Gilles Kepel, is a French political scientist and Arabist, specialized in the contemporary Middle East and Muslims in the West. He is Professor at the Université Paris Sciences et Lettres and director of the Middle East and Mediterranean Chair at PSL, based at Ecole Normale Supérieure, he has been described by Alain Elkann as “the best possible guide through the frightening labyrinth of militant Islam.” Trained as a classicist, he started to study Arabic after a journey to the Levant in 1974. He first graduated in Philosophy and English completed his Arabic language studies at the French Institute in Damascus, received his degree from Sciences Po in 1980, he specialized in contemporary Islamist movements, spent three years at the Centre d'études et de documentation économiques, juridiques et sociales where he did the fieldwork for his PhD on “Islamist movements in Egypt”, which would be translated and published in the UK in 1985 as his first English book as The Prophet and Pharaoh. This was the first book in any language to analyze contemporary Islamist militancy, it remains a standard reader to this day in universities worldwide.
After his return to France, where he became a researcher at CNRS he investigated the developments of Islam as a social and political phenomenon there, which led to his Banlieues de l’Islam book, a primer on studies of Islam in the West. He turned to the compared study of political-religious movements in Islam and Christianity, published in 1991 The Revenge of God, a best-selling book, translated in 19 languages. A visiting professor at New York University in 1993, he did fieldwork among black Muslims in the U. S. which would be compared which phenomena pertaining to the Rushdie affair in the UK and the Hijab affairs in France, lead to his Allah in the West. He received his Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches in 1993 – from a Committee presided by Pr René Rémond, President of Sciences Po, including Professors Rémy Leveau, Ernest Gellner, Alain Touraine, André Miquel, he was promoted to research director at CNRS in 1995, spent academic year 1995–1996 in the US as New York Consortium Professor.
He used the library facilities at NYU and Columbia to prepare the bibliography for his best-selling book Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam based on two years of fieldwork in the Muslim World from Indonesia to Africa, which came out in English in 2001, was translated in a dozen languages. Though the book was hailed due to its scope and perspective, it was criticized after 9/11 because it documented the failure of political Islamist mobilization in the late 1990s. Kepel answered his critics with his travelogue Bad Moon Rising in 2002, he analyzed in retrospect that failure as the end of a first phase of what he would designate as the “dialectics of Jihadism”. It epitomized the struggle against the “nearby enemy”, followed by a second phase that learned the lessons of such failure and focused on the “faraway enemy”, which in turn failed to mobilize the Muslim masses under the banner of Jihadists, it was followed by a third phase consisting of network-based Jihadi cells in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, that of ISIS.
This Jihad trilogy was further studied Beyond Terror and Martyrdom. With his students, Kepel co-edited Al Qaeda in its Own Words – a translation and analysis of chosen texts by Jihadi ideologues Abdallah Azzam, Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. In 2001, he was appointed as a tenured professor of political science at Sciences Po, where he created the Middle East and Mediterranean Program, the EuroGolfe Forum, he supervised more than 40 PhD dissertations, created the “Proche Orient” series, of which he was the general editor, at Presses Universitaires de France, for his PhD graduates to publish their first book after their dissertation. The series comprised 23 volumes from 2004 to 2017 – many of them finding their way into English translations. In 2008, accused of assaulting academic researcher Pascal Menoret at the Middle East Studies Association in Washington, Gilles Kepel was expelled from the association. In December 2010, the month of Mohammad Bouazizi's self immolation at Sidi Bouzid, in Tunisia, that sparked the Arab Spring, Sciences Po closed the Middle East and Mediterranean Program.
Kepel was elected a senior fellow at Institut Universitaire de France for five years, which allowed him to refocus on fieldwork. He was offered the visiting “Philippe Roman Professorship in History and International Relations” at the London School of Economics” in 2009–2010. In 2012, he published Banlieue de la République, a survey of the 2005 French Banlieues riots in the Clichy-Montfermeil area, north of Paris, whence the events sparked; the study was based on one-year participant observation on the premises with a team of students, in cooperation with Institut Montaigne think-tank. A sequel, Quatre-vingt treize designed a more general perspective on Islam in France, 25 years after Kepel's seminal Les banlieues de l’Islam. In 2013, he documented the Arab upheavals with the travelogue Passion Arabe, a best-selling book, awarded the “Pétrarque Prize” by France Culture radio and Le Monde daily as best book of the year. In 2014, Passion Française, a survey cum travelogue that documented the first generation of candidates to the Parliamentary elections of June 2012 who wer
International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM produces and sells computer hardware and software, provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is a major research organization, holding the record for most U. S. patents generated by a business for 26 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, dynamic random-access memory; the IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets.
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo, acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting, SPSS, The Weather Company, Red Hat. In 2014, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries. Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 380,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, the country with the largest number of IBMers is India. IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology and five National Medals of Science. In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would form the core of International Business Machines. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885. On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company based in Endicott, New York.
The five companies had offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York. C.. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR. Watson joined CTR as General Manager 11 months was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies, he implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees. During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America and Australia.
Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924 chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines". By 1933 most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U. S. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act, the tracking of persecuted groups by Hitler's Third Reich through the German subsidiary Dehomag. In 1949, Thomas Watson, Sr. created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations. In 1952, he stepped down after 40 years at the company helm, his son Thomas Watson, Jr. was named president. In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience.
In 1957, the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the successful Selectric typewriter. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped. A year it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York; the latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights and 1969 lunar mission. On April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360, it spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. It was followed by the IBM System/370 in 1970. Together the
BofA Securities Bank of America Merrill Lynch, is an American multinational investment bank division under the auspices of Bank of America. Not to be confused with Merrill, the wealth management division of Bank of America, both firms are broker-dealers and engage in prime brokerage, it provides services in mergers and acquisitions and debt capital markets, trading, risk management and liquidity and payments management. It was formed through the combination of the corporate and investment banking activities of Bank of America and Merrill Lynch & Co. following the acquisition of the latter by the former in January 2009. Bank of America completed the acquisition of Merrill Lynch & Co on January 1st, 2009. Bank of America began rebranding all of its corporate and investment banking activities under the Bank of America Merrill Lynch name in September 2009. In April 2011, Bank of America Merrill Lynch integrated its corporate and investment banking operations into a single division. In October 2013, Bank of America Merrill Lynch was recognized as the Most Innovative Investment Bank of the Year in The Banker's Investment Banking Awards.
In February 2019, Bank of America announced a rebrand of its investment banking division to "BofA Securities." Bank of America Merrill Lynch is organized within four geographic divisions: Asia Pacific - Headquartered at Cheung Kong Center in Hong Kong Europe, Middle East & Africa - Headquartered at Bank of America Merrill Lynch Financial Centre in London Latin America and U. S. & Canada - Headquartered at Bank of America Tower, New York The institution maintains a large presence at the Bank of America Tower in Jacksonville Bank of America Merrill Lynch achieved the second-highest revenues of any investment bank worldwide in 2010, with a global market share of 6.8 per cent. In that year it achieved the highest revenues of any investment bank worldwide in both leveraged loans and asset-backed securities. In 2011, Bank of America Merrill Lynch again achieved the second-highest revenues of any investment bank worldwide, with a global market share of 7.4 per cent. Official site
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company. It is the 7th largest bank in the world, the largest in Europe, with total assets of US$2.558 trillion. HSBC traces its origin to a hong in Hong Kong, its present form was established in London by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation to act as a new group holding company in 1991; the origins of the bank lie in Hong Kong and to a lesser extent in Shanghai, where branches were first opened in 1865. The HSBC name is derived from the initials of the Shanghai Banking Corporation; the company was first formally incorporated in 1866. The company continues to see both the United Kingdom and Hong Kong as its "home markets". HSBC has around 3,900 offices in 67 countries and territories across Africa, Oceania, North America, South America, around 38 million customers; as of 2014, it was the world's sixth-largest public company, according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine. HSBC is organised within four business groups: Commercial Banking, Global Banking and Markets, Retail Banking and Wealth Management, Global Private Banking.
HSBC has a dual primary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Hang Seng Index and the FTSE 100 Index. As of 6 July 2012, it had a market capitalisation of £102.7 billion, the second-largest company listed on the London Stock Exchange, after Royal Dutch Shell. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext Paris, the Bermuda Stock Exchange. In February 2015, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists released information about the business conduct of HSBC under the title Swiss Leaks; the ICIJ alleges that the bank profited from doing business with other clients. The BBC reported that HSBC had put pressure on media not to report about the controversy, with British newspaper The Guardian claiming HSBC advertising had been put "on pause" after The Guardian's coverage of the matter. Peter Oborne, chief political commentator at The Daily Telegraph, resigned from the paper. In 2016, HSBC was sued by Mexican families involved in deaths by organized-crime gangs for processing funds for the Sinaloa cartel.
The Hongkong and Shanghai Bank was founded by Scotsman Thomas Sutherland in the then-British colony of Hong Kong on 3 March 1865, in Shanghai a month benefiting from the start of trading into China, including opium trading. It was formally incorporated as The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation by an Ordinance of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong on 14 August 1866. In 1980, HSBC acquired a 51% shareholding in US-based Marine Midland Bank, which it extended to full ownership in 1987. On 6 October 1989, it was renamed by the Legislative Council, by an amendment to its governing ordinance made in 1929, to The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, became registered as a regulated bank with the Banking Commissioner of the Government of Hong Kong. HSBC Holdings plc incorporated in England and Wales, in the United Kingdom, as Vernat Trading Company Limited on 1 January 1959 and renamed Vernat Eastern Agencies Limited in the same year, was by a non-trading, dormant shelf company under a different, nominal name, when it completed its transformation on 25 March 1991 into the parent holding company to the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited now as a subsidiary, in preparation for its purchase of the UK-based Midland Bank and the impending transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China.
HSBC Holdings' acquisition of Midland Bank was completed in 1992 and gave HSBC a substantial market presence in the United Kingdom. As part of the takeover conditions for the acquisition, HSBC Holdings plc was required to relocate its world headquarters from Hong Kong to London in 1993. Major acquisitions in South America started with the purchase of the Banco Bamerindus of Brazil for $1 billion in March 1997 and the acquisition of Roberts SA de Inversiones of Argentina for $600 million in May 1997. In May 1999, HSBC expanded its presence in the United States with the purchase of Republic National Bank of New York for $10.3 billion. Expansion into Continental Europe took place in April 2000 with the acquisition of Crédit Commercial de France, a large French bank for £6.6 billion. In July 2001 HSBC bought an insolvent Turkish bank. In July 2002, Arthur Andersen announced that HSBC USA, Inc. through a new subsidiary and Tax Advisory Services USA Inc. would purchase a portion of Andersen's tax practice.
The new HSBC Private Client Services Group would serve the wealth and tax advisory needs of high-net-worth individuals. In August 2002 HSBC acquired Grupo Financiero Bital, SA de CV, Mexico's third largest retail bank for $1.1 billion. In November 2002, HSBC expanded further in the United States. Under the chairmanship of John Bond, it spent £9 billion to acquire Household Finance Corporation, a US credit card issuer and subprime lender. In a 2003 cover story, The Banker noted "when banking historians look back, they may conclude, the deal of the first decade of the 21st century". Under the new name of HSBC Finance, the division was the second largest subprime lender in the United States; the new headquarters of HSBC Holdings at 8 Canada Square, London opened in April 2003. In September 2003 HSBC bought Polski Kredyt Bank SA of Poland for $7.8 million. In June 2004 HSBC expanded into China buying 19.9% of the Bank of Communications of Shanghai. In the United Kingdom HSBC acquired
Claude Bébéar is a French businessman. He is the former CEO of AXA. Claude Bébéar was born on 29 July 1935 in France, he graduated from the École Polytechnique. He was trained at the Armoured Cavalry Branch Training School in Saumur and did his military service in Algeria, he received a diploma from the Institute of Actuaries of France. He started his career at Anciennes Mutuelles, up until he became CEO after André Sahut d'Izarn's death in 1975. In 1985, it became known as AXA, he helped out Jean-Marie Messier from Vivendi. He was involved in the outer of the chairmen of Rhodia, he sits on the Board of Directors of BNP Paribas and Schneider Electric. He has been a member of Le Siècle, he is Chairman of the Institut du mécénat de solidarité and the Institut Montaigne. He is Roman Catholic, widowed with three children. In 2007, he was worth 106 million euros. Le courage de réformer Ils vont tuer le capitalisme "An hour with former CEO of AXA Claude Bebear", Charlie Rose
Philippe Wahl is a French business executive. Having been a government advisor and bank executive, in September 2013 he was appointed president and chief executive officer of La Poste, the group which includes the French postal service. Wahl's parents are Adrien Wahl, a human resources director, Georgette Meyer, a teacher, he graduated from the Paris Institute of Political Studies in 1978 and has a Master of Advanced Studies degree in economics from Pantheon-Sorbonne University. In 1982–84 he earned a degree from the École nationale d'administration. Wahl began his career in government in 1984 at the Council of State as an auditor and Master of Requests. In 1989, he became cabinet director to Tony Dreyfus when Dreyfus was Secretary of State under Michel Rocard became Rocard's technical advisor on economic and fiscal matters. Under Rocard he was able to achieve the passage of the Contribution sociale généralisée, a social benefits tax, despite the opposition of the Minister of Finance, Pierre Bérégovoy.
In private business, he worked for Compagnie bancaire beginning in 1991, as advisor to the CEO, from 1992 as a member of the board, from 1994 as assistant CEO, in 1997 became director of the specialist financial services arm and a member of the executive committee at Banque Paribas, with which Compagnie bancaire merged. In 1999 he became CEO of the French directorate of savings banks, CNCE; this position carried with it the presidency of the holding group Sopassure and of the board of the insurer Écureuil assurances IARD and membership of the governing board of CDC Ixis and CNP Assurances. In 2005 he became CEO of Havas and in 2006 vice president of Bolloré. In January 2007 he returned to banking at The Royal Bank of Scotland Group as CEO for France, in March 2008 becoming advisor to the RBS Global Banking and Markets Board and in December 2008, CEO for France and Luxembourg. In January 2011, Wahl was appointed chairman of the board of the Banque postale division of La Poste and adjunct CEO of the La Poste group.
On 25 September 2013, the President of France appointed him president and chief executive of La Poste, succeeding Jean-Paul Bailly. He has promised to pursue three goals: economic health, good working conditions, above all customer satisfaction, which he has developed in his 2014 strategic plan, La Poste 2020, he implements a diversification strategy for La Poste's activities, developing amongst others: home-care services for seniors, sessions of driving licence written exam. In 2016, he signed a contract to take majority stakes in Axeo, a large network of local branches specialized in neighbourhood services, he expands Geopost activities in Italy, Russia and Vietnam. Philippe Wahl is married to Sylvie Schwob, a human resources executive at Sanofi whom he met at university, has three children, he is a member of the board of the Institut Montaigne, a liberal think tank. Philippe Wahl's cv
Jean-Dominique Senard is a French industrialist in the automobile industry. On 11 May 2012, he succeeded Michel Rollier as chief executive officer of the Michelin tire company after joining the company as chief financial officer in 2005. Senard is the first Michelin CEO not related to the Michelin family. On 24 January 2019, Renault's Board of Directors elected Senard as the Chairman of the company. Senard is the son of a diplomat; as a child, Jean-Dominique Senard joined the choir of The Paris Boys Choir known in France as Les Petits Chanteurs de Sainte-Croix de Neuilly, where he had a classical music training under the direction of Louis Prudhomme Senard attended the Hautes Etudes Commerciales in Paris where he completed his education with an MA in law, before commencing his ascent through the ranks of France's leading corporates. Senard started his career with various financial and operational management jobs at the oil company Total S. A. between 1979 and 1987. In 1987, he joined the management of the treasury of Saint-Gobain.
In February 1988, he was appointed Deputy Director – director in January 1991 – in cash and financing. He moved to construction materials group Saint-Gobain where he remained for nine years before joining aluminium conglomerate Pechiney in 1996 as CFO and a member of its executive committee; when the mining firm Alcan launched a takeover bid for Pechiney in 2003, Senard was appointed chairman and became a member of Alcan's executive committee. In March 2005, Senard joined Michelin as its executive council member. After the accidental drowning of his boss Édouard Michelin in 2006, he was appointed to managing partner of the group in May 2007, he also served as head of financial affairs, legal services and results. Michelin announced in November 2014 that Senard would continue as the managing general partner for the company following a meeting of the firm's board of directors on 6 October 2014, his term of office was renewed for four years and will expire in the first half of 2019, at the close of the annual shareholders’ meeting.
It bases its governance policy on several axes: responsible development and social dialogue to support the process of industrial change that characterizes its mandate. ·, competitiveness of production and sales to meet the globalization of the economy, valorisation of apprenticeship to attract young people to jobs that seem less attractive. In 2017, under the leadership of Jean-Dominique Senard, Michelin announces a 43% increase in net income for 2016, to €1.7 billion. On 24 January 2019, following Carlos Ghosn's resignation as President of Renault, Jean-Dominique Senard becomes the new CEO of the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance. A decision welcomed by Bruno Le Maire, the French Minister of Economy, who believes that he will make "an excellent president for Renault". Renault, chairman of the board of directors Saint Gobain, Independent Member of the board of directors Groupe SEB, Independent Member of the board of directors European Round Table of Industrialists, Member Senard is a vocal proponent of French president Emmanuel Macron