George Horace Gallup was an American pioneer of survey sampling techniques and inventor of the Gallup poll, a successful statistical method of survey sampling for measuring public opinion. Gallup was born in Jefferson, the son of Nettie Quella and George Henry Gallup, a dairy farmer; as a teen, George Jr. known as "Ted", would deliver milk and used his salary to start a newspaper at the high school, where he played football. His higher education took place at the University of Iowa, where he was a football player, a member of the Iowa Beta chapter of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, editor of The Daily Iowan, an independent newspaper which serves the university campus, he earned his B. A. in 1923, his M. A. in 1925 and his Ph. D. in 1928. He moved to Des Moines, where he served as head of the Department of Journalism at Drake University until 1931; that year, he moved to Evanston, Illinois, as a professor of journalism and advertising at Northwestern University. The next year, he moved to New York City to join the advertising agency of Young and Rubicam as director of research.
He was professor of journalism at Columbia University, but he had to give up this position shortly after he formed his own polling company, the American Institute of Public Opinion, in 1935. Gallup is credited as the developer of public polling. In 1932, Gallup did some polling for his mother-in-law, Ola Babcock Miller, a candidate, a long-shot from winning a position as Iowa Secretary of State. With the Democratic landslide of that year, she won a stunning victory, furthering Gallup's interest in politics. In 1936, his new organization achieved national recognition by predicting, from the replies of only 50,000 respondents, that Franklin Roosevelt would defeat Alf Landon in the U. S. Presidential election; this was in direct contradiction to the respected Literary Digest magazine whose poll based on over two million returned questionnaires predicted that Landon would be the winner. Not only did Gallup get the election right, he predicted the results of the Literary Digest poll as well using a random sample smaller than theirs but chosen to match it.
Twelve years his organization had its moment of greatest ignominy, when it predicted that Thomas Dewey would defeat Harry S. Truman in the 1948 election, by five to fifteen percentage points. Gallup believed the error was due to ending his polling three weeks before Election Day. In 1947, he launched the Gallup International Association, an international association of polling organizations. In 1948, with Claude E. Robinson, he founded Gallup and Robinson, Inc. an advertising research company. In 1958, Gallup grouped all of his polling operations under. Gallup died in 1984 of a heart attack at his summer home in Tschingel ob Gunten, a village in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, he was buried in Princeton Cemetery. His wife died in 1988, their son and pollster George Gallup, Jr. died in 2011. Approval rating The Gallup Organization Gallup & Robinson George H. Gallup House Gallup International Association Cantril, Hadley. Gauging Public Opinion Cantril and Mildred Strunk, eds. Public Opinion, 1935–1946, massive compilation of many public opinion polls from US, UK, Canada and elsewhere.
Online Converse, Jean M. Survey Research in the United States: Roots and Emergence 1890–1960, the standard history Doktorov, Boris Z. "George Gallup: Biography and Destiny." Moscow: Foley, Ryan J. Gallup Papers Give Glimpse into US Polling History, Associated Press Gallup, George. Public Opinion in a Democracy Gallup, Alec M. ed. The Gallup Poll Cumulative Index: Public Opinion, 1935–1997 lists 10,000+ questions, but no results Gallup, George Horace, ed; the Gallup Poll. Hawbaker, Becky Wilson. "Taking'the Pulse of Democracy': George Gallup and the Origin of the Gallup Poll." The Palimpsest 74 98–118. Description of Gallup's their impact on his development. Lavrakas, Paul J. et al. eds. Presidential Polls and the News Media Moore, David W; the Superpollsters: How They Measure and Manipulate Public Opinion in America Ohmer, Susan. George Gallup in Hollywood. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12133-0. Rogers, Lindsay; the Pollsters: Public Opinion and Democratic Leadership Traugott, Michael W. The Voter's Guide to Election Polls 3rd ed. Young, Michael L.
Dictionary of Polling: The Language of Contemporary Opinion Research The Gallup Legacy, from Gallup & Robinson website TIME profile from 1948
The Sorbonne is a building in the Latin Quarter of Paris, the historical house of the former University of Paris. Today, it houses part or all of several higher education and research institutions such as Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University, Paris Descartes University, École pratique des hautes études, Sorbonne University; the name is derived from the Collège de Sorbonne, founded in 1257 by the eponymous Robert de Sorbon as one of the first significant colleges of the medieval University of Paris. The library was among the first to arrange items alphabetically according to title; the university predates the college by about a century, minor colleges had been founded during the late 12th century. During the 16th century, the Sorbonne became involved with the intellectual struggle between Catholics and Protestants; the University served as a major stronghold of Catholic conservative attitudes and, as such, conducted a struggle against King Francis I's policy of relative tolerance towards the French Protestants, except for a brief period during 1533 when the University was placed under Protestant control.
The Collège de Sorbonne was suppressed during the French Revolution, reopened by Napoleon in 1808 and closed in 1882. This was only one of the many colleges of the University of Paris that existed until the French revolution. Hastings Rashdall, in The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, still a standard reference on the topic, lists some 70 colleges of the university from the Middle Ages alone. With time, the college came to be the main French institution for theological studies and "Sorbonne" was used as a synonym for the Paris Faculty of Theology despite being only one of many colleges of the university. After months of conflicts between students and authorities at the University of Paris at Nanterre, the administration closed that university on May 2, 1968. Students at the Sorbonne campus in Paris met on May 3 to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre. On May 6, the national student union, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France — still the largest student union in France today — and the union of university teachers called a march to protest against the police invasion of Sorbonne.
More than 20,000 students and other supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to make barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time; the police responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again. Hundreds of students were arrested. May 10 marked the "Night of Barricades," where students used cars and cobblestones to barricade the streets of the Latin Quarter. Brutal street fighting ensued between students and riot police, most notably on Rue Gay-Lussac. Early the next morning, as the fighting disbanded, Daniel Cohn-Bendit sent out a radio broadcast calling for a general strike. On Monday, 13 May, more than one million workers went on strike and the students declared that the Sorbonne was "open to the public". Negotiations ended, students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover police still occupying the schools.
When the Sorbonne reopened, students occupied it and declared it an autonomous "People's University". During the weeks that followed 401 popular action committees were established in Paris and elsewhere to document grievances against the government and French society, including the Occupation Committee of the Sorbonne. In 1970, the University of Paris was divided into thirteen universities, managed by a common rectorate, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, with offices in the Sorbonne. Three of those universities maintain facilities in the historical building of the Sorbonne, thus have the word in their name: Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University and Paris-Sorbonne University. Paris Descartes University uses the Sorbonne building; the building houses the École Nationale des Chartes, the École pratique des hautes études, the Cours de Civilisation Française de la Sorbonne and the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne. The Sorbonne Chapel was classified as a French historic monument in 1887.
The amphitheatre and the entire building complex became monuments in 1975. Despite being a valued brand, the Sorbonne universities did not register their names as trademarks until the 1990s. Over the following years, they established partnerships, merging projects and associated institutions with the name Sorbonne, sometimes triggering conflicts over the usage and ownership of the name. Listing of the works of Alexandre Falguière List of works by Henri Chapu La Sorbonne
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
An opinion poll simply referred to as a poll or a survey, is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls are designed to represent the opinions of a population by conducting a series of questions and extrapolating generalities in ratio or within confidence intervals; the first known example of an opinion poll was a local straw poll conducted by The Harrisburg Pennsylvanian in 1824, showing Andrew Jackson leading John Quincy Adams by 335 votes to 169 in the contest for the United States Presidency. Since Jackson won the popular vote in that state and the whole country, such straw votes became more popular, but they remained local citywide phenomena. In 1916, The Literary Digest embarked on a national survey and predicted Woodrow Wilson's election as president. Mailing out millions of postcards and counting the returns, The Literary Digest predicted the victories of Warren Harding in 1920, Calvin Coolidge in 1924, Herbert Hoover in 1928, Franklin Roosevelt in 1932.
In 1936, its 2.3 million "voters" constituted a huge sample, but they were more affluent Americans who tended to have Republican sympathies. The Literary Digest was ignorant of this new bias. At the same time, George Gallup conducted a far smaller survey, in which he polled a demographically representative sample. Gallup predicted Roosevelt's landslide victory; the Literary Digest soon went out of business. Elmo Roper was another American pioneer in political forecasting using scientific polls, he predicted the reelection of President Franklin D. Roosevelt three times, in 1936, 1940, 1944. Louis Harris had been in the field of public opinion since 1947 when he joined the Elmo Roper firm later became partner. In September 1938 Jean Stoetzel, after having met Gallup, created IFOP, the Institut Français d'Opinion Publique, as the first European survey institute in Paris and started political polls in summer 1939 with the question "Why die for Danzig?", looking for popular support or dissent with this question asked by appeasement politician and future collaborationist Marcel Déat.
Gallup launched a subsidiary in the United Kingdom that alone predicted Labour's victory in the 1945 general election, unlike all other commentators, who expected a victory for the Conservative Party, led by Winston Churchill. The Allied occupation powers helped to create survey institutes in all of the Western occupation zones of Germany in 1947 and 1948 to better steer denazification. By the 1950s, various types of polling had spread to most democracies. In long-term perspective, advertising had come under heavy pressure in the early 1930s; the Great Depression forced businesses to drastically cut back on their advertising spending. Layoffs and reductions were common at all agencies; the New Deal furthermore aggressively promoted consumerism, minimized the value of advertising. Historian Jackson Lears argues that "By the late 1930s, corporate advertisers had begun a successful counterattack against their critics." They rehabilitated the concept of consumer sovereignty by inventing scientific public opinion polls, making it the centerpiece of their own market research, as well as the key to understanding politics.
George Gallup, the vice president of Young and Rubicam, numerous other advertising experts, led the way. Moving into the 1940s, the industry played a leading role in the ideological mobilization of the American people for fighting the Nazis and Japanese in World War II; as part of that effort, they redefined the "American Way of Life" in terms of a commitment to free enterprise. "Advertisers," Lears concludes, "played a crucial hegemonic role in creating the consumer culture that dominated post-World War II American society." Opinion polls for many years were maintained through telecommunications or in person-to-person contact. Methods and techniques vary, though they are accepted in most areas. Over the years, technological innovations have influenced survey methods such as the availability of electronic clipboards and Internet based polling. Verbal and processed types can be conducted efficiently, contrasted with other types of surveys and complicated matrices beyond previous orthodox procedures.
Opinion polling developed into popular applications through popular thought, although response rates for some surveys declined. The following has led to differentiating results: Some polling organizations, such as Angus Reid Public Opinion, YouGov and Zogby use Internet surveys, where a sample is drawn from a large panel of volunteers, the results are weighted to reflect the demographics of the population of interest. In contrast, popular web polls draw on whoever wishes to participate, rather than a scientific sample of the population, are therefore not considered professional. Statistical learning methods have been proposed in order to exploit social media content for modelling and predicting voting intention polls. Polls can be used in the public relations field as well. In the early 1920s, public relation experts described their work as a two-way street, their job would be to present the misinterpreted interests of large institutions to public. They would gauge the ignored interests of the public through polls.
A benchmark poll is the first poll taken in a campaign. It is taken before a candidate announces their bid for office but sometimes it happens following that
Laurence Parisot was head of the French MEDEF employers' union between 5 July 2005 and 3 July 2013. She directs the IFOP poll institute, she became the 276th wealthiest French person. Her father and grandfather Jacques Parisot led the Parisot group, an unquoted furnishing retail company, she has no children. She studied Law in Nancy University and entered the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris. In 1986, she was nominated director of the Louis Harris Institute poll. Since 1990, Parisot has been chief executive of the IFOP poll institute after she bought 75% of its capital, she has been a member of BNP Paribas board since 1990. In 2003, Parisot entered the MEDEF executive board. On 5 July 2005 she replaced Ernest-Antoine Seillière as head of the organisation and held this position until 3 July 2013. During her time in office, Parisot declared that she intended to fight against unemployment and put “enterprise at the center of French society”, she added that she would work hard to push French MPs to adopt more liberal labour legislation.
International Crisis Group, Board of Trustees Parisot was awarded the Ordre national du Mérite. Translated from the French version
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer