingdom, under the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, Saqqara was again the royal burial ground. The Fifth and Sixth Dynasty pyramids are not built wholly of massive stone blocks, but instead with a core consisting of rubble, they are less well preserved than the world-famous pyramids built by the Fourth Dynasty kings at Giza. Unas, the last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, was the first king to adorn the chambers in his pyramid with Pyramid Texts. During the Old Kingdom, it was customary for courtiers to be buried in mastaba tombs close to the pyramid of their king. Thus, clusters of private tombs were formed in Saqqara around the pyramid complexes of Unas and Teti. Mastabet el-Fara'un, tomb of king Shepseskaf Pyramid complex of king Userkaf Haram el-Shawaf, pyramid complex of king Djedkare Pyramid of king Menkauhor Mastaba of Ti Mastaba of the Two Brothers Pyramid complex of king Unas Mastaba of Ptahhotep Pyramid complex of king Teti Mastaba of Mereruka Mastaba of Kagemni Mastaba of Akhethetep Pyramid complex of king Pepi I Pyramid complex of king Merenre Pyramid complex of king Pepi II Tomb of Perneb Pyramid of king Ibi From the Middle Kingdom onward, Memphis was no longer the capital of the country, kings built their funerary complexes elsewhere.
Few private monuments from this period have been found at Saqqara. Pyramid of king Khendjer Pyramid of an unknown king During the New Kingdom Memphis was an important administrative and military centre, being the capital after the Amaran Period. From the Eighteenth Dynasty onward many high officials built tombs at Saqqara. While still a general, Horemheb built a large tomb here, although he was buried as pharaoh in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. Other important tombs belong to the vizier Aperel, the vizier Neferrenpet, the artist Thutmose, the wet-nurse of Tutankhamun, Maia. Many monuments from earlier periods were still standing, but dilapidated by this period. Prince Khaemweset, son of Pharaoh Ramesses II, made repairs to buildings at Saqqara. Among other things, he restored the Pyramid of Unas and added an inscription to its south face to commemorate the restoration, he enlarged the Serapeum, the burial site of the mummified Apis bulls, was buried in the catacombs. The Serapeum, containing one undisturbed interment of an Apis bull and the tomb of Khaemweset, were rediscovered by the French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette in 1851.
Several clusters of tombs of high officials, among which the tombs of Horemheb and of Maya and Merit. Reliefs and statues from these two tombs are on display in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden, the Netherlands, in the British Museum, London. During the periods after the New Kingdom, when several cities in the Delta served as capital of Egypt, Saqqara remained in use as a burial ground for nobles. Moreover, the area became an important destination for pilgrims to a number of cult centres. Activities sprang up around the Serapeum, extensive underground galleries were cut into the rock as burial sites for large numbers of mummified ibises, cats and falcons. Several shaft tombs of officials o
Faiyum is a city in Middle Egypt. Located 100 kilometres southwest of Cairo, in the Faiyum Oasis, it is the capital of the modern Faiyum Governorate. Called Shedet in Egyptian, the Greeks called it Koine Greek: Κροκοδειλόπολις Krokodilópolis, the Romans Arsinoë, it is one of Egypt's oldest cities due to its strategic location. Its name in English is spelled as Fayum, Faiyum or Al Faiyūm. Faiyum was officially named Madīnet Al Faiyūm; the name Faiyum may refer to the Faiyum Oasis, although it is used by Egyptians today to refer to the city. The modern name of the city comes from Coptic ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ /Ⲡⲉⲓⲟⲙ epʰiom/peiom, meaning the Sea or the Lake, which in turn comes from late Egyptian pꜣ-ymꜥ of the same meaning, a reference to the nearby Lake Moeris. Archaeological evidence has found occupations around the Fayum dating back to at least the Epipalaeolithic. Middle Holocene occupations of the area are most studied on the north shore of Lake Moeris, where Gertrude Caton Thompson and Elinor Wight Gardner did a number of excavations of Epipalaeolithic and Neolithic sites, as well as a general survey of the area.
The area has been further investigated by a team from the UCLA/RUG/UOA Fayum Project. In ancient Egypt, the city was called Shedet; the 10th-century Bible exegete, Saadia Gaon, thought el-Fayyum to have been the biblical city of Pithom, mentioned in Exodus 1:11. It was the most significant centre of the cult of the crocodile god Sobek. In consequence, the Greeks called it "Crocodile City", borrowed into Latin as Crocodīlopolis; the city worshipped a tamed sacred crocodile called in Koine Petsuchos, "the Son of Soukhos", adorned with gold and gem pendants. The Petsoukhos lived in a special temple pond and was fed by the priests with food provided by visitors; when Petsuchos died, it was replaced by another. Under the Ptolemaic Kingdom, the city was for a while called Ptolemais Euergétis. Ptolemy II Philadelphus renamed the city Arsinoë and the whole nome after the name of his sister-wife Arsinoe II, deified after her death as part of the Ptolemaic cult of Alexander the Great, the official religion of the kingdom.
Under the Roman Empire, Arsinoë became part of the province of Arcadia Aegypti. To distinguish it from other cities of the same name, it was called "Arsinoë in Arcadia". With the arrival of Christianity, Arsinoë became the seat of a bishopric, a suffragan of Oxyrhynchus, the capital of the province and the metropolitan see. Michel Le Quien gives the names of several bishops of Arsinoë, nearly all of them associated with one heresy or another; the Catholic Church, considering Arsinoë in Arcadia to be no longer a residential bishopric, lists it as a titular see. Fayyum was the seat of governor of the Sasanian Egypt. Faiyum is the source of some famous death masks or mummy portraits painted during the Roman occupation of the area; the Egyptians continued their practice of burying their dead, despite the Roman preference for cremation. While under the control of the Roman Empire, Egyptian death masks were painted on wood in a pigmented wax technique called encaustic—the Faiyum mummy portraits represent this technique.
While believed to represent Greek settlers in Egypt, modern studies conclude that the Faiyum portraits instead represent native Egyptians, reflecting the complex synthesis of the predominant Egyptian culture and that of the elite Greek minority in the city. Faiyum has several large bazaars, baths and a much-frequented weekly market; the canal called Bahr Yussef runs through its banks lined with houses. There are two bridges over the river: one of three arches, which carries the main street and bazaar, one of two arches, over, built the Qaitbay mosque, a gift from his wife to honor the Mamluk Sultan in Fayoum. Mounds north of the city mark the site of Arsinoe, known to the ancient Greeks as Crocodilopolis, where in ancient times the sacred crocodile kept in Lake Moeris was worshipped; the center of the city is on the canal, with four waterwheels that were adopted by the governorate of Fayoum as its symbol. Hanging Mosque, built when the Ottomans ruled Egypt Hawara, archeological site 27 km from the city Lahun Pyramids, 4 km outside the city Qaitbay Mosque, in the city, was built by the wife of the Mamluk Sultan Qaitbay Qasr Qarun, 44 km from the city Wadi Elrayan or Wadi Rayan, the largest waterfalls in Egypt, around 50 km from the city Wadi Al-Hitan or Valley of whales, a paleontological site in the Al Fayyum Governorate, some 150 km southwest of Cairo.
It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert; the highest record temperatures was 46 °C on June 13, 1965 and the lowest record temperature was 2 °C on January 8, 1966. Tefta Tashko-Koço, well known Albanian singer was born in Faiyum, where her family lived at that time. Saadia Gaon, the influential Jewish teacher of the early 10th century, was from Faiyum, called al-Fayyumi. Youssef Wahbi, a notable Egyptian actor, well known for his influence on the development of Egyptian cinema and theater. List of cities and towns in Egypt Book
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"