Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany. Located in a sheltered bay not far from the western tip of the peninsula, the western extremity of metropolitan France, Brest is an important harbour and the second French military port after Toulon; the city is located on the western edge of continental Europe. With 142,722 inhabitants in a 2007 census, Brest is at the centre of Western Brittany's largest metropolitan area, ranking third behind only Nantes and Rennes in the whole of historic Brittany, the 19th most populous city in France. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper. During the Middle Ages, the history of Brest was the history of its castle. Richelieu made it a military harbour. Brest grew around its arsenal until the second part of the 20th century. Damaged by the Allies' bombing raids during World War II, the city centre was rebuilt after the war. At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, the deindustrialization of the city was followed by the development of the service sector.
Nowadays, Brest is an important university town with 23,000 students. Besides a multidisciplinary university, the University of Western Brittany and its surrounding area possess several prestigious French elite schools such as École Navale, Télécom Bretagne and the Superior National School of Advanced Techniques of Brittany. Brest is an important research centre focused on the sea, with among others the largest Ifremer centre, le Cedre and the French Polar Institute. Brest's history has always been linked to the sea: the Académie de Marine was founded in 1752 in this city; the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was built there. Every four years, Brest hosts the international festival of the sea and sailors: it is a meeting of old riggings from around the world; the name of the town is first recorded as Bresta. In 1342, John IV, Duke of Brittany, surrendered Brest to the English, in whose possession it was to remain until 1397; the importance of Brest in medieval times was great enough to give rise to the saying, "He is not the Duke of Brittany, not the Lord of Brest."
With the marriage of Francis I of France to Claude, the daughter of Anne of Brittany, the definitive overlordship of Brest – together with the rest of the duchy – passed to the French crown. The advantages of Brest's situation as a seaport town were first recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, who in 1631 constructed a harbour with wooden wharves; this soon became a base for the French Navy. Jean-Baptiste Colbert, finance minister under Louis XIV, rebuilt the wharves in masonry and otherwise improved the harbour. Fortifications by Vauban followed in 1680–1688; these fortifications, with them the naval importance of the town, were to continue to develop throughout the 18th century. In 1694, an English squadron under Lord Berkeley was soundly defeated in its attack on Brest. In 1917, during the First World War, Brest was used as the disembarking port for many of the troops coming from the United States. Thousands of such men came through the port on their way to the front lines; the United States Navy established a naval air station on 13 February 1918 to operate seaplanes.
The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918. In the Second World War, the Germans maintained a large U-boat submarine base at Brest. Despite being within range of RAF bombers, it was a base for some of the German surface fleet, giving repair facilities and direct access to the Atlantic Ocean. For much of 1941, Scharnhorst and Prinz Eugen were under repair in the dockyards; the repair yard facilities for both submarines and surface vessels were staffed by both German and French workers, with the latter forming the major part of the workforce. In 1944, after the Allied invasion of Normandy, the city was totally destroyed during the Battle for Brest, with only a tiny number of buildings left standing. After the war, the West German government paid several billion Deutschmarks in reparations to the homeless and destitute civilians of Brest in compensation for the destruction of their city. Large parts of today's rebuilt city consist of utilitarian concrete buildings; the French naval base now houses the Brest Naval Training Centre.
A wartime German navy memorandum suggested that the town should serve as a German enclave after the war. In 1972, the French Navy opened its nuclear weapon-submarine base at Île Longue in the Rade de Brest; this continues to be an important base for the French nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarines. The meaning of the coat of arms of Brest is half France, half Brittany; these arms were used for the first time in a register of deliberations of the city council dated the 15 July 1683. Brest is best known for the military arsenal and the rue de Siam; the castle and the Tanguy tower are the oldest monuments of Brest
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
The École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille was founded in 1894 as the Institut de chimie de Lille. It is part of the Community of Institutions Lille Nord de France, it is located on the technology campus of the University of Lille. It delivers engineering and research curricula in the following chemistry area: Sustainable Chemistry and processes for next generation chemistry, Formulation Chemistry, Materials science/metallurgy. Master's degrees are joint program curricula with University of Lille faculties and/or École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Chemistry and Engineering Formulation - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry Master's degree in Catalysis and Processes - joint program with École centrale de Lille. Master's degree in Advanced Materials - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Engineering of the polymer systems - joint degree with University of Lille Master's degree in Chemistry, environment - joint degree with University of Lille Research is associated with the Institut des molécules et de la matière condensée de Lille of the Université Lille Nord de France and is supported through the following laboratories: Unité de catalyse et de chimie du solide de Lille, jointly operated with University of Lille and École centrale de Lille.
École nationale supérieure de chimie de Lille
École nationale supérieure des mines de Nancy
Mines Nancy is one of the French generalist engineering Grandes Ecoles. It is located in the campus Artem, in the city of Nancy, Eastern France, is part of the University of Lorraine. Around 400 students are taught general science and management and 300 follow specialised Master programs; these students are taught by 60 permanent professors. There are 400 researchers including a hundred doctorants. Despite its small size, it is well represented in the French industry. Most of its students hold executive positions in the industry and large corporations or scientific research positions in France or abroad, it was created in 1919 on the request of the University of Nancy in order to contribute to the reconstruction of the mining and steel industry in the east of France after World War I. At the end of the 1950s, under the impulse of its then-director Bertrand Schwartz, the school reorganized its curriculum to include a balanced blend of engineering and social sciences. At the time, it was an innovative educational model for engineers, extended to other Grandes Ecoles.
The school was aimed at training mining engineers. In 1957, its director Bertrand Schwartz began its transformation into a modern "generalist" school; the school focuses on training innovative managers for the industry and researchers, with a broad generalist and high scientific knowledge, able to communicate in different languages. The Ingénieurs civils des Mines degree, is ranked among the best French Grande Ecole degrees. 20% of the students are international students from Morocco and China. In addition to the general science and management classes, the students have to specialise from their second year to the third year: "Département Matériaux" "Département Énergie" "Département Génie industriel" "Département Information et Systèmes" "Département Géoingénierie"; the students must learn English and at least another language. The students have to do at least three internships. Operator internship, whose aim is to discover the reality of work, become aware of the repetitive nature or physical difficulties of the tasks and understand human relations within a company.
Assistant-engineer internship. Engineer internship, the end of course thesis has to be research oriented; the engineer internship is an opportunity for the companies to hire the students. For students having taken studied in the Classe Préparatoire aux Grandes Ecoles, admission to the Ingénieur Civil des Mines degree is decided through a nationwide competitive examination and there origin is different: MP, PC, PSI... with a nombre of places for each option in 2015 is: MP: 54 PC: 32 PSI: 40 PT: 4 TSI: 3 CCP: 5 AST: 5It is possible for any student to be accepted for specialised masters or an exchange program in particular through the partnerships with other schools or universities in the world. Master's Degree in Mechanical Engineering. Master's Degree in Production Management. LSG2M: science and engineering of materials and metallurgy LSGS: science and engineering of surfaces LPM: physics of materials LAEGO: environment, buildings CRPG: petrography and geochemistry LORIA: computer science and its applications ERPI: innovative Processes The students of the ENSMN organize their own meeting with professionals, who present their companies and their activities.
The FORUM EST-HORIZON is the biggest meeting between the professional world and the students in the East of France. With 50 exhibitors covering a large variety of economic and industrial fields, the forum gathered last year more than 1000 students, looking for advice and internships. Jean-Claude Trichet, president of the European Central Bank from 2003 to 2011 Jacques Bouriez, chief executive officer of Louis Delhaize Group Patrick Cousot, professor at New York University Louis Doucet, chief executive officer of GE Money Bank Bertrand Méheut, chief executive officer of Canal+ group Amina Benkhadra, former Moroccan minister of energy, mines and environment since 2007. Kofi Yamgnane, mayor of Saint-Coulitz, mayor of Saint-Briac, French junior minister of social integration in 1991-1993 and deputy of Finistère in the French Parlement in 1997-2002, he ran for the 2010 Togolese presidential election. Philippe Guillemot, chief executive officer of AREVA T&D among its members: Anne Lauvergeon, chief executive officer of AREVA Claude Imauven, chief executive officer of Saint-Gobain PAM, chief executive officer of Saint-Gobain Jean-Yves Koch, managing director of Capgemini École nationale supérieure des Mines d'Albi Carmaux École nationale supérieure des Mines d'Alès École nationale supérieure des Mines de Douai École nationale supérieure des Mines de Nantes École nationale supérieure des Mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Rabat Site of the école nationale supérieure des mines de Nancy Promotional site of
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done
The baccalauréat known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students are required to take to graduate high school. Introduced by Napoleon I in 1808, it is the main diploma, required to pursue university studies. Similar university entrance qualifications exist elsewhere in Europe, variously known as Bachillerato in Germany and Italy, Bachillerato in Spain and South America as well as Baccalaureus in the Netherlands and Sweden. There is the European Baccalaureate, which students take at the end of the European School education, it gives access to a wide range of university education. It differs from British A levels and Scottish Highers but is similar to a US two-year college diploma in that it is earned comprehensively and can be obtained in streams requiring a high level in a number of different subjects, depending on the stream; the general streams are Sciences and Social Sciences and Literature. Much like British A levels or European Matura, the baccalauréat allows French and international students to obtain a standardised qualification at the age of 18.
It qualifies holders to work in certain areas, go on to tertiary education, or acquire some other professional qualification or training. Although it is not required, the vast majority of students in their final year of secondary school take a final exam. Unlike some US high school diplomas, this exam is not for lycée completion but university entrance; the word bac is used to refer to one of the end-of-year exams that students must pass to get their baccalauréat diploma: le bac de philo, for example, is the philosophy exam, which all students must take, regardless of their field of study. Within France, there are three main types of baccalauréat: the baccalauréat général. For entrance to regular universities within France, there are some restrictions as to the type of baccalauréat that can be presented. In some cases, it may be possible to enter a French university without the bac by taking a special exam, the diploma for entrance to higher education. Though most students take the bac at the end of secondary school, it is possible to enter as a candidat libre without affiliation to a school.
Students who did not take the bac upon completion of secondary school and would like to attend university, or feel that the bac would help them accomplish professional aspirations, may exercise that option. The exam is the same as the one administered to secondary-school students except that free candidates are tested in Physical Education, but students' Physical Education grade is calculated based on evaluation throughout the year; the students who sit for the baccalauréat général choose one of three streams in the penultimate lycée year. Each stream carries different weights associated with each subject. Another terminology is sometimes used, which existed before 1994 and further divided the different séries; until it was possible to sit for a bac C or D, B, or A1, A2, A3. People who passed the baccalauréat before the reform still use that terminology in referring their diploma. However, the streams for the baccalauréat général are now as follows: The baccalauréat permits students to choose to sit for exams in over forty world languages or French regional languages.
The S stream prepares students for work in scientific fields such as medicine and the natural sciences. Natural sciences students must specialise in either Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry, Computer science or Earth & Life Sciences. Students of the Baccalauréat économique et social prepare for careers in the social sciences, in Philosophy in management and business administration, in economics; the subject Economics & Social Sciences is the most weighed and is only offered in this stream. History & Geography and Mathematics are important subjects in ES. Students in the L stream prepare for careers in the humanities such as education, literature, law and public service, they have interests in the arts. The most important subjects in the literary stream are Philosophy and French language and literature and other languages English and Spanish; the majority of the baccalauréat examination takes place in a week in June. For lycée students, the end of the last year, terminale. Most examinations are given in essay-form.
The student is given a substantial block of time to complete a well-argued paper. The number of pages varies from exam to exam but is substantial considering all answers have to be written down and justified. Mathematics and science exams are problem sets but some science questions require an essay-type answer. Foreign-language exams have a short translation section, as well. In the S stream, the Mathematics and the Earth & Life Sciences examinations sometimes contain some multiple-choice questions. All students have to work on a scientific research project; those are conducted in groups of 2, 3 or 4 and focus on a subject determined by the students, under the supervision of a faculty member. When taken in mainland France, the baccalauréat material is the same for all students in a given stream. Secrecy surrounding the material is tight, a
École normale supérieure de Rennes
The École normale supérieure de Rennes called ENS Rennes is a French scientific Grande École, belonging to the network of Écoles normales supérieures. Its mission subsequently consists in preparing students "aimed at becoming researchers in fundamental or applied sciences, Professors in universities and classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, as well as in secondary teaching, more at serving administrations of the State and local authorities, or their public establishments or enterprises." Established by a decree of the 17 October 2013 of the Prime Minister, the ENS Rennes is placed under the direct authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, is a founder of the Université Européenne de Bretagne. Before 2013, it was a branch of the École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay, but the great geographical distance between Cachan and Rennes led to a bigger autonomy; the school is divided in five departments, admitting every year 80 to 100 Normaliens, students under the status of paid civil servants.
These are selected through selective entrance examinations, after at least two years of classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles. There are auditors, called "magistériens"; these two groups of students receive the same formation, during a typical four-year cursus. The ENS Rennes is efficient in leading its students to research, as albeit a wide range of possible career paths, more than 80% of a promotion pass the agrégation, more than 70% continue their formation by a PhD. ENS Ulm ENS Lyon ENS Paris-Saclay Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles official website of the École normale supérieure de Rennes