Generalitat de Catalunya
The Government of Catalonia or the Generalitat de Catalunya is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised. It consists of the Parliament of Catalonia, the President of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Executive Council of Catalonia; the Generalitat has a budget of €34 billion euros. The Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared independence from Spain on 27 October 2017 as the'Catalan Republic'. In response Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy decided to dissolve the Parliament of Catalonia and to call a snap regional election for 21 December 2017, after which a new Parliament and a new Catalan government was elected; the independence declaration was turned down by the central Spanish government, members of the Catalan government, including Carles Puigdemont, fled to Belgium claiming to be the legitimate government of the Generalitat of Catalonia. Catalonia’s political past as a territorially differentiated community having its own representative and separated institutions, with respect to the sovereign power of the combined Catalan counties, the Crown of Aragon, the Monarchy of Spain and of the Spanish constitutional state, can be divided into four stages, separated by three great ruptures in the legal/public order.
Pau i Treva de Déu was a social movement promoted in the eleventh century as the response of the Church and the peasants to the violences perpetrated by feudal nobles. The hometowns delimited a protected space of feudal violence. However, to ensure a coexistence climate, it was necessary to go further, establishing an authority that prohibited the practice of any type of violent act anywhere in the territory; this was the objective of the assemblies of Peace and Truce of God, the first of which, in the Catalan counties, took place in Toluges, in 1027, under the presidency of Abbot Oliba, on behalf of Bishop Berenguer d'Elna, absent from the diocese because he was on a pilgrimage. The origin of the Catalan Courts can be considered from the Peace of Truce of God; the Generalitat of Catalonia stems from the medieval institution which ruled, in the name of the King of the Crown of Aragon, some aspects of the administration of the Principality of Catalonia. The Catalan Courts were the main institution of the Principality during its existence as a political entity, approved the Catalan constitutions.
The first constitutions were that of the Courts of 1283. The medieval precedent of the Generalitat, the Diputació del General de Catalunya was a permanent council of deputies established by the Courts in order to recapt the new "tax of the General" in 1359, gained an important political power during the next centuries, assuming tasks of prosecutor, it was chosen by the legislators in 1931 because they felt it was appropriate for invoking as a legitimising base for contemporary self-government. Catalan institutions which depended on the Generalitat were abolished in what is known in Catalonia as Northern Catalonia, one year after the signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in the 17th century, which transferred the territory from Spanish to French sovereignty. By the early 18th century, as the Nueva Planta decrees were passed in Spain after the Catalan defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession, the institution was abolished in the Spanish territory as well; the Generalitat was restored in the Catalonia under Spanish administration in 1931 during the events of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic when Francesc Macià, leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia, declared the Catalan Republic on 14 April but reached an agreement with the Spanish ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia and given its modern political and representative function as the autonomous government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic.
The restored Generalitat was ruled by a statute of autonomy approved by the Spanish Cortes and included a parliament, a presidency, a government and a court of appeal. It was presided by Lluís Companys. After the right wing coalition won the Spanish elections in 1934, the leftist leaders of the Generalitat of Catalonia rebelled in October of that year against the Spanish authorities, it was temporarily suspended from 1934 to 1936. In 1939, as the Spanish Civil War finished with the defeat of the Republican side, the Generalitat of Catalonia as an institution was abolished and remained so during all the Francoist dictatorship until 1975; the president of the Generalitat at the time, Lluís Companys, was tortured and executed in October 1940 for the crime of'military rebellion'. Nonetheless, the Generalitat remained its official existence in exile, leaded by presidents Josep Irla and Josep Tarradellas; the succession of presidents of the Generalitat was maintained in exile from 1939 to 1977, when Josep Tarradellas returned to Catalonia and was recognized as the legitimate president by the Spanish government.
Tarradellas, when he returned to Catalonia, made his quoted remark "Ciutadans de Catalunya: ja sóc aquí", reassuming the autonomous powers of Catalonia, one of the historic nationalities of present-day Spain. After this, the powers given to the autonomous Catalan government according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978 were transferred and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia was passed after being approved both by referendum in Catalonia and by the Sp
Gigantes y cabezudos
Many Spanish and Portuguese festivals include costumed figures known as gigantes y cabezudos "Giants and Big-Heads". The main feature of these figures is their papier maché head; the giants are hollow figures several meters tall, with a painted paper maché head and arms, the rest of the body being covered in cloth and other clothing. Their frame is made of wood or aluminum, with carton-pierre—a mixture of papier-mâché and plaster of paris— used to make the head and hands; the frame of the body is hidden by cloth, the arms have no structural element to allow them to swing in the air when the giant is turned. Within the frame is an individual controlling the giant, he carries a harness on his shoulder, linked to the internal structure, will move and shake the giant in a dance accompanied by a local marching band. These dances will include at least two giants, the male gigante and the female giantess, called giganta or gigantona, though some towns have multiple couples; the figures depict archetypes of the town, such as the bourgeois and the peasant woman, or historical figures of local relevance, such as a founding king and queen, or pairs of Moorish and Christian nobles.
Cabezudos are smaller figures to the human scale, that feature an oversized, carton-pierre head. The heads are worn with a matching costume; the person dressed as cabezudo will use one hand to hold his head, while the other hand carries a whip or pig bladder, used to frighten children or young women. Seeing through the "mouth" of the head, he will chase after these people, though he might pause to calm a frightened child; as with the giants, the cabezudos represent archetypes of their town. Bonecos de Olinda, Brazil Celedón Gargantua Joaldun Judas and Judesa Mari-Jaia, gigante of modern fiestas of Bilbao Olentzero Paliqueiro, a kind of Galician cabezudo Peropalo Toro de fuego Zaldiko Zanpantzar Gigantes y cabezudos is the title of an 1898 zarzuela, with music by Manuel Fernández Caballero, set in Saragossa and featuring a contemporary event: the Spanish army's return from the disastrous defeat of the Cuban War of Independence; the action unfolds during the festival of the Fiestas del Pilar, concludes with a rousing jota focusing on the stereotypically strong, hardy character of the Aragonese, comparing them to the ever-battling "Gigantes" and "Cabezudos".
Processional giants and dragons in Belgium and France Giants and big heads group in San Sebastian Madrid´s group Valladolid´s group - Giants and big heads International Circle of Friends of Giant Puppets Giants of Lleida Friends Assotiation Gigantes y cabezudos of Zaragoza
The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The four largest islands are Mallorca, Menorca and Formentera. Many minor islands and islets are close to the larger islands, including Cabrera, S'Espalmador; the islands have a Mediterranean climate, the four major islands are all popular tourist destinations. Ibiza, in particular, is known as an international party destination, attracting many of the world's most popular DJs to its nightclubs; the islands' culture and cuisine are similar to those of the rest of Spain but have their own distinctive features. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain, with Palma de Mallorca as the capital; the 2007 Statute of Autonomy declares the Balearic Islands as one nationality of Spain. The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Spanish; the official name of the Balearic Islands in Catalan is Illes Balears, while in Spanish, they are known as the Islas Baleares.
The term "Balearic" derives from Greek. In Latin, it is Baleares. Of the various theories on the origins of the two ancient Greek and Latin names for the islands—Gymnasiae and Baleares—classical sources provide two. According to the Lycophron's Alexandra verses, the islands were called Γυμνησίαι/Gymnesiae because its inhabitants were nude because of the year-round benevolent climate; the Greek and Roman writers derive the name of the people from their skill as slingers, although Strabo regards the name as of Phoenician origin. He observed it was the Phoenician equivalent for armoured soldiers the Greeks would have called γυμνῆτας/gymnetas; the root bal does point to a Phoenician origin. Indeed, it was usual Greek practice to assimilate local names into their own language, but the common Greek name of the islands is not Γυμνησίαι/Gymnesiai. The former was the name used by the natives, as well as by the Carthaginians and Romans, while the latter derives from the light equipment of the Balearic troops γυμνῆται/gymnetae.
The Balearic Islands are on a raised platform called the Balearic Promontory, were formed by uplift. They are cut by a network of northwest to southeast faults; the main islands of the autonomous community are Majorca, Menorca/Minorca and Formentera, all popular tourist destinations. Amongst the minor islands is Cabrera, the location of the Cabrera Archipelago Maritime-Terrestrial National Park; the islands can be further grouped, with Majorca and Cabrera as the Gymnesian Islands, Ibiza and Formentera as the Pityusic Islands referred to as the Pityuses. Many minor islands or islets are close to the biggest islands, such as Es Conills, Es Vedrà, Sa Conillera, Dragonera, S'Espalmador, S'Espardell, Ses Bledes, Santa Eulària, Foradada, Tagomago, Na Redona, Colom, L'Aire, etc; the Balearic Front is a sea density regime north of the Balearic Islands on the shelf slope of the Balearic Islands, responsible for some of the surface-flow characteristics of the Balearic Sea. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, the Balearic Islands unsurprisingly have typical Mediterranean climates.
The below-listed climatic data of the capital Palma are typical for the archipelago, with minor differences to other stations in Majorca and Menorca. Little is recorded on the earliest inhabitants of the islands; the story, preserved by Lycophron, that certain shipwrecked Greek Boeotians were cast nude on the islands, was evidently invented to account for the name Gymnesiae. A tradition holds that the islands were colonised by Rhodes after the Trojan War; the islands had a mixed population, of whose habits several strange stories are told. In some stories, the people were said to go naked or were clad only in sheepskins—whence the name of the islands —until the Phoenicians clothed them with broad-bordered tunics. In other stories, they were naked only in the heat of summer. Other legends allow that the inhabitants lived in hollow rocks and artificial caves, that they were remarkable for their love of women and would give three or four men as the ransom for one woman, that they had no gold or silver coin, forbade the importation of the precious metals, so that those of them who served as mercenaries took their pay in wine and women instead of money.
Their marriage and funeral customs, peculiar to Roman observers, are related by Diodorus Siculus. In ancient times, the islanders of the Gymnesian Islands constructed talayots, were famous for their skill with the sling; as slingers, they served as mercenaries, first under the Carthaginians, afterwards under the Romans. They went into battle ungirt, with only a small buckler, a javelin burnt at the end, in some cases tipped with a small iron point; the three slings were for stones of different sizes.
The coca is a pastry made and consumed in Catalan Countries. All around the Mediterranean there are similar typical dishes; the Catalan word coca—plural coques—comes from Dutch during the Carolingian Empire, shares the same roots as the English "cake" and the German "Kuchen". There are many diverse cocas, with four main varieties: sweet, savoury and open. All of them use dough as the main ingredient, decorated; this dough can be savoury. If it is sweet and sugar are added, if it is savoury and salt; as regards the topping or filling and vegetables are usual at the coast whilst inland they prefer fruit, nuts and meat. Some cocas can be both savoury. Coca is any kind of bread-based product, its size can vary from 5 cm up to 1 metre. There are various presentations: the closed coca: a pastry with filling; the open coca: the archetypical coca formed by a pastry base and a topping. The coca with a hole; the plain coca: a coca without any topping, because it is added during the course of the meal. Somewhat similar to Mexican tacos.
Amongst the lengthy list of varieties, the most common are: Coca de recapte, a savoury coca with a variety of different ingredients including sausage and vegetables, available generally. Coca de trempó, from Mallorca and the Balearics. Coca de Sant Joan, a sweet coca most typical of Catalonia, eaten on La revetlla de Sant Joan, St John's Eve. Coca de llanda, from the area around Valencia. Coca de xulla called coca de llardons, bearing bacon and other meat products, typical of any mountainous area. "Cocas are linked with our country's traditions." The coca is a basic part of Catalan cuisine. In Catalonia, the coca has a direct relationship with the holiday, it is typical to buy or prepare cocas during holidays during Easter, Christmas and St John's Eve. Some cocas have the names of saints and they are eaten on that saint's day. Nonetheless, many eat them without any religious or festive reason if we consider that in places like Italy, this dish doesn't carry any special significance; the Coca de Recapte obeys this logic since the "recapte" is a kind of picnic habitually taken out into the fields.
Coca, being the Catalan variety of a Mediterranean dish, has local counterparts all over the Mediterranean in its savoury kind. Apart from Italy, other countries have similar cakes and pastries. Three examples are the Pissaladière from Provence, the Lahmacun from Turkey and the Bouchée à la Reine from France and Luxembourg, where it is one of the national dishes. Sweet pies can be found all over Europe; the more specific King's cake is traditional in Occitania as well as in territories of Catalan culture as a part of the New Year holidays. List of pastries Food portal
Politics of Andorra
The politics of Andorra take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional diarchy, a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, with the Head of Government of Andorra as chief executive. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Before 1993, Andorra's political system had no clear division of powers into executive and judicial branches. A constitution ratified and approved in 1993 establishes Andorra as a sovereign parliamentary democracy that retains the President of France and Bishop of Urgell as co-princes and heads of state. However, the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include an individual veto over government acts. They are each represented in Andorra by a personal representative; the fundamental impetus for this political transformation was a recommendation by the Council of Europe in 1990 that, if Andorra wished to attain full integration in the European Union, it should adopt a modern constitution that guarantees the rights of those living and working there.
A Tripartite Commission – made up of representatives of the co-princes, the General Council, the Executive Council – was formed in 1990 and finalized the draft constitution in April 1991, making the new constitution a fact. One remaining, though symbolic, legacy of Andorra's special relationship with France and Spain, is that the Principality has no postal service of its own – French and Spanish postal services operate side by side, although each of them issues separate stamps for Andorra, instead of using their own. Under the 1993 constitution, the co-princes continue as heads of state, but the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include veto over government acts. Both are represented in Andorra by a delegate, although since 1993, both France and Spain have their own embassies; as co-princes of Andorra, the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell maintain supreme authority in approval of all international treaties with France and Spain, as well as all those that deal with internal security, Andorran territory, diplomatic representation, judicial or penal cooperation.
Although the institution of the co-princes is viewed by some as an anachronism, the majority sees them as both a link with Andorra's traditions and a way to balance the power of Andorra's two much larger neighbors. The way the two princes are chosen makes Andorra one of the most politically distinct nations on earth. One co-prince is the current sitting President of France Emmanuel Macron; the other is the current Roman Catholic bishop of the Catalan city of La Seu d'Urgell Joan Enric Vives i Sicilia. As neither prince lives in Andorra, their role is entirely ceremonial. In 1981, the Executive Council, consisting of the Cap de Govern and seven ministers, was established; every four years, after the general elections, the General Council elects the head of government, who, in turn, chooses the other members of the Executive Council. Andorra's main legislative body is the 28-member General Council; the sindic, the subsindic and the members of the Council are elected in the general elections to be held every four years.
The Council meets throughout the year on certain dates as required. At least one representative from each parish must be present for the General Council to meet. Within the General Council, four deputies apiece from each of the seven individual parishes have provided representation; this system allowed parishes with as few as 350 voters the same number of representatives as larger parishes with up to 2,600 voters. To correct this imbalance, a provision in the new constitution modifies the structure and format for electing Council members. Under the new format, half of the representatives are chosen by the traditional system, the other half selected from nationwide lists. A sindic and a subsindic are chosen by the General Council to implement its decisions, they may be reappointed once. They receive an annual salary. Sindics have no discretionary powers, all policy decisions must be approved by the Council as a whole; the judicial system is independent. Courts apply the customary law of Andorra, supplemented with customary Catalan law.
Civil cases are first heard by the Court of Batlles – a group of four judges, two chosen by each co-prince. Appeals are heard in the Court of Appeals; the highest body is the five-member Superior Court of Justice. More info: Andorran parliamentary election, 2011 Andorra is formed by seven parishes; the Government of Andorra maintains a small ceremonial Army, a well-equipped modernized Police Corps, a Fire Brigade, a Mountain Rescue Service, the GIPA, a para-military unit trained in hostage and counter-terrorism roles. Andorra's young democracy is in the process of redefining its political party system. Three out of the five parties that dominated the political scene in past years have dissolved; the Liberal Union tried to reshape itself and change its name to that of the Liberal Party of Andorra to offer a political umbrella to small parties and groups that have not yet found their place. Another party, the Social Democratic Party of Andorra, has been formed, it was designed to attract parties previously
Joan Miró i Ferrà was a Spanish painter and ceramicist born in Barcelona. A museum dedicated to his work, the Fundació Joan Miró, was established in his native city of Barcelona in 1975, another, the Fundació Pilar i Joan Miró, was established in his adoptive city of Palma de Mallorca in 1981. Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, a manifestation of Catalan pride. In numerous interviews dating from the 1930s onwards, Miró expressed contempt for conventional painting methods as a way of supporting bourgeois society, declared an "assassination of painting" in favour of upsetting the visual elements of established painting. Born into a family of a goldsmith and a watchmaker, Miró grew up in the Barri Gòtic neighborhood of Barcelona; the Miró surname indicates Jewish roots. His father was Miquel Miró Adzerias and his mother was Dolors Ferrà, he began drawing classes at the age of seven at a private school at Carrer del Regomir 13, a medieval mansion.
To the dismay of his father, he enrolled at the fine art academy at La Llotja in 1907. He studied at the Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc and he had his first solo show in 1918 at the Galeries Dalmau, where his work was ridiculed and defaced. Inspired by Fauve and Cubist exhibitions in Barcelona and abroad, Miró was drawn towards the arts community, gathering in Montparnasse and in 1920 moved to Paris, but continued to spend his summers in Catalonia. Miró went to business school as well as art school, he began his working career as a clerk when he was a teenager, although he abandoned the business world for art after suffering a nervous breakdown. His early art, like that of the influenced Fauves and Cubists, was inspired by Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cézanne; the resemblance of Miró's work to that of the intermediate generation of the avant-garde has led scholars to dub this period his Catalan Fauvist period. A few years after Miró's 1918 Barcelona solo exhibition, he settled in Paris where he finished a number of paintings that he had begun on his parents’ summer home and farm in Mont-roig del Camp.
One such painting, The Farm, showed a transition to a more individual style of painting and certain nationalistic qualities. Ernest Hemingway, who purchased the piece, compared the artistic accomplishment to James Joyce's Ulysses and described it by saying, "It has in it all that you feel about Spain when you are there and all that you feel when you are away and cannot go there. No one else has been able to paint these two opposing things." Miró annually returned to Mont-roig and developed a symbolism and nationalism that would stick with him throughout his career. Two of Miró's first works classified as Surrealist, Catalan Landscape and The Tilled Field, employ the symbolic language, to dominate the art of the next decade. Josep Dalmau arranged Miró's first Parisian solo exhibition, at Galerie la Licorne in 1921. In 1924, Miró joined the Surrealist group; the symbolic and poetic nature of Miró's work, as well as the dualities and contradictions inherent to it, fit well within the context of dream-like automatism espoused by the group.
Much of Miró's work lost the cluttered chaotic lack of focus that had defined his work thus far, he experimented with collage and the process of painting within his work so as to reject the framing that traditional painting provided. This antagonistic attitude towards painting manifested itself when Miró referred to his work in 1924 ambiguously as "x" in a letter to poet friend Michel Leiris; the paintings that came out of this period were dubbed Miró's dream paintings. Miró did not abandon subject matter, though. Despite the Surrealist automatic techniques that he employed extensively in the 1920s, sketches show that his work was the result of a methodical process. Miró's work dipped into non-objectivity, maintaining a symbolic, schematic language; this was most prominent in the repeated Head of a Catalan Peasant series of 1924 to 1925. In 1926, he collaborated with Max Ernst on designs for ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev. With Miró's help, Ernst pioneered the technique of grattage, in which one trowels pigment onto a canvas scrapes it away.
Miró returned to a more representational form of painting with The Dutch Interiors of 1928. Crafted after works by Hendrik Martenszoon Sorgh and Jan Steen seen as postcard reproductions, the paintings reveal the influence of a trip to Holland taken by the artist; these paintings share more in common with Tilled Field or Harlequin's Carnival than with the minimalistic dream paintings produced a few years earlier. Miró married Pilar Juncosa in Palma on 12 October 1929, their daughter, María Dolores Miró, was born on 17 July 1930. In 1931, Pierre Matisse opened an art gallery in New York City; the Pierre Matisse Gallery became an influential part of the Modern art movement in America. From the outset Matisse represented Joan Miró and introduced his work to the United States market by exhibiting Miró's work in New York; until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Miró habitually returned to Spain in the summers. Once the war began, he was unable to return home. Unlike many of his surrealist contemporaries, Miró had preferred to stay away from explicitly political commentary in his work.
Though a sense of nationalism pervaded his earliest surreal landscapes and Head of a Catalan Peasant, it was not until Spain's Republican government commissioned him to paint the mural, The Reaper, for the Spanis
National symbols of Catalonia
The national symbols of Catalonia are flags, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of Catalonia or Catalan culture. The oldest Catalan symbol is the coat of arms of Catalonia, based on the royal arms of the Crown of Aragon, though a number of theories trace its origin to older times, it is one of the oldest coats of arms in Europe. A legend, considered non-historical, says that the four red bars are the result of Charles the Bald, known as Charles II, king of West Francia, smearing four bloodied fingers over Wilfred the Hairy's golden shield, after the latter had fought bravely against the Normans. Catalonia's national symbols as defined in the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia are the flag, Catalonia's day, the anthem; these symbols have a political and revindicative significance. Other symbols may not have official status, for different reasons, but are recognised at a national or international level. One of the highest civil distinctions awarded in Catalonia is the St George's Cross.
Certain institutions from the former Principality of Catalonia, like the Catalan constitutions, the Usatges, the Consell de Cent, the Catalan Courts and the Generalitat are valued as historical symbols of ancient local forms of government by Catalans. Owing to a common history and shared experiences, as well as interactions at different levels along the centuries, many of the traditional Catalan symbols overlap with those of Aragon and the Balearic Islands; this is cause of controversies, as it is difficult to resolve conflicts regarding differing perceptions of the culture, the history and the language issues surrounding what was the former Crown of Aragon and the culturally Catalan geographic areas. Places like the Poblet Monastery where the ancient kings lie buried are revered as common symbols that helped consolidate Catalonia in the 12th century. In former times the existence and survival of Catalonia depended on being victorious in the constant battles against the Saracens. Therefore, many ancient Catalan symbols are of a warlike nature, like Otger Cataló known as Pare de la Pàtria, the Nou Barons de la Fama, James the Conqueror, the Almogavars, Bernat de Rocafort and the Comte Tallaferro.
Present-day "moros i cristians" popular festivals still commemorate the battles against the Moors that allowed the Catalans to endure the invasions. The national anthem of Els Segadors, as well as the sickle, date back to the Catalan Revolt, while the Timbaler del Bruc commemorates the resistance against Napoleon I's troops in Catalonia during the Peninsular War. Ancestral symbols, like the Virgin of Montserrat, Saint George, other Virgins and Saints, as well as the Pessebre, the Nit de Reis and the Christmas celebrations, are derived from the Christian doctrine; these symbols were fruit of a time when churches or cathedrals were in the centre of Catalan towns and respect for priests was not questioned. The Christian cross and the colors of the sacrifice of Christ and red for "body and blood", inspired a great part of the Catalan traditional emblems; some old Christian symbols are now subject to controversy, for present-day society in Catalonia is in a state of Postchristianity, seeing itself as more secular than its traditional ancestry.
The names of many villages and mountains all over Catalonia, like Santa Susanna, Sant Sadurní d'Anoia, or Sant Llorenç del Munt, as well as a great number of chapels and hermitages spread all over the territory, remain as a testimony of the ancestral faith of the Catalans. In recent times, these symbols have seen their meaning much reduced. While until the 19th century all Catalans felt represented by their symbols of Christianity, nowadays only a few consider them relevant. In 1905 writer and bishop Josep Torras i Bages, convinced that the Catalan nation had to be Christian in order to establish itself as something enduring and meaningful in the future criticized the secularism displayed by the "militant nationalism" of Enric Prat de la Riba. According to Torras i Bages, the seny, another Catalan symbol, was based in ancient Catalan traditions. Analyzing this controversy, Mossèn Gaietà Soler i Perejoan came to the conclusion that "there are two "opposing visions" in Catalonia, from one side the Catholic, based on "seny" and tradition, aiming to promote benevolent social restoration... of the faith and social and legal customs of Catalonia...", on the other side "the unconcerned, based on what is politically convenient, in order to achieve, rather than social improvement, the political prestige of a nation-state."
Aside of the symbols of a historic and religious character, there are other popular Catalan symbols which are more or less serious according to the case and the context. Many of these symbols come from the local folklore, like the sardana dance, the Castellers and the gegants i capgrossos, as well as the dragon, its derivations, the cucafera, the vibria and the bat; the choosing of a "Pubilla" in the summer fairs comes from an old tradition based on the transmission of hereditary patrimony in rural Catalonia. While other peoples and nations have a "national bird" or a "national flower", Catalonia does not have much in the way of tongue-in-cheek popular established symbols though the yellow weaver's broom has been regarded as such in literature, specially in combination with red poppies; the "ruc català" or "burro català" is a recent creation when the need was felt to produce something Catalan to