The Mittag-Leffler Institute is a mathematical research institute located in Djursholm, a suburb of Stockholm. It invites scholars to participate in year-long or half-year programs in specialized mathematical subjects; the Institute is run by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on behalf of research societies representing all the Scandinavian countries. The Institute's main building was the residence of Magnus Gustaf Mittag-Leffler, who donated it along with his extensive mathematics library. At his death in 1927, Mittag-Leffler's fortune was insufficient to set up an active research institute, which began operation only in 1969 under the leadership of Lennart Carleson; the journals Acta Mathematica and Arkiv för Matematik are published by the institute. For a number of years at the beginning of the 20th century, Mittag's villa hosted a celebratory dinner for Nobel Prize laureates; each year the institute invites the best mathematician in their fields to work on specific mathematical themes.
Some notable past visitors include: Louis Billera, Sy Friedman, John B. Garnett, Roger Heath-Brown, Sigurður Helgason, Helge Holden, Harry Kesten, Donald Knuth, George Lusztig, Paul Malliavin, Benoit Mandelbrot, Lynn Steen, André Weil, Jean-Christophe Yoccoz, Günter M. Ziegler, Kenneth Falconer. Official website
Central European University
Central European University is a graduate-level, private American non for profit university accredited in Hungary and the U. S. located in Vienna. The university offers top-ranked degrees in the humanities, cognitive sciences, social sciences, public policy, business management, environmental science, mathematics; as of 2017, CEU had 1,448 students from 117 countries and 723 faculty members from more than 40 countries, making it an international university. CEU was founded in 1991 by hedge fund manager, political activist, philanthropist George Soros, who has provided the university with an $880 million endowment, making the university one of the wealthiest in Europe. In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings CEU has appeared among best 100 universities in the world in social sciences and as the leading university in the region of Central Eastern Europe, as well as placing 29th worldwide in politics and international studies. CEU has 13 academic departments, 17 research centers, had two schools, including the School of Public Policy and the Doctoral School of Political Science, Public Policy and International Relations.
The CEU Business School merged with the economics department in August 2017 to form the Department of Economics and Business. A central tenet of the university's philosophy is the promotion of open societies. On December 3, 2018 the university announced it would cease operations in Hungary and relocate to Vienna, after the Hungarian government's refusal to sign an agreement allowing it to continue operations in Hungary. CEU evolved from a series of lectures held at the IUC in Yugoslavia. In the Spring of 1989, as historical change was gathering momentum in the region the need for a new, international university was being considered; the minutes of the gathering held in April 1989 records a discussion among scholars such as Rudolf Andorka, Péter Hanák, Márton Tardos, István Teplán, Tibor Vámos and Miklós Vásárhelyi from Budapest, William Newton-Smith and Kathleen Wilkes from Oxford, Jan Havranek, Michal Illner and Jiří Kořalka from Prague, Krzysztof Michalski and Włodzimierz Siwiński from Warsaw.
The University was founded in 1991 in response to the fall of the Socialist Bloc. The founding vision was to create a university dedicated to examining the contemporary challenges of "open societies" and democratization; the initial aim was to create a Western-modeled yet distinctly Central European institution that would foster inter-regional cooperation and educate a new corps of regional leaders to help usher in democratic transitions across the region. CEU was set up in Budapest and Warsaw, it was located in Prague, but because of "political and financial conflict between its founder and Czech government," represented by premier minister Vaclav Klaus, it was moved to Budapest. In its second decade, CEU broadened its focus from regional to global, with a special emphasis on democracy promotion and human rights around the world, it has since developed a distinct academic approach, combining regional studies with an international perspective, emphasizing comparative and interdisciplinary research in order to generate new scholarship and policy initiatives, to promote good governance and the rule of law.
CEU has extended its outreach and financial aid programs to certain areas of the developing world. CEU began the region's first master's degree programs in environmental sciences; the CEU Center for Media and Society is the leading center of research on media and information policy in the region. On 14 October 2007 George Soros stepped down as Chairman of CEU Board. Leon Botstein, who had served as the Vice-Chair of the Board, was elected as new Chairman for a two-year term. George Soros serves as Honorary Chairman of the Board. On 1 August 2009 Rector Yehuda Elkana was succeeded by human rights leader and legal scholar John Shattuck. On 5 May 2016, it was announced that Michael Ignatieff would succeed Shattuck, becoming the fifth president and rector of the university. Ignatieff's inaugarition took place at the University's new auditorium on 21 October 2017. On 28 March 2017, Hungarian Minister of Human Resources Zoltán Balog responsible for education, submitted a bill to Parliament to amend Act CCIV of 2011 on National Higher Education.
The bill aims to introduce new regulations for foreign-operating universities, several of which affect CEU. Notably, such universities could only operate if the Hungarian government has an agreement with the university's other country of operation. In addition, universities operating outside of the European Union should have a campus in their other country of operation, where comparable degree programs would be offered. Furthermore, both existing and new non-EU academic staff would be required to apply for working permits; this requirement is seen by critics as placing CEU at a particular disadvantage, given that it relies on non-EU faculty. The law would prohibit both the American and Hungarian entities from sharing the same name. CEU issued a statement expressing its opposition to the bill, noting that "these amendments would make it impossible for the University to continue its operations as an institution of higher education in Budapest, CEU's home for 25 years", that "CEU is in full conformity with Hungarian law."The same day, the pro-government news website Origo.hu published an article asserting that CEU, to which it referred as "Soros University" (George Soros being its founder and
Cédric Patrice Thierry Villani is a French mathematician and politician working on partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry and mathematical physics. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 2010 and he was the director of Sorbonne University's Institut Henri Poincaré from 2009 to 2017. Villani was elected to the National Assembly, the lower house of the French Parliament, during the 2017 legislative election. A member of La République En Marche! he represents Essonne's 5th constituency. He was elected Vice President of the French Parliamentary Office for the Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Choices in July 2017. After attending the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Villani was admitted at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris and studied there from 1992 to 1996, after which he was appointed an agrégé préparateur at the same school, he received his doctorate at Paris Dauphine University in 1998, under the supervision of Pierre-Louis Lions, became professor at the École normale supérieure de Lyon in 2000.
He is now professor at the University of Lyon. He has been the director of Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris since 2009, he has held various visiting positions at Georgia Tech, the University of California and the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Villani has worked on the theory of partial differential equations involved in statistical mechanics the Boltzmann equation, with Laurent Desvillettes, he was the first to prove how convergence occurs for initial values not near equilibrium, he has written with Giuseppe Toscani on this subject. With Clément Mouhot, he has worked on nonlinear Landau damping, he has worked on the theory of optimal transport and its applications to differential geometry, with John Lott has defined a notion of bounded Ricci curvature for general measured length spaces. Villani received the Fields Medal for his work on the Boltzmann equation, he described the development of his theorem in his autobiographical book Théorème vivant, published in English translation as Birth of a Theorem: A Mathematical Adventure.
He gave a TED talk at the 2016 conference in Vancouver. In 2017, it was announced that Villani had been selected as a candidate for En Marche! in the French legislative election, 2017, for Essonne's 5th constituency. In the first round of voting, Villani obtained 47% of the vote and was thus placed for the second round which he won with 69.36% of the vote. 1998: PhD Thesis 2000: Habilitation dissertation 2001: Louis Armand Prize of the Academy of Sciences 2003: Peccot-Vimont Prize and Cours Peccot of the Collège de France 2003: Plenary lecturer at the International Congress of Mathematical Physics 2004: Harold Grad lecturer 2004: Visiting Miller Professor, University of California Berkeley. 2006: Institut Universitaire de France 2006: Invited lecturer at the International Congress of Mathematicians 2007: Grand Prix Jacques Herbrand 2008: Prize of the European Mathematical Society 2009: Henri Poincaré Prize 2009: Fermat Prize 2010: Fields Medal 2013: Gibbs lecturer: On Disorder and Equilibration 2014: Joseph L. Doob Prize by the American Mathematical Society for his book Optimal Transport: Old and New 2009: Knight of the National Order of Merit 2011: Knight of the Legion of Honor 2013: Member of the French Academy of Sciences 2016: Ordinary member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences Limites hydrodynamiques de l'équation de Boltzmann, Séminaire Bourbaki, June 2001.
282, 2002. A Review of Mathematical Topics in Collisional Kinetic Theory, in Handbook of Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, edited by S. Friedlander and D. Serre, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2002, ISBN 978-0-444-50330-5. Doi:10.1016/S1874-579280004-0. Topics in Optimal Transportation, volume 58 of Graduate Studies in Mathematics, American Mathematical Society, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8218-3312-4. Optimal transportation, dissipative PDE's and functional inequalities, pp. 53–89 in Optimal Transportation and Applications, edited by L. A. Caffarelli and S. Salsa, volume 1813 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer, 2003, ISBN 978-3-540-40192-6. Cercignani's conjecture is sometimes true and always true, Communications in Mathematical Physics, vol. 234, No. 3, pp. 455–490, doi:10.1007/s00220-002-0777-1. On the trend to global equilibrium for spatially inhomogeneous kinetic systems: the Boltzmann equation, Inventiones Mathematicae, vol. 159, #2, pp. 245–316, doi:10.1007/s00222-004-0389-9. Mathematics of Granular Materials, Journal of Statistical Physics, vol.
124, #2–4, pp. 781–822, doi:10.1007/s10955-006-9038-6. Optimal transport and new, volume 338 of Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Springer, 2009, ISBN 978-3-540-71049-3. Ricci curvature for metric-measure spaces via Annals of Mathematics vol. 169, No. 3, pp. 903–991. Hypocoercivity, volume 202, No. 950 of Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8218-4498-4. Clément Mouhot. "On Landau damping". ArXiv:0904.2760. Théorème vivant, Bernard Grasset, Paris 2012 Les Coulisses de la création, Paris 2015 Freedom in Mathematics, Springer India, 2016, ISBN 978-81-322-2786-1. Translation from the French language edition: Mathématiques en liberté, La Ville Brûle, Montreuil 2012, ISBN 978-23-601-2026-0. Cédric Villani's website Cédric Villani at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Video Interview by ICTP Review of'Birth of a Theorem'
Jules Henri Poincaré was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher of science. He is described as a polymath, in mathematics as "The Last Universalist," since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime; as a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, celestial mechanics. He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics until it was solved in 2002–2003 by Grigori Perelman. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory, he is considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology. Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form.
Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Hendrik Lorentz in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of Maxwell's equations, an important step in the formulation of the theory of special relativity. In 1905, Poincaré first proposed gravitational waves emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations; the Poincaré group used in physics and mathematics was named after him. Poincaré was born on 29 April 1854 in Cité Ducale neighborhood, Meurthe-et-Moselle into an influential family, his father Leon Poincaré was a professor of medicine at the University of Nancy. His younger sister Aline married the spiritual philosopher Emile Boutroux. Another notable member of Henri's family was his cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a fellow member of the Académie française, who would serve as President of France from 1913 to 1920, he was raised in the Roman Catholic faith. During his childhood he was ill for a time with diphtheria and received special instruction from his mother, Eugénie Launois.
In 1862, Henri entered the Lycée in Nancy. He spent eleven years at the Lycée and during this time he proved to be one of the top students in every topic he studied, he excelled in written composition. His mathematics teacher described him as a "monster of mathematics" and he won first prizes in the concours général, a competition between the top pupils from all the Lycées across France, his poorest subjects were music and physical education, where he was described as "average at best". However, poor eyesight and a tendency towards absentmindedness may explain these difficulties, he graduated from the Lycée in 1871 with a bachelor's degree in sciences. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, he served alongside his father in the Ambulance Corps. Poincaré entered the École Polytechnique in 1873 and graduated in 1875. There he studied mathematics as a student of Charles Hermite, continuing to excel and publishing his first paper in 1874. From November 1875 to June 1878 he studied at the École des Mines, while continuing the study of mathematics in addition to the mining engineering syllabus, received the degree of ordinary mining engineer in March 1879.
As a graduate of the École des Mines, he joined the Corps des Mines as an inspector for the Vesoul region in northeast France. He was on the scene of a mining disaster at Magny in August 1879, he carried out the official investigation into the accident in a characteristically thorough and humane way. At the same time, Poincaré was preparing for his Doctorate in Science in mathematics under the supervision of Charles Hermite, his doctoral thesis was in the field of differential equations. It was named Sur les propriétés des fonctions. Poincaré devised a new way of studying the properties of these equations, he not only faced the question of determining the integral of such equations, but was the first person to study their general geometric properties. He realised that they could be used to model the behaviour of multiple bodies in free motion within the solar system. Poincaré graduated from the University of Paris in 1879. After receiving his degree, Poincaré began teaching as junior lecturer in mathematics at the University of Caen in Normandy.
At the same time he published his first major article concerning the treatment of a class of automorphic functions. There, in Caen, he met his future wife, Louise Poulin d'Andesi and on 20 April 1881, they married. Together they had four children: Jeanne, Henriette, Léon. Poincaré established himself among the greatest mathematicians of Europe, attracting the attention of many prominent mathematicians. In 1881 Poincaré was invited to take a teaching position at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Paris. During the years of 1883 to 1897, he taught mathematical analysis in École Polytechnique. In 1881–1882, Poincaré created a new branch of mathematics: qualitative theory of differential equations, he showed how it is possible to derive the most important information about the behavior of a family of solutions without having to solve the equation. He used this approach to problems in celestial mechanics and mathematical physics, he never aban
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family; the Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller, along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world." Rockefeller Foundation's activities have included: Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed" Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom. Construction of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's Institute for Brain Research with a $317,000 grant in 1929, with continuing support for the institute's operations under Ernst Rüdin over the next several years. Funding an experiment conducted by Vanderbilt University where they gave 800 pregnant women radioactive iron, 751 of which were pills, without their consent.
In a 1969 article published in the American Journal of Epidemiology, it was estimated that three children had died from the experiment. As of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U. S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2016 assets were tallied with annual grants of $173 million. On January 5, 2017, the board of trustees announced the unanimous selection of Dr. Rajiv Shah to serve as the 13th president of the foundation. Shah became the youngest person, at 43, first-ever Indian-American to serve as president of the foundation, he assumed the position March 1, succeeding Judith Rodin who served as president for nearly twelve years and announced her retirement, at age 71, in June 2016. Rodin in turn had succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005. A former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin was the first woman to head the foundation. Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy and Public Relations began in 1904, influenced by Ida Tarbell's book published about Standard Oil crimes, The History of the Standard Oil Company, which prompted him to whitewash the Rockefeller image.
His initial idea to set up a large-scale foundation occurred in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's famous business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind". It was in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America, but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior and Harold Fowler McCormick, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment, they applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, with at one stage Junior secretly meeting with President William Howard Taft, through the aegis of Senator Nelson Aldrich, to hammer out concessions.
However, because of the ongoing antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter. On May 14, 1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation – two years after the Carnegie Corporation – with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes; the total benefactions of both him and Junior and their philanthropies in the end would far surpass Carnegie's endowments, his biographer Ron Chernow states, ranking Rockefeller as "the greatest philanthropist in American history." The first secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former secretary of Harvard University, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work.
On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D. C. At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade on the sciences, public health and medical education, it was located within the family office at Standard Oil's headquarters at 26 Broadway shifting to the GE Building, along with the newly named family office, Room 5600, at Rockefeller Center. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission, the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public heal
Centre International de Rencontres Mathématiques
The Centre International de Rencontres Mathématiques is a mathematics research institute associated with the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Société Mathématique de France. It is located in Luminy, France and is affiliated with Aix-Marseille University. CIRM hosts weekly workshops on diverse topics where mathematicians and scientists from all over the world come to do collaborative research. Modeled as a "villa Medici of mathematics", it receives around 3,500 visitors per year. In 1954, a report from the CNRS discussed potential sites for a meeting place to hold international seminars and workshops in mathematics similar to the Mathematisches Forschunginstitut Oberwolfach; the Luminy estate owned by the prominent Fabre shipping family, was chosen in 1976. The estate was handed over to the SMF in 1979; the center opened in 1981 and the first workshop was held in 1982. CIRM supports a variety of residential workshops; each year, CIRM runs around 35 week-long workshops with an average of 75 weekly participants.
CIRM supports joint programs with Société de Mathématiques Appliquées et Industrielles, Institut Henri Poincaré, Société Mathématique de France. CIRM hosts the Jean-Morlet Chair, a six-month residential program for international researchers to collaborate with a local project leader from Aix-Marseille University to plan events and projects; the chair was named after Jean Morlet, a French geophysicist who worked with Marseille-based researcher Alex Grossman, among others, to develop the Wavelet transform. Past chairs have included Nicola Kistler, Boris Hasselblatt, Igor Shparlinski, Hans Georg Feichtinger, Herwig Hauser, Francois Lalonde, Dipendra Prasad, Mariusz Lemańczyk, Konstantin Khanin, Shigeki Akiyama, Genevieve Walsh. André Aragnol: June 1981 – August 1986 Gilles Lachaud: September 1986 – August 1991 Jean-Paul Brasselet: September 1991 – August 1995 Jean-Pierre Labesse: September 1995 – August 2000 Robert Coquereaux: September 2000 – August 2005 Pascal Chossat: September 2005 – August 2010 Patrick Foulon: September 2010 – present
École normale supérieure (Paris)
The École normale supérieure is one of the French grandes écoles and a school of PSL University since 2010. It was conceived during the French Revolution and was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of professors, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment, it has since developed into an institution which has become a platform for a select few of France's students to pursue careers in government and academia. Founded in 1794 and reorganised by Napoleon, ENS has two main sections and a competitive selection process consisting of written and oral examinations. During their studies, ENS students hold the status of paid civil servants; the principal goal of ENS is the training of professors and public administrators. Among its alumni there are 13 Nobel Prize laureates including 8 in Physics, 12 Fields Medalists, more than half the recipients of the CNRS's Gold Medal, several hundred members of the Institut de France, scores of politicians and statesmen; the school has achieved particular recognition in the fields of mathematics and physics as one of France's foremost scientific training grounds, along with notability in the human sciences as the spiritual birthplace of authors such as Julien Gracq, Jean Giraudoux, Assia Djebar, Charles Péguy, philosophers such as Henri Bergson, Jean-Paul Sartre, Louis Althusser, Simone Weil, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Alain Badiou, social scientists such as Émile Durkheim, Raymond Aron, Pierre Bourdieu, "French theorists" such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.
The school's students are referred to as normaliens. The ENS is a grande école and, as such, is not part of the mainstream university system, although it maintains extensive connections with it; the vast majority of the academic staff hosted at ENS belong to external academic institutions such as the CNRS, the EHESS and the University of Paris. This mechanism for constant scientific turnover allows ENS to benefit from a continuous stream of researchers in all fields. ENS full professorships are competitive. Generalistic in its recruitment and organisation, the ENS is the only grande école in France to have departments of research in all the natural and human sciences, its status as one of the foremost centres of French research has led to its model being replicated elsewhere, in France, in Italy, in Romania, in China and in former French colonies such as Morocco, Mali and Cameroon. The current institution finds its roots in the creation of the Ecole normale de l'an III by the post-revolutionary National Convention led by Robespierre in 1794.
The school was created based on a recommendation by Joseph Lakanal and Dominique-Joseph Garat, who were part of the commission on public education. The Ecole normale was intended as the core of a planned centralised national education system; the project was conceived as a way to reestablish trust between the Republic and the country's elites, alienated to some degree by the Reign of Terror. The decree establishing the school, issued on 9 brumaire, states in its first article that "There will be established in Paris an Ecole normale, from all the parts of the Republic, citizens educated in the useful sciences shall be called upon to learn, from the best professors in all the disciplines, the art of teaching." The inaugural course was given on 20 January 1795 and the last on 19 May of the same year at the Museum of Natural History. The goal of these courses was to train a body of teachers for all the secondary schools in the country and thereby to ensure a homogenous education for all; these courses covered all the existing sciences and humanities and were given by scholars such as: scientists Monge, Daubenton and philosophers Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Volney were some of the teachers.
The school was closed as a result of the arrival of the Consulate but this Ecole normale was to serve as a basis when the school was founded for the second time by Napoleon I in 1808. On 17 March 1808, Napoleon created by decree a pensionnat normal within the imperial University of France charged with "training in the art of teaching the sciences and the humanities"; the establishment was opened in its strict code including a mandatory uniform. By a sister establishment had been created by Napoleon in Pisa under the name of Scuola normale superiore, which continues to exist today and still has close ties to the Paris school. Up to 1818, the students are handpicked by the academy inspectors based on their results in the secondary school. However, the "pensionnat" created by Napoleon came to be perceived under the Restoration as a nexus of liberal thought and was suppressed by then-minister of public instruction Denis-Luc Frayssinous in 1824. An École préparatoire was created on 9 March 1826 at the site of collège Louis-le-Grand.
This date can be taken as the definitive date of creation of the current school. After the July Revolution, the school regained its original name of École normale and in 1845 was renamed École normale supérieure. During the 1830s, under the direction of philosopher Victor Cousin, the school enhanced its status as an institution to prepare the agrégation by expanding the duration of study to three years, was divided into its present-day "