Kenneth Brian Frampton, is a British architect, critic and the Ware Professor of Architecture at the Graduate School of Architecture and Preservation at Columbia University, New York. He has been a permanent resident of the USA since the mid-1980s. Frampton is regarded as one of the world's leading architecture historians of modernist architecture. Frampton studied architecture at Guildford School of Art and the Architectural Association School of Architecture, London. Subsequently, he worked in Israel, with Middlesex County Council and Douglas Stephen and Partners in London, during which time he was a visiting tutor at the Royal College of Art, tutor at the Architectural Association and Technical Editor of the journal Architectural Design. While working for Douglas Stephen and Partners he designed in 1960-62 the Corringham Building, an 8-storey block of flats in Bayswater, the architecture of, distinctively modernist. Frampton has taught at Princeton University School of Architecture and the Bartlett School of Architecture, London.
He has been a member of the faculty at Columbia University since 1972, that same year he became a fellow of the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York -- -- and a co-founding editor of its magazine Oppositions. Frampton is well known for his writing on twentieth-century architecture, for his central role in the development of architectural phenomenology, his books include Modern Architecture: Studies in Tectonic Culture. Frampton achieved great prominence in architectural education with his essay "Towards a Critical Regionalism" — though the term had been coined by Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre. Frampton's essay was included in a book The Anti-Aesthetic. Essays on Postmodern Culture, edited by Hal Foster. Frampton's own position attempts to defend a version of modernism that looks to either critical regionalism or a'momentary' understanding of the autonomy of architectural practice in terms of its own concerns with form and tectonics which cannot be reduced to economics.
He summed up his critical stance towards postmodernist architecture and its advocates' belief in the primacy of architecture as a language as follows: It seems to me that we cannot escape from two aspects of architecture which I tried to identify... as ontological tectonic and representational tectonic. Representation cannot be removed from architecture any more that it can be removed from other discourses.... In my opinion it is of the utmost importance that the ontological and representational aspects of architecture be maintained as a dialogical interaction. I think that the attempt to isolate atomized elements such as morphemes is in the end a kind of reductive pseudo-scientific project, which just leaves you with the banality of pieces such as'a door is a sign of a door' rather than with any notion as to the socio-cultural, complex desire of the species-being to realise itself, collectively. In 2002 a collection of Frampton's writings over a period of 35 years was collated and published under the title Labour and Architecture.
"Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance", in The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. Edited by Hal Foster, Bay Press, Port Townsen. Studies in Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Architecture. MIT Press, Mass. 1995. Álvaro Siza. Complete Works, London, 2000, ISBN 978-0714840048 Le Corbusier. Thames & Hudson, London, 2001. Labour and Architecture. Phaidon Press, London, 2002. "Ando at the Millennium", in Tadao Ando: Light and Water. Book Design by Massimo Vignelli; the Monacelli Press, New York, 2003. The Evolution of 20th-Century Architecture: A Synoptic Account. Springer, New York, 2006. FRAMPTON K. STRAUVEN F. GÜBLER J. & VERPOEST L. Georges Baines, Gent, 2006. Modern Architecture: A Critical History, Thames & Hudson, Fourth edition. American Masterworks: Houses of the Twentieth & Twenty-First Centuries, edited by David Larkin. Rizzoli, New York. Five North American Architects: An Anthology by Kenneth Frampton, Lars Muller, Zurich.
Genealogy of Modern Architecture: A Comparative Critical Analysis of Built Form, Lars Muller, Zurich. L'altro movimento moderno. Edited by Ludovica Molo. Silvana Editoriale, Milan, 2015. Writings on Kenneth Frampton D. Sherer, "Architecture in the Labyrinth. Theory and Criticism in the United States: Oppositions, Assemblage, ANY," Zodiac 20, 36-63. Jorge Otero-Pailos, "Architecture's Historical Turn: Phenomenology and the Rise of the Postmodern." University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 183-250. 2018 Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement, Venice Biennale of Architecture 2014 Lisbon Triennale Millenium BCP Lifetime Achievement Award 2012 Schelling Architecture Theory Prize 2005 Architectural League of New York President's Medal Images of Kenneth Frampton for Mark Magazine. Photographed by Jeff Barnett-Winsby in 2007 Corringham Extensive detail about Frampton's design in Bayswater, London Frampton in conversation with Carlos Brillembourg Brooklyn Rail: Arts
Richard Meier is an American abstract artist and architect, whose geometric designs make prominent use of the color white. A winner of the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1984, Meier has designed several iconic buildings including the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, the Getty Center in Los Angeles, San Jose City Hall. Meier was born to a Jewish family, the oldest of three sons of Carolyn and Jerome Meier, a wholesale wine and liquor salesman, in Newark, New Jersey, he grew up in nearby Maplewood. He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell University in 1957. After graduating, Meier traveled to Israel, Germany, Denmark and Italy, among other places, to network with architects. Meier is the second cousin of Peter Eisenman, an architect and fellow member of The New York Five. In New York City, Meier worked for Skidmore and Merrill in 1959, for Marcel Breuer for three years, prior to starting his own practice in 1963. In 1972, he was identified as one of The New York Five, a group of modernist architects: Meier, Peter Eisenman, Michael Graves, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk.
Early in his career, Meier worked with artists such as painter Frank Stella and favored structures that were white and geometric. Meier first gained significant recognition for his designs of various residences, in addition to The Atheneum in New Harmony and the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia. Although Meier was an acclaimed architect for many years, his design of the Getty Center, a massive museum complex in Los Angeles, which opened in 1997, catapulted him into mainstream recognition; some of his other notable commissions include museums such as the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art in Spain and the Paley Center for Media in Beverly Hills, California. Today, Richard Meier & Partners Architects has offices in New York and Los Angeles, with projects ranging from China and Tel Aviv to Paris and Hamburg. Much of Meier's work builds on the work of architects of the early to mid-20th century that of Le Corbusier his early work. Meier is considered to have built more using Corbusier's ideas than anyone, including Le Corbusier himself.
Meier expanded many ideas evident in Le Corbusier's work the Villa Savoye and the Swiss Pavilion. His work reflects the influences of other designers such as Mies Van der Rohe and, in some instances, Frank Lloyd Wright and Luis Barragán. White has been used in many architectural landmark buildings throughout history, including cathedrals and the white-washed villages of the Mediterranean region, in Spain, southern Italy and Greece; the Mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno, included in his campaign platform a promise to tear down the large travertine wall of Meier's Ara Pacis. Alemmano has since changed his stance on the building and has agreed with Meier to modifications including drastically reducing the height of the wall between an open-air space outside the museum and a busy road along the Tiber river; the city plans to run the road underneath it. "It's an improvement," says Meier, adding that "the reason that wall was there has to do with traffic and noise. Once, eliminated, the idea of opening the piazza to the river is a good one."
The mayor’s office said Alemanno hopes to complete the project before the end of his term in 2013. In 1984, Meier was awarded the Pritzker Prize; the jury citation declared that Meier has "created structures which are personal, original." In 2008, he won the gold medal in architecture from the Academy of Arts and Letters and his work Jesolo Lido Village was awarded the Dedalo Minosse International Prize for commissioning a building. Meier is a Senior Fellow of the Design Futures Council, he was awarded the AIA Gold Medal in 1997. In 2013, he was awarded the A+ Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2010, Cornell established a new professorship named for Meier. Paying tribute Meier on the occasion of his firm's 50th anniversary, the Fondazione Bisazza presented the exhibition “Richard Meier: Architecture and Design” in Vicenza, Italy. In 2014, Meier opened a 15,000-square-foot exhibition space museum at Mana Contemporary in Jersey City; the space gathers much of his life’s work under one roof, replaces a much smaller version that opened in 2007 in Long Island City and that until 2013 was open only by appointment to students and tour groups.
The new venue provides room to show his own sculptures, architectural drawings and collages for the first time, is planned to include a research library. On March 13, 2018, The New York Times detailed allegations from five women that Meier had sexually harassed or assaulted them. Meier responded by saying. In response to the allegations and Meier's apology, his alma mater Cornell University declined his intended endowment of a named chair and instituted a review of his previous donations. On April 6, 2018, an additional four women who worked at Meier's architecture firm came forward with allegations against him; the most recent allegations dated to 2009. On October 9, 2018, the firm announced. Major works by Meier include the High Museum in Atlanta, Meier on Rothschild, On Prospect Park. Frampton, Rykwert, Joseph: Richard Meier, Rizz
Bernard Tschumi is an architect and educator associated with deconstructivism. Son of the well-known Swiss architect Jean Tschumi and a French mother, Tschumi is a dual French-Swiss national who works and lives in New York City and Paris, he studied in Paris and at ETH in Zurich, where he received his degree in architecture in 1969. Tschumi has taught at the Architectural Association in London, the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York, Princeton University, the Cooper Union in New York and Columbia University where he was Dean of the Graduate School of Architecture and Preservation from 1988 to 2003. Tschumi is a permanent US resident. Tschumi's first notable project was the Parc de la Villette, a competition project he won in 1983. Other projects include the new Acropolis Museum, Rouen Concert Hall, Bridge in La Roche-sur-Yon. Over his forty-year career, his built accomplishments number over sixty, including theoretical projects. Tschumi studied at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland where he received an architecture degree in 1969.
After school and prior to winning the Parc de La Villette competition, he built his reputation as a theorist through his writings and drawings. From 1988 to 2003 he was the Dean of Columbia University's Graduate School of Architecture and Preservation. Additionally, academic teaching positions have been held at Princeton University, Cooper Union, the Architectural Association in London. In 1996, he received the French Grand Prix National d'Architecture, he established his practice in 1983 in Paris with the Parc de La Villette competition commission. In 1988, he opened Bernard Tschumi Architects, headquartered in New York City. In 2002, Bernard Tschumi urbanistes. Throughout his career as an architect and academic, Bernard Tschumi's work has reevaluated architecture's role in the practice of personal and political freedom. Since the 1970s, Tschumi has argued that there is no fixed relationship between architectural form and the events that take place within it; the ethical and political imperatives that inform his work emphasize the establishment of a proactive architecture which non-hierarchically engages balances of power through programmatic and spatial devices.
In Tschumi's theory, architecture's role is not to express an extant social structure, but to function as a tool for questioning that structure and revising it. The experience of the May 1968 uprisings and the activities of the Situationist International oriented Tschumi's approach to design studios and seminars he taught at the Architectural Association in London during the early 1970s. Within that pedagogical context he combined film and literary theory with architecture, expanding on the work of such thinkers as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault, in order to reexamine architecture's responsibility in reinforcing unquestioned cultural narratives. A big influence on this work were the theories and structural diagramming by the Russian cinematographer Sergei Eisenstein produced for his own films. Tschumi adapted Eisenstein's diagrammatic methodology in his investigations to exploit the interstitial condition between the elements of which a system is made of: space and movement. Best exemplified in his own words as, "the football player skates across the battlefield."
In this simple statement he was highlighting the dislocation of orientation and any possibility of a singular reading. This approach unfolded along two lines in his architectural practice: first, by exposing the conventionally defined connections between architectural sequences and the spaces and movement which produce and reiterate these sequences. Tschumi's work in the 1970s was refined through courses he taught at the Architectural Association and projects such as The Screenplays and The Manhattan Transcripts and evolved from montage techniques taken from film and techniques of the nouveau roman, his use of event montage as a technique for the organization of program challenged the work other contemporary architects were conducting which focused on montage techniques as purely formal strategies. Tschumi's work responded as well to prevalent strands of contemporary architectural theory that had reached a point of closure, either through a misunderstanding of post-structuralist thought, or the failure of the liberal/leftist dream of successful political and cultural revolution.
For example, one such branch of theoretically oriented architectural postmodernists, began to produce ironic, unrealizable projects such as the 1969 Continuous Monument project, which functioned as counter design and critique of the existing architecture culture, suggesting the end of architecture's capacity to effect change on an urban or cultural scale. Tschumi positioned his work to suggest alternatives to this endgame. In 1978 he published an essay entitled The Pleasure of Architecture in which he used sexual intercourse as a characterizing analogy for architecture, he claimed that architecture by nature is fundamentally useless, setting it apart from "building". He demands a glorification of architectural uselessness in which the chaos of sensuality and the order of purity combine to form structures that evoke the space in which they are built, he distinguishes between the forming of knowledge and the knowledge of form, contending that architecture is
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Michael Graves was a noted American architect and designer of consumer products. As well as principal of Michael Graves and Associates and Michael Graves Design Group, he was of a member of The New York Five and the Memphis Group — and professor of architecture at Princeton University for nearly forty years. Following his own partial paralysis in 2003, Graves became an internationally recognized advocate of health care design. Graves' global portfolio of architectural work ranged from the Ministry of Culture in The Hague, a post office for Celebration, Florida, a prominent expansion of the Denver Public Library to numerous commissions for Disney — as well as the scaffolding design for the 2000 Washington Monument restoration, he was recognized as a major influence on architectural movements including New Urbanism, New Classical Architecture and Postmodernism — the latter including the noted Portland Building in Oregon and the Humana Building in Kentucky. For his architectural work, Graves received a fellowship of the American Institute of Architects as well as its highest award, the AIA Gold Medal.
He was trustee of the American Academy in Rome and was the president of its Society of Fellows from 1980 to 1984. He received the American Prize for Architecture, the National Medal of Arts and the Driehaus Architecture Prize. Nonetheless, Graves became popularly well known through his high end as well as mass consumer product designs for companies ranging from Alessi in Italy — to Target and J. C. Penney in the United States; the New York Times described Graves as "one of the most prominent and prolific American architects of the latter 20th century, who designed more than 350 buildings around the world but was best known for teakettle and pepper mill." Graves was born on July 9, 1934, in Indianapolis, Indiana, to Erma and Thomas B. Graves, he grew up in the city's suburbs and credited his mother for suggestion that he become and engineer or an architect. Graves graduated from Indianapolis's Broad Ripple High School in 1952 and earned a bachelor's degree in architecture in 1958 from the University of Cincinnati.
During college he became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. Graves earned a master's degree in architecture from Harvard University in 1959. After graduation from college, Graves spent a year working in George Nelson's office. Nelson, a furniture designer and the creative director for Herman Miller, exposed Graves to the work of fellow designers Charles and Ray Eames and Alexander Girard. In 1960 Graves won the American Academy in Rome's Prix de Rome and spent the next two years at the Academy in Italy. Graves describes himself as "transformed" by his experience in Rome: "I discovered new ways of seeing and analyzing both architecture and landscape."Little is known of Graves' married life. His marriage to Gail Devine in 1955 ended in divorce. Graves was the father of two sons and a daughter. Graves began his career in 1962 as a professor of architecture at Princeton University, where he taught for nearly four decades, established his own architectural firm in 1964 at Princeton, New Jersey. Graves worked as an architect in public practice designing a variety of buildings that included private residences, university buildings, hotel resorts, hospitals and commercial office buildings, civic buildings, monuments.
During a career that spanned nearly fifty years and his firm designed more than 350 buildings around the world, in addition to an estimated 2,000 household products. In 1962, after two years of studies in Rome, Graves returned to the United States and moved to Princeton, New Jersey, where he had accepted a professorship at the Princeton University School of Architecture. Graves taught at Princeton for thirty-nine years while practicing architecture, he retired as the Robert Schirmer Professor of Architecture, Emeritus, in 2001. Although Graves was a longtime faculty member at Princeton and trained many of its architecture students, the university did not allow its faculty to practice their profession on its campus; as a result, Graves was never commissioned to design a building for the university. In his early years as an architect, Graves did designs for home renovation projects in Princeton. In 1964 he founded the architectural firm of Michael Graves & Associate in Princeton and remained in public practice there until the end of his life.
His firm maintained offices in Princeton, New Jersey, in New York City, but his residence in Princeton served as his design studio, home office and library, a place to display the many objects he collected during his world travels. Nicknamed "The Warehouse", it displayed many of the household items he designed. After Graves's death, Kean University acquired his former home and studio in Princeton, along with two adjacent buildings. Graves spent much of early 1970s designing modern residences. Notable examples include the Snyderman House in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Graves became one of the New York Five, along with Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier; this informal group of Princeton and New York City architects known as the Whites due to the predominant color of their architectural work, espoused a pure form of modernism, characterized by clean lines and minimal ornamentation. The New York Five became the "standard-bearers of a movement to elevate modernist architectural form into a serious theoretical pursuit."
Five Architects describes some of their early work. In the late 1970s, Graves shifted away from modernism to pursue Postmodernism and New Urbanis
Manfredo Tafuri, an Italian architect, theoretician and academic, was described by one commentator as the world's most important architectural historian of the second half of the 20th century. He is noted for his pointed critiques of the partisan "operative criticism" of previous architectural historians and critics like Bruno Zevi and Siegfried Giedion and for challenging the idea that the Renaissance was a "golden age" as it had been characterised in the work of earlier authorities like Heinrich Wölfflin and Rudolf Wittkower. For Tafuri, architectural history does not follow a teleological scheme in which one language succeeds another in linear sequence. Instead, it is a continuous struggle played out on critical and ideological levels as well as through the multiple constraints placed on practice. Since this struggle continues in the present, architectural history is not a dead academic subject, but an open arena for debate. In his view, like other cultural domains, but more so, due to the tension between its autonomous, artistic character and its technical and functional dimensions, architecture is a field defined and constituted by crisis.
During the 1970s, Tafuri published important essays in Oppositions, the journal directed by Peter Eisenman. Although he always had a strong interest in this area of research, in the last decade of his career he undertook a comprehensive reassessment of the theory and practice of Renaissance architecture, exploring its various social and cultural contexts, while providing a broad understanding of uses of representation that shaped the entire era, his final work, Interpreting the Renaissance: Princes, Architects, published in 1992, synthesizes the history of architectural ideas and projects through discussions of the great centres of architectural innovation in Italy, key patrons from the middle of the fifteenth century to the early sixteenth century, crucial figures such as Leon Battista Alberti, Filippo Brunelleschi, Francesco di Giorgio, Lorenzo de' Medici, Raphael, Baldassare Castiglione and Giulio Romano. Tafuri held the position of chair of architectural history at the University Iuav of Venice.
Teoria e storia dell'architettura. Bari, Laterza, 1968. Theories and History of Architecture. Translated by Giorgio Verrecchia. London, 1980. « Per una critica dell'ideologia architettonica ». Contropiano, Materiali Marxisti, no. 1, 1969. Progetto e utopia: Architettura e sviluppo capitalistico. Bari, Laterza, 1973. Architecture and Utopia. Design and Capitalist Development. Translated by Barbara Luigia La Penta. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1976. W/ Francesco Dal Co. Architettura contemporanea. Milan, Electa, 1976. La Sfera e il labirinto: Avanguardia e architettura da Piranesi agli anni'70. Turin, Einaudi, 1980; the Sphere and the Labyrinth. Avant-Gardes and Architecture from Piranesi to the 1970's. Translated by Pellegrino d'Acierno and Robert Connolly. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. Venezia e il Rinascimento. Turin, Einaudi, 1985. Venice and the Renaissance. Translated by Jessica Levine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985. History of Italian Architecture, 1944-1985. Translated by Jessica Levine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
1989. Ricerca del Rinascimento. Principi, Architetti. Torino, Einaudi: 1992. Interpreting the Renaissance: Princes, Architects. Translated with an introduction by Daniel Sherer. New Haven, Cambridge. MA: Yale University Press/Harvard GSD Publications, 2006 "Manfredo Tafuri". Vitruvio.ch. Retrieved 2014-08-28. "Manfredo Tafuri". The Dictionary of Art Historians. Retrieved 2006-10-10. CACCIARI, Massimo. Architecture and nihilism: on the philosophy of modern architecture. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1993. COHEN, Jean-Louis. « La coupure entre architectes et intellectuels, ou les enseignements de l'italophilie ». Extenso, no. 1, pp. 182–223. DAY, Gail. Dialectical Passions: Negation in Postwar Art Theory. New York, Columbia University Press, 2010. DE SOLÀ-MORALES, Ignasi. « Being Manfredo Tafuri: Wickedness, Disenchantment ». ANY, no. 25-26. Special issue of Casabella, no. 619-620. HEYNEN, Hilde. « The Venice School, or the Diagnosis of Negative Thought ». Architecture and Modernity: a critique. Cambridge, Ma. MIT Press, 1999, pp. 128–148.
HOEKSTRA, Titia Rixt. « Building versus Bildung. Manfredo Tafuri and the construction of a historical discipline ». Ph.d. dissertation, University of Groningen, 2005. Online: https://web.archive.org/web/20061009200007/http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/faculties/arts/2005/t.r.hoekstra/ KEYVANIAN, Carla. « Manfredo Tafuri's Notion of History and its Methodological Sources: From Walter Benjamin to Roland Barthes ». MArch dissertation, Cambridge, Ma. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1992. LEACH, Andrew. « Choosing History: A Study of Manfredo Tafuri's Theorisation of Architectural History and Architectural History Research ». Ph.d. dissertation, Universiteit Gent, 2006. Online: http://eprint.uq.edu.au/archive/00003989/ LEACH, Andrew. Manfredo Tafuri: Choosing History. Ghent, A&S Books, 2007. LEÓN CASERO, JORGE, El Tiempo del Aion. Una lectura de Manfredo Tafuri como rizotopía de la historia, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, 2012. Https://www.academia.edu/2585425/El_Tiempo_del_Aion._Una_lectura_de_Manfredo_Tafuri_como_rizotopia_de_la_historia LEÓN CASERO, JORGE,“Aion e historiografía en la obra de Manfredo Tafuri”, Daimon.
Revista de Filosofía, n. 56, 2012, pp. 173–193. LEÓN CASERO, JORGE, "Contra Foucault: Interdisciplinariedad y posición estructural del intelectual en el sistema según Manfredo Tafuri”, Undécimo Congreso Internacional sobre Nuevas Tendencias en Humanidades, Universidad de Eötvös Loránd, Budap
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of