Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can facilitate commoditization of custom processes. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions; this view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards. Standard weights and measures were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization; the centralized weight and measure system served the commercial interest of Indus merchants as smaller weight measures were used to measure luxury goods while larger weights were employed for buying bulkier items, such as food grains etc.
Weights existed in categories. Technical standardisation enabled gauging devices to be used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Uniform units of length were used in the planning of towns such as Lothal, Kalibangan, Dolavira and Mohenjo-daro; the weights and measures of the Indus civilization reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified. Shigeo Iwata describes the excavated weights unearthed from the Indus civilization: A total of 558 weights were excavated from Mohenjodaro and Chanhu-daro, not including defective weights, they did not find statistically significant differences between weights that were excavated from five different layers, each measuring about 1.5 m in depth. This was evidence; the 13.7-g weight seems to be one of the units used in the Indus valley. The notation was based on decimal systems. 83% of the weights which were excavated from the above three cities were cubic, 68% were made of chert. The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts.
Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800. This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time and paved the way for the practical application of interchangeability to nuts and bolts. Before this, screw threads were made by chipping and filing. Nuts were rare. Metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were fastened in non-threaded ways. Maudslay standardized the screw threads used in his workshop and produced sets of taps and dies that would make nuts and bolts to those standards, so that any bolt of the appropriate size would fit any nut of the same size; this was a major advance in workshop technology. Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization. Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first national standard by companies around the country in 1841, it came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, was adopted in other countries.
This new standard specified a 55° thread angle and a thread depth of 0.640327p and a radius of 0.137329p, where p is the pitch. The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart. An example of the use of the Whitworth thread is the Royal Navy's Crimean War gunboats; these were the first instance of "mass-production" techniques being applied to marine engineering. With the adoption of BSW by British railway lines, many of which had used their own standard both for threads and for bolt head and nut profiles, improving manufacturing techniques, it came to dominate British manufacturing. American Unified Coarse was based on the same imperial fractions; the Unified thread angle has flattened crests. Thread pitch is the same in both systems except that the thread pitch for the 1⁄2 in bolt is 12 threads per inch in BSW versus 13 tpi in the UNC. By the end of the 19th century, differences in standards between companies, was making trade difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible.
In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work." The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body. It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929; the national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries; the Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commissi
Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
Aerial photography is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, balloons and dirigibles, pigeons, parachutes, stand-alone telescoping and vehicle-mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered automatically. Aerial photography should not be confused with air-to-air photography, where one or more aircraft are used as chase planes that "chase" and photograph other aircraft in flight. Aerial photography was first practiced by the French photographer and balloonist Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, known as "Nadar", in 1858 over Paris, France. However, the photographs he produced no longer exist and therefore the earliest surviving aerial photograph is titled'Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It.' Taken by James Wallace Black and Samuel Archer King on October 13, 1860, it depicts Boston from a height of 630m. Kite aerial photography was pioneered by British meteorologist E. D. Archibald in 1882.
He used an explosive charge on a timer to take photographs from the air. Frenchman Arthur Batut began using kites for photography in 1888, wrote a book on his methods in 1890. Samuel Franklin Cody developed his advanced'Man-lifter War Kite' and succeeded in interesting the British War Office with its capabilities; the first use of a motion picture camera mounted to a heavier-than-air aircraft took place on April 24, 1909, over Rome in the 3:28 silent film short, Wilbur Wright und seine Flugmaschine. The use of aerial photography matured during the war, as reconnaissance aircraft were equipped with cameras to record enemy movements and defences. At the start of the conflict, the usefulness of aerial photography was not appreciated, with reconnaissance being accomplished with map sketching from the air. Germany adopted the first aerial camera, a Görz, in 1913; the French began the war with several squadrons of Blériot observation aircraft equipped with cameras for reconnaissance. The French Army developed procedures for getting prints into the hands of field commanders in record time.
Frederick Charles Victor Laws started aerial photography experiments in 1912 with No.1 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, taking photographs from the British dirigible Beta. He discovered that vertical photos taken with 60% overlap could be used to create a stereoscopic effect when viewed in a stereoscope, thus creating a perception of depth that could aid in cartography and in intelligence derived from aerial images; the Royal Flying Corps recon pilots began to use cameras for recording their observations in 1914 and by the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in 1915, the entire system of German trenches was being photographed. In 1916 the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy made vertical camera axis aerial photos above Italy for map-making; the first purpose-built and practical aerial camera was invented by Captain John Moore-Brabazon in 1915 with the help of the Thornton-Pickard company enhancing the efficiency of aerial photography. The camera was inserted into the floor of the aircraft and could be triggered by the pilot at intervals.
Moore-Brabazon pioneered the incorporation of stereoscopic techniques into aerial photography, allowing the height of objects on the landscape to be discerned by comparing photographs taken at different angles. By the end of the war aerial cameras had increased in size and focal power and were used frequently as they proved their pivotal military worth. In January 1918, General Allenby used five Australian pilots from No. 1 Squadron AFC to photograph a 624 square miles area in Palestine as an aid to correcting and improving maps of the Turkish front. This was a pioneering use of aerial photography as an aid for cartography. Lieutenants Leonard Taplin, Allan Runciman Brown, H. L. Fraser, Edward Patrick Kenny, L. W. Rogers photographed a block of land stretching from the Turkish front lines 32 miles deep into their rear areas. Beginning 5 January, they flew with a fighter escort to ward off enemy fighters. Using Royal Aircraft Factory BE.12 and Martinsyde airplanes, they not only overcame enemy air attacks, but had to contend with 65 mph winds, antiaircraft fire, malfunctioning equipment to complete their task.
The first commercial aerial photography company in the UK was Aerofilms Ltd, founded by World War I veterans Francis Wills and Claude Graham White in 1919. The company soon expanded into a business with major contracts in Africa and Asia as well as in the UK. Operations began from the Stag Lane Aerodrome at Edgware, using the aircraft of the London Flying School. Subsequently, the Aircraft Manufacturing Company, hired an Airco DH.9 along with pilot entrepreneur Alan Cobham. From 1921, Aerofilms carried out vertical photography for mapping purposes. During the 1930s, the company pioneered the science of photogrammetry, with the Ordnance Survey amongst the company's clients. In 1920, the Australian Milton Kent started using a half-plate oblique aero camera purchased from Carl Zeiss AG in his aerial photographic business. Another successful pioneer of the commercial use of aerial photography was the American Sherman Fairchild who started his own aircraft firm Fairchild Aircraft to develop and build specialized aircraft for high altitude aerial survey missions.
One Fairchild aerial survey aircraft in 1935 carried unit that combined two synchronized cameras, each camera having five six inch le
Army Museum (Paris)
The Musée de l'Armée is a national military museum of France located at Les Invalides in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. It is served by Paris Métro stations Invalides, La Tour-Maubourg; the Musée de l'Armée was created in 1905 with the merger of the Musée d'Artillerie and the Musée Historique de l'Armée. The museum's seven main spaces and departments contain collections that span the period from antiquity through the 20th century; the Musée de l'Armée was created in 1905 with the merger of the Musée d'Artillerie and the Musée Historique de l'Armée. The Musée de l'artillerie was founded in 1795 in the aftermath of the French Revolution, expanded under Napoleon, it was moved into the Hôtel des Invalides in 1871 following the Franco-Prussian War and the proclamation of the Third Republic. Another institution called the Musée historique de l'Armée was created in 1896 following the Paris World Fair; the two institutions merged in 1905 within the space of the former Musée de l'Artillerie. Today, it holds 500,000 artifacts, including weapons, artillery, uniforms and paintings, exhibited in an area of 12,000 m².
The permanent collections are organised into "historical collections", representing a chronological tour from ancient times through the end of World War II. In March 1878, the museum hosted an "ethnographic exhibition", as it was called, which represented the main "types" of Oceania, America and Africa. Dummies representing people from the colonies, along with weapons and equipment, were the main attraction; the exhibit, organised by Colonel Le Clerc, attempted to demonstrate theories of unilineal evolution, putting the European man at the apex of human history. Parts of this collection began to be transferred to the Ethnographic Museum of the Trocadéro in 1910 and in 1917. All remnants were transferred after the Second World War; the Musée de l'Armée has identified 24 aesthetic and symbolic "treasures," which are all linked to French military history from the late Middle Ages through to World War II. They include weapons, works of arts and technology; the museum consists of six main spaces. The Main Courtyard is the centre of the Hôtel National des Invalides and displays a large part of the artillery collections, gathered during the French Revolution.
The collection traces 200 years of the history of French field artillery and enables visitors to discover how the equipment was manufactured, its role and the history of great French artillerymen. Contains: 60 French classical bronze cannons A dozen howitzers and mortars The Musée de l'Armée has a rich ancient collection, which makes it one of the three largest arms museums in the world. Contains: The Royal Room: crown collections The Medieval Room: artifacts from the feudal army to the royal army The Louis XIII Room: the progress of the royal army) A Themed Arsenal Gallery An exhibit on Courtly Leisure Activities some rooms of antique and oriental armament This department covers the military, political and industrial history of France, reliving great battles, exploring the lives of soldiers, tracing the development of technologies and tactics. Contains: Privates' uniforms Luxury weapons and arms Equipment of numerous French and foreign regiments Illustrious figures, such as Napoleon Bonaparte and his marshals The contemporary department tells the story of the French Army from 1871 to 1945, the two great conflicts of the 20th century.
Contains: French and foreign uniforms, including some having belonged to illustrious military leaders Objects used by soldiers in daily life Prestige pieces: marshals' batons and ceremonial swords: Emblems and elements from personal archives: letters, etc. The Charles de Gaulle Monument is an interactive multimedia space dedicated to the work of Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the Free French Forces and founding President of the Fifth Republic. Contains: The Multi-Screen Room The Ring: "an overview of the century" projected onto a circular glass ring The Permanent Exhibition Three cabinets are dedicated to special collections. Contains: Artillery models from the 16th to 19th c. Military music instruments, selected among the 350 of the collection Military figurines, with 5000 toy soldiers displayed on a collection of 140000The Army museum is associated with four additional spaces: The museum is dedicated to the Ordre de la Libération, France's second national order after the Légion d'honneur, created in 1940 by General Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces.
Contains three galleries: Free France Interior Resistance Deportation The Musée des Plans-Reliefs is a museum of military models located within the Musée de l'Armée. About 100 models, created between 1668 and 1870, are on display in the museum; the construction of models dates to 1668 when the Marquis de Louvois, minister of war to Louis XIV, began a collection of three-dimensional models of fortified cities for military purposes, kept growing until 1870 with the disappearance of fortifications bastionnées. In 1676, the Secretary of State for War, Marquis de Louvois, entrusted the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart with the construction of the chapel, which Libéral Bruant had been unable to complete; the architect designed a building which combined a royal chapel, the "Dôme des Invalides", a veterans' chapel. This way, the King and his soldiers could attend mass while entering the place of worship though different entrances, as prescribed by etiquette; this separation was reinforced in
Musée de l’air et de l’espace
The Musée de l'air et de l'espace, is a French aerospace museum, located at the south-eastern edge of Le Bourget Airport, north of Paris, in the commune of Le Bourget. It was inaugurated in 1919 after a proposal by the celebrated aeronautics engineer Albert Caquot. Occupying over 150,000 square metres of land and hangars, it is one of the oldest aviation museums in the world; the museum's collection contains more than 19,595 items, including 150 aircraft, material from as far back as the 16th Century. Displayed are more modern air and spacecraft, including the prototype for Concorde, Swiss and Soviet rockets; the museum has the only known remaining piece — the jettisoned main landing gear — of the L'Oiseau Blanc, the 1927 aircraft which attempted to make the first Transatlantic crossing from Paris to New York. On May 8, 1927, Charles Nungesser and François Coli aboard L'Oiseau blanc, a 450-hp Lorraine-powered Levasseur biplane took off from Le Bourget; the aircraft jettisoned its main landing gear, which it was designed to do as part of its trans-Atlantic flight profile, but disappeared over the Atlantic, only two weeks before Lindbergh's monoplane completed its successful non-stop trans-Atlantic flight to Le Bourget from the United States.
Other items of interest range include: gilded bronze medallion of the Montgolfier brothers, created in 1783 by Jean-Antoine Houdon the Biot-Massia glider an 1884 electric motor by Arthur Constantin Krebs the rear gondola of the 1915 Zeppelin LZ 113, equipped with 3 Maybach type HS engines a 1916 SPAD VII aircraft by Blériot-SPAD and flown by French flying ace Georges Guynemer in World War I a 1917 Airco DH.9 aircraft by Geoffrey de Havilland a 1918 Junkers D. I aircraft by Hugo Junkers a 1961 Dassault Mirage IIIC by Marcel Dassault an SSBS S3 surface-to-surface ballistic missile commissioned in 1981 a 2002 Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard model. Antoinette VII Blériot XI Voisin-Farman No 1 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle Farman Goliath Oiseau Blanc Bücker Bü 181Dewoitine D.520 Douglas C-47 Skytrain Douglas DC-3 cockpit Focke-Wulf Fw 190 North American P-51 Mustang Republic P-47 Thunderbolt Supermarine Spitfire Mk XVI V-1 flying bomb Douglas A-1 Skyraider Dassault Ouragan Dassault Mirage III Dassault Mystère IV North American F-86D Sabre North American F-100 Super Sabre Republic F-84 Thunderjet Dassault Balzac V Leduc 0.10 Nord 1500 Griffon SNCASO Trident Sud-Ouest SO.6000 Triton Concorde Concorde 001 is featured in its 1973 Solar Eclipse mission livery, with the special rooftop portholes visible.
Dassault Mirage IV Dassault Mirage 4000 Eurocopter X3 Boeing 747 Ariane 1 Ariane 5 Airbus A380 Douglas DC-8 Canadair CL-215 Lockheed P-2 Neptune Breguet Atlantic Dassault Mercure Transall C-160 Dassault Super Etendard SEPECAT Jaguar Super Mirage 4000 Dassault Rafale A List of aerospace museums List of museums in Paris Official website Official website in English not translated
MINES ParisTech, created in 1783 by King Louis XVI, is a French engineer school and a constituent college of Université PSL. MINES ParisTech is distinguished for the outstanding performance of its research centers and the quality of its international partnerships with other prestigious universities in the world, which include Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore, Novosibirsk State University, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and Tokyo Tech; the École des Mines de Paris publishes a world university ranking based on the number of alumni holding the post of CEO in one of the 500 largest companies in the world: the Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities. The school is a member of the ParisTech alliance. Created by decree of the French King's Counsel on March 19, 1783, the first school of Mines was located in the Hôtel de la Monnaie, in Paris.
The school disappeared at the beginning of the French Revolution but was re-established by decree of the Committee of Public Safety in 1794, the 13th Messidor Year II. It moved to Savoie, after a decree of the consuls the 23rd Pluviôse Year X. After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, the school moved to the Hôtel de Vendôme. From the 1960s onwards, it created research laboratories in Fontainebleau, Évry and Sophia Antipolis; the initial aim of the Ecole des mines de Paris, namely to train high-level mining engineers, evolved with time to adapt to the technological and structural transformations undergone by society. Mines ParisTech has now become one of the most prestigious French engineering schools with a broad variety of subjects, its students are trained to have management positions, work in research and development departments, or as operations officers, etc. They receive a well-rounded education in a variety of subjects, ranging from the most technical to economics, social sciences or art in order to be able to tackle the managing or engineering-related issues they are to face.
Exchange programs are possible during the third semester with prestigious universities around the world, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, University of Hong Kong, National University of Singapore, Tokyo Tech, Seoul National University... Mines ParisTech provides different educational paths: The Ingénieurs civils degree, ranked among the best French Grande école engineering degrees, similar to that offered at École polytechnique, École des Ponts ParisTech or École Centrale Paris; the Corps of Mines, one of the greatest technical corps of the French state. It is a third cycle degree, lasting for three years, consisting in two long-term internships both in public and private economical institutions and courses in economics and public institutions; the admission to the Corps des Mines is selective as only the top students from École polytechnique, École normale supérieure, Mines ParisTech and Telecom ParisTech may apply Mastère Spécialisé degrees, post-graduate programs accredited by the Conférence des Grandes écoles, in the fields of Energy, Environment and Logistics, Informatics and management in industry and Materials engineering Doctoral and Master studies in various fields For students having studied in the Classe Préparatoire aux Grandes Ecoles, admission to Civil Engineer of Mines is decided through a nationwide competitive examination.
Every year, ten applications are accepted from students around the world according to their academic achievements. Admission to the Corps of Mines is possible for French students at the end of the studies in École polytechnique, École normale supérieure, École des télécommunications de Paris and École des mines de Paris, or from the other great technical corps of the French state. Admission in third year is open to one Ph. D graduate. A Student Union is elected every year after a one-week campaign, is in charge of enhancing the contact between students and various sponsoring industries as well as organizing events for the students. Various other organizations are part of the students' lives: the Students' Sport Committee, the Junior Enterprise, the Arts' Office, Cahier Vert, CAV, Catholic community, Fanfare band, Entrepreneur club, humanitarian organizations, photography club, Sailing club, among others. Maurice Allais, Nobel Prize in Economics, 1988 Jean-Louis Bianco, General Secretary of President of France, Minister of Social Affairs, Minister of Transport, députy of Alpes de Haute Provence's 1st constituency Louis Paul Cailletet and inventor Georges Charpak, Nobel Prize in Physics 1992 Jean-Baptiste Élie de Beaumont, founder of geology, Wollaston Medal 1843 Thierry Desmarest, former CEO of Total Jean-Martin Folz, former CEO of PSA Peugeot Citroën Noël Forgeard, former CEO of Airbus and EADS Charles de Freycinet, prime minister of France at the end of the 19th century Tidjane Thiam, CEO of Credit Suisse Car
The ENSTA ParisTech, École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées is a one of the most prestigious French "grande école d'ingénieurs" and every year about 180 engineers graduate from it. Funded in 1741, it is the oldest french "Grande Ecole", it is located in Palaiseau of the Paris-Saclay campus. ENSTA offers its students general engineering training with the aim of enabling them to design and produce complex systems, while meeting strict economic constraints. To this end, the school provides high-level technological training; the teaching is given by research professors at ENSTA with the participation of numerous auxiliary teachers from the economic and industrial world familiar with the latest technical developments in a wide variety of fields. Research, one of the school's primary missions, makes a significant contribution to both fundamental and applied fields, which agrees with the school's pedagogical mission and meets the needs of business. Half is the responsibility of the school's research professors, the other half is carried out by researchers from the CNRS, the INSERM and the École polytechnique working in ENSTA's premises.
The general nature of the training given enables ENSTA graduates to find a career in a large number of sectors such as the automotive or naval industry and telecommunications, space propulsion, robotics and the environment. The school was the brainchild of Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau, inspector general of the Navy, he had identified the need to give the Navy's master carpenters a theoretical education in mathematics and physics, which were making quick progress, so that they would have a clearer understanding of their trade. Duhamel du Monceau founded the first school in his home in Paris on the Isle Saint Louis in 1741; this date is recognised as the origin of the institution. In 1748 it was moved to the royal library on rue Richelieu, in 1753 to the Louvre Palace adjacent to the Académie des Sciences, it was closed in 1759 during the Seven Years' War. In 1765, he managed to persuade the duc de Choiseul to reopen it as part of a sweeping overhaul of the navy. Duhamel du Monceau continued to run the school for the rest of his life.
The School of Student Engineer Constructors, as it was known, was closed in 1793 during the French Revolution. It reopened in 1795 as an application school for the Ecole Polytechnique. On, it became known as Ecole nationale supérieure du Génie Maritime. In 1970, the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement merged the school with three of its other establishments: - the École Nationale Supérieure des Poudres - the École Nationale Supérieure de l'Armement - the École des Ingénieurs Hydrographes de la Marine; this formed the École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées, the role of, to train engineers in the naval, nuclear, chemical and related fields. The scientific skills of each of the founding institutes survives in the broad range of research disciplines covered at ENSTA, as well as in the more general nature of its teaching and the variety of specialities offered to the students. Today, ENSTA's legal status is that of a "public administrative establishment", placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Defence.
It is headed by a general officer of the Corps of Ordnance Ingineers. Some former graduates of École polytechnique attend ENSTA before joining the military Corps of Ordnance Ingineers, which staffs the DGA. Diplôme d'Ingénieur de l'ENSTA ParisTech Master's degree in Nuclear Plant Design Master's degree in Acoustical engineering Master's degree in Maritime engineering: transport systems and offshore energies Master's degree in Operational research Master's degree in Analysis, simulation Master's degree in Consulting in Organization, Strategy Master's degree in Cyber-physical systems design Master's degree in Processes, environment Mastère Spécialisé Maritime Engineering: transport, sustainable development Mastère Spécialisé Architecture and security of information systems Mastère Spécialisé Design and Exploitation of Autonomous Maritime System Mastère Spécialisé Project Manager in charging infrastructure and electric vehicles Mastère Spécialisé Engineering of Localization Systems and Multi-Sensors Louis-Émile Bertin Alain Bouquin, General Commander of the French Foreign Legion Eugène Deloncle Charles Dupin Henri Dupuy de Lôme Ernest Mercier Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud Jacques-Noël Sané Léonce Verny Paul Marie Eugène Vieille Gérard Albert Mourou ENSTA ParisTech