École centrale de Lyon
The École centrale de Lyon is a research university in greater Lyon, France. Founded in 1857 by François Barthélemy Arlès-Dufour in response to the increasing industrialization of France, it is one of the oldest graduate schools in France; the university is part of the Grandes Écoles, a prestigious group of French institutions dedicated to engineering, scientific research, business education. The current 45-acre campus is located in the city of Ecully; the École centrale de Lyon is traditionally known for its research and education in applied science and engineering. It excels in the research fields of acoustics and nanotechnology, is continuously ranked in the top five Grandes Écoles for the quality of its engineering graduate programs; the school is well-reputed for educating and training skilled engineers through many specialized graduate programs with a strong emphasis on laboratory instruction. Students graduate with a degree known as the diplôme d'ingénieur, an academic title protected by the French government and equivalent to a Master of Science, or with a Ph.
D. upon completion of their doctoral studies. The École centrale de Lyon has strong ties with top institutions in Europe including Imperial College London and Darmstadt University of Technology; the university is one of the founding members of the Centrale Graduate School network. It is a founding member of University of Lyon's center for Research and Higher Education, which has over 120,000 students. Thus, it shares many of its Ph. D. programs with other institutions part of University of Lyon such as INSA Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1. It was founded in 1857 on a private initiative by Désiré Girardon, its first president; the founding vision was to educate multidisciplinary engineers for the emerging industry. The institution was given to the French State Ministry of Education in 1947. Located downtown Lyon, it was transferred to Écully, its current location. 1857: Birth of the Lyons Central School for Industry and Commerce, on the initiative of Desire Girardon, a professor at La Martiniere School, an institution for the teaching of advanced industrial science and based on the methods of La Martiniere school.
The school was located at the course of Bourbon. 3 November 1857: Opening of the school with 14 students, who are promoting an issue, that of 1860. 1860: The first class graduated, it will be followed by a promotion of 17 students. 1869: Transfer of School Augagneur dock. 1887: The school was placed under the patronage of the Chamber of Commerce of Lyon. 1901: Transfer street Chevreul on land donated by the city of Lyon in the person of its mayor, Edouard Herriot. 1930: First woman in a promotion. 1947: Assignment of the school to the state. 1949: Creation of the student association. 1963: Establishment of joint competition with the Ecole centrale de Paris. 1967: Transfer in Ecully, creation of a campus in the "American". 1968: First agreement with the School of Darmstadt. 1970: New name: École centrale de Lyon and first class of over 100 engineering students. 1980: First agreements with Japan and the United States. 1983: First batch of over 200 engineering students. 1990: Creation of the Intergroup schools "Central", the first agreement with China.
1992: School is a Public Establishment Scientific and Cultural Professional, the first agreement with the countries of Central and Eastern. 1996: Creation of the European university network for dual degrees. 2000: First agreements with countries in South America. 2001: First batch of over 300 students. 2002: Opening an office in Shenzhen, China. 2003: Opening of the Franco-Russian center for technology transfer. 2005: Creation of central Beijing. 2007: Intergroup is the group of central cchools with Lille, Marseille and Paris. 2006-2007-2008: 150th anniversary of the Ecole centrale de Lyon. 2009: Yin Yang - Alliance project between Central and Lyon Business School EM LYON. 2011: Agreement with France AEROTECH The centralien program is the main academic program offered by the École centrale de Lyon, as a Centrale Graduate School. It is quite different from typical college studies; the engineering degree of École centrale de Lyon is a Master of Science degree. The defining characteristic of the curriculum is that it is multidisciplinary, with studies focusing on all math and physics derived engineering specialties: mechanics, materials, fluid mechanics, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, civil engineering, computer science, telecommunications and micro-nano-biotechnology.
The large majority of the students are admitted after two to three years of classes préparatoires, known as "mathematics superior" and "mathematics special", which are an undergraduate courses with exclusive emphasis on math and physics. These undergraduate students must take a nationwide competitive entrance examination to enter a Centrale Graduate School, including Ecole centrale de Lyon. Ecole centrale de Lyon recruits among the top 6% of the students in classes preparatoires, who represent themselves 7% of higher education students, which makes it a selective and prestigious institution. A few seats are available each year to select students from French universities after completion of three or four years of post high-school education. A significant contingent
16th arrondissement of Paris
The 16th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as seizième; the arrondissement includes part of the Arc de Triomphe, a concentration of museums between the Place du Trocadéro and the Place d'Iéna, complemented in 2014 by the Fondation Louis Vuitton. With its ornate 19th-century buildings, large avenues, prestigious schools and various parks, the arrondissement has long been known as one of French high society's favourite places of residence to such an extent that the phrase le 16e has been associated with great wealth in French popular culture. Indeed, the 16th arrondissement of Paris is France's third richest district for average household income, following the 7th, Neuilly-sur-Seine, both adjacent; the 16th arrondissement hosts several large sporting venues, including: the Parc des Princes, the stadium where Paris Saint-Germain football club plays its home matches. The Bois de Boulogne, the second-largest public park in Paris, is located in this arrondissement.
The land area of this arrondissement is 16.305 km2 more than half of which consists of the Bois de Boulogne park. Excluding the Bois de Boulogne, its land area is 7.846 km2. It is the largest arrondissement in Paris in terms of land area; the 16th arrondissement population peaked in 1962. At the last census, the population was 169,372; the 16th arrondissement contains a great deal of business activity. The 16th arrondissement is thought to be one of the richest parts of Paris, features some of the most expensive real estate in France including the famous Auteuil "villas", heirs to 19th century high society country houses, they are exclusive gated communities with huge houses surrounded by gardens, rare in Paris, it is the only arrondissement in Paris to be divided into two separate postal codes. The southern part of the arrondissement carries a postal code of 75016, while the northern part has the code of 75116. Four Fortune Global 500 have their head offices in this arrondissement: PSA Peugeot Citroën, Kering and Veolia.
In addition Lagardère and Technip have their headquarters in this arrondissement. At one time Aérospatiale had its head office in the arrondissement. In one of the opening scenes of the 1965 James Bond film Thunderball, character Emilio Largo is seen arriving at the headquarters of The International Brotherhood for the Assistance of Stateless Persons; this scene was shot on Avenue d'Eylau in the 16th arrondissement. The controversial 1972 film Last Tango in Paris, starring Marlon Brando and Maria Schneider, was filmed at various locations in the 16th arrondissement, with the apartment the characters stayed in being located in Passy. A notorious serial murder case, which generated an international media circus, centered in the 16th arrondissement during the Nazi occupation of France during World War II; the focal point of the case was French doctor Marcel Petiot, who in 1941 bought a house at 21 Rue le Sueur in "the heart of Paris's fashionable 16th arrondissement". On 11 March 1944, Petiot's neighbors complained to police of a foul stench in the area and of large amounts of smoke billowing from a chimney of the house.
Fearing a chimney fire, the police summoned firemen, who entered the house and found a roaring fire in a coal stove in the basement. In the fire, scattered in the basement, were human remains. Following an investigation, during which time Petiot attempted to evade capture, "the monster of rue Le Sueur" was arrested and went on trial on 19 March 1946, facing 135 criminal charges, he was sentenced to death. On 25 May, Petiot was beheaded, after a stay of several days due to a problem in the release mechanism of the guillotine. Here is a list of domestic French sixth-form colleges/high schools in the arrondissement Lycée Saint-Jean de Passy Lycée Saint-Louis-de-Gonzague Lycée Janson de Sailly Lycée Claude Bernard Lycée Jean-Baptiste-Say Lycée Gerson Lycée Molière Lycée La Fontaine Lycée Octave-Feuillet Lycée Notre-Dame des Oiseaux École Pascale Institut de l'Assomption Institut de La Tour Lycée René-Cassin École normale israélite orientale Établissement Gerson Cours privé Beauséjour École d'esthétique Yves Rocher Ipécom Paris Lycée Moria-Diane Benvenuti Lycée Notre-Dame des Oiseaux Lycée Passy-Saint-Honoré Lycée Sainte-ThérèseInternational schools: Russian Embassy School of Paris, on the grounds of the Russian Embassy in Paris.
Colegio Español Fecerico García Lorca, a Spanish international primary school owned by the Spanish government The Spanish secondary school, Liceo Español Luis Buñuel, is located in Neuilly sur Seine. The two campuses of the International School of Paris Kingsworth International School The Université Paris-Dauphine is in the arrondissement, as well as Paris Institute of Technology, part of Paris Descartes University, one of Paris biggest public universities; the renowned "classes préparatoires" establishment Intégrale: Institut d'enseignement supérieur privé have one of their campuses in the arrondissement. The École de langue japonaise de Paris, a supplementary Japanese education programme, is held at the École Maternelle et Primaire Saint Francois d'Eylau in the 16th arrondissement; the school has its offices at the Associatio
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
École de l'air
The École de l'Air is a military school and grande école training line officers in the French Air Force. It is located at Salon-de-Provence Air Base in France. In 1922, the École du génie of Versailles, was entrusted with the mission to train all officers and aircrew in aeronautics; the École militaire et d’application de l’Aéronautique was set up in 1925. The officer cadets from the non-commissioned officers' corps and young officers from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr and École Polytechnique attended training at Versailles for two years. For pilots, their training continued at Avord and Cazaux, where they trained in aerial combat and bombing. President Albert Lebrun created the École de l'Air by Presidential decree in 1933; the school's first class began training November 4, 1935. The school's motto, Faire Face is a tribute to Capitaine Georges Guynemer, a World War I fighter ace In 1937, the school moved into still-unfinished buildings in Salon, Bouches-du-Rhône; the outbreak of World War II forced the school to relocate several times from 1939 to 1945, to sites including Bordeaux and Marrakech.
It was not until 1946. The school received the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre from President Vincent Auriol in 1947. Other specialized schools joined the École de l'Air, including the École du commissariat de l'Air, which trains administrative and financial officers, in 1953, the Cours Spécial de l'École de l'Air, which trains exchange cadets from French-speaking African countries, in 1973. In 1969, the École de l'Air began an exchange program with the United States Air Force Academy, for eight cadets per school each year; the school first accepted women in 1976. Since 2008, The École de l'Air proposes two mastères spécialisés courses in aviation safety aircraft airworthiness and aerospace project management in partnership with the École nationale de l'aviation civile and the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace. In 2015, The École de l'air launched a MOOC titled Compréhension de l’Arme Aérienne on France Université Numérique's platform. Stéphane Abrial, French General, the previous Commander of Allied Command Transformation Caroline Aigle, first woman fighter pilot in the French Air Force Patrick Baudry, retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien, former CNES spationaut Olivier Dassault, French politician serving as a deputy in the French National Assembly Léopold Eyharts, ESA astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigneré, French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut Fleury Marius, French aviator Francis Pollet, Director of the Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées Jacques Rosay, Vice President Chief Test Pilot of the aircraft manufacturer Airbus Michel Tognini, French test pilot, brigadier general in the French Air Force, a former CNES and ESA astronaut
Agrocampus Ouest is a French higher education institution of university-level, grande école-type. Its official name is Institut supérieur des sciences agronomiques, horticoles et du paysage, it operates under the supervision of the French Ministry of Agriculture. It trains agricultural sciences engineers and research scientists, it has one in Rennes and the other in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest was created in 2008, as the merger of two institutions: Institut National d'Horticulture et de Paysage in Angers. Agrocampus Rennes in Rennes, its head office is located in Rennes, has a second campus in Angers. Agrocampus Ouest trains engineers, 4 specializations being available: agricultural sciences engineer horticulture sciences engineer landscape sciences engineer food industry sciences engineerDepending on the chosen specialization, trainings are held in one or the other campus. Agrocampus Ouest offers 16 Master's degrees and 9 Bachelor's degrees in life sciences. Moreover, Agrocampus Ouest has 6 doctoral schools: Life-Agro-Health Plants, health Materials science Human sciences and society Mathematics, telecommunications, signal, electronics Law, management, environment and territories The institution has 80 acamedic partnerships across the world.
According to its website, Agrocampus Ouest has: 14 research units in partnership with the INRA research institute 398 associated researchers. According to the 2011 ranking published by the L'Etudiant and L'Expansion, Agrocampus Ouest is the third French grande école for agricultural sciences, ex-æquo with l'ENSA de Toulouse. List of agricultural universities
Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is the condition of an individual or group. A high level of well-being means that in some sense the individual's or group's condition is positive. According to Naci and Ioannidis, Wellness refers to diverse and interconnected dimensions of physical and social well-being that extend beyond the traditional definition of health, it includes choices and activities aimed at achieving physical vitality, mental alacrity, social satisfaction, a sense of accomplishment, personal fulfillment. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry for "well-being" identifies ways in which terms related to happiness differ. According to the SEP, the terms "happy", "wellness", "satisfaction", "pleasure" or "well-being" can refer to a series of possible states: reflection on past events moment-to-moment evaluations of happiness by oneself, or with another person inferred from neuroimaging inferred from sensory input inferred from cognitive structure inferred from virtue duration of the experience effect on other factors repetitiveness objectivity whether the experience is altruistic or egoistic, whether happiness reflects an emotional state whether happiness reflects a cognitive judgement The affective and life-satisfaction views of happiness differ meaningfully when it comes to certain topics such as the relationship between income and happiness: "Surveying large numbers of Americans in one case, what is claimed to be the first globally representative sample of humanity in the other, these studies found that income does indeed correlate at all levels, with life satisfaction—strictly speaking, a “life evaluation” measure that asks respondents to rate their lives without saying whether they are satisfied.
Yet the correlation of household income with the affect measures is far weaker: globally.17 for positive affect, –.09 for negative affect. If the results hold up, the upshot appears to be that income is pretty related to life satisfaction, but weakly related to emotional well-being, at least above a certain threshold."There are weaknesses to the self-report method of elicitation for happiness: The lay conception of emotions is that they are discrete. It is typical, in everyday language, just as in research, to use research protocols that accept answers such as: "I am happy or I am sad, but not both simultaneously", or "I am 7 on a 1-10 scale of happiness". Three subdisciplines in psychology are critical for the study of psychological well-being: Developmental psychology, in which psychological well-being may be analyzed in terms of a pattern of growth across the lifespan. Personality psychology, in which it is possible to apply Maslow's concept of self-actualization, Rogers' concept of the functioning person, Jung's concept of individuation, Allport's concept of maturity to account for psychological well-being.
Clinical psychology, in which it may be asserted that the absence of mental illness constitutes psychological well-being. There are two approaches taken to understand psychological well-being: Distinguishing positive and negative effects, defining optimal psychological well-being and happiness as a balance between the two. Emphasizes life satisfaction as the key indicator of psychological well-being. According to Guttman and Levy well-being is "...a special case of attitude". This approach serves two purposes in the study of well-being: "developing and testing a theory for the structure of among varieties of well-being, integration of well-being theory with the ongoing cumulative theory development in the fields of attitude of related research". Many different models have developed. Diener's tripartite model of subjective well-being is one of the most comprehensive models of well-being in psychology, it was synthesized by Diener in 1984, positing "three distinct but related components of wellbeing: frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, cognitive evaluations such as life satisfaction".
Cognitive and contextual factors contribute to subjective well-being. According to Diener and Suh, subjective well-being is "...based on the idea that how each person thinks and feels about his or her life is important". Carol Ryff's multidimensional model of psychological well-being postulated six factors which are key for well-being: Self-acceptance Personal growth Purpose in life Environmental mastery Autonomy Positive relations with others According to Corey Keyes, who collaborated with Carol Ryff, mental well-being has three components, namely emotional or subjective well-being, psychological well-being, social well-being. Emotional well-being concerns subjective aspects of well-being, in concreto, feeling well, whereas psychological and social well-being concerns skills and psychological and social functioning. Keyes model of mental well-being has received extensive empirical support across cultures. Well-being is a central concept in positive psychology. Positive psychology is concerned with eudaimonia, "the good life", reflection about what holds the greatest value in life – the factors that contribute the most to a well-lived and fulfilling life.
While not attempting a strict definition of the good life, positive psychologists agree that one must live a happy and meaningful life in order to
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done