Hughes Hall, Cambridge
Hughes Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. It is the oldest of the University of Cambridge's postgraduate colleges; the college admits undergraduates, though undergraduates admitted by the college must be aged 21 or over. There is no age requirement for postgraduate students; the majority of Hughes Hall students are postgraduate, although nearly one-fifth of the student population comprises individuals aged 21 and above who are studying undergraduate degree courses at the University. Hughes Hall was founded in the 19th century as the Cambridge Training College for Women with the purpose of providing a college of the University dedicated to training women graduates for the teaching profession. Since it has enlarged and expanded to support a community of students and researchers, both male and female, working in all the academic domains encompassed by the University of Cambridge; the college is housed in a number of 19th and 20th century buildings at a main site adjacent to the University of Cambridge's Cricket ground, between the City Centre and the railway station.
In 1878 the University of Cambridge established a Teachers' Training Syndicate to develop a training curriculum in education for students of the University intending to become teachers. Hughes Hall was established in 1885 as a college for women graduate students taking the Teacher Training curriculum. Key amongst its early supporters and founders were Rev. G. F. Browne, fellow of St Catharine's College, Miss Frances Buss, headmistress of the North London Collegiate School, Miss Anne Clough, first principal of Newnham College, Professor James Ward, fellow of Trinity College; the college was founded as the Cambridge Training College for Women, it began with 14 students in a small house in Newnham called Crofton Cottage. The first principal was a graduate of Newnham College, Elizabeth Phillips Hughes, in post from 1885 to 1899. In 1895, the college moved to a distinguished purpose-built building, designed by architect William Fawcett, overlooking Fenner's Cricket Ground - which continues to be the main college building to this day.
One of the first matriculants, Molly Thomas, recounted the experience of the first class of students in A London Girl of the 1880s, published under her married name, M. V. Hughes. Following recognition of full membership of the University for women in 1947, the college formally became a recognized institution of the University in 1949 and was renamed Hughes Hall in honour of its first principal; the college became an approved foundation of the University in 1985, received a Royal Charter marking its full college status in 2006. The college's first male students arrived in 1973, making Hughes Hall the first of the all-female colleges to admit men, from that time students began to study a wider range of affiliated post-graduate degrees. Student numbers increased in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, Hughes Hall has about 500 graduate students and around 90 undergraduates, all students are "mature", the college accommodates study in the wide range of studies taught in the University; the college is one of the most international Cambridge colleges, with its students representing over 60 nationalities.
The college's main building, known as the Wileman Building, was designed by architect William Fawcett and built in 1895. It was opened by the first Marquess of Ripon; the building is Grade II listed, red brick in Neo-Dutch style, has an notable terracotta porch. One wing of the Wileman Building is named the Pfeiffer Wing, after husband and wife Jurgen Edward Pfeiffer and Emily Pfeiffer who funded much of the construction cost as part of their mission to support and develop women's education; the building, its various more modern wings, contains student rooms, the college library, social areas and study spaces, various college administrative offices. Next door to the Wileman Building is Wollaston Lodge, a fine symmetrical early-20th century building in buff brick, designed by E. S. Prior, that provides further student accommodation. More recent buildings on the college site, all of which provide accommodation and other facilities for students, include Chancellor’s Court, inaugurated in 1992 by the Chancellor of the University, HRH the Duke of Edinburgh, the Centenary Building, which opened in 1997.
In 2005 Hughes opened a new residential and meeting building, the Fenner's Building, beside and overlooks the University cricket ground named Fenner's. It is possible to see the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church – the tallest church spire in Cambridge - from the building's west-facing windows and terraces; the college owns a number of houses in the nearby area which provide additional student accommodation. In 2014 the college acquired the former Cambridge University gym building on Gresham Road, directly across the cricket ground from the main college site, to develop as a new facility - construction began on the site in 2015; the main college site is near the middle of Cambridge, halfway between Cambridge railway station and the Market Square. The college is located in the Petersfield area of the city, close to Mill Road and accessible from Mortimer Road; the main site is in a residential area, it is beside Fenner's, the Cambridge University Cricket ground, across the road from Parkside Pools and Kelsey Kerridge Gym, which are the main public sports facilities in the city.
A short walk from the college is the Mill Road Cemetery where a number of the University's renowned historic figures, including astronomer James Challis, Isaac Newton's editor Percival Frost, historian John Seeley are buried. Hughes Hall is the nearest o
Jesus College, Cambridge
Jesus College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college's full name is The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint John the Evangelist and the glorious Virgin Saint Radegund, near Cambridge, its common name comes from the name of its Jesus Chapel. Jesus College was established between 1496 and 1516 on the site of the twelfth-century Benedictine nunnery of St Mary and St Radegund by John Alcock Bishop of Ely; the cockerel is the symbol of Jesus College, after the surname of its founder. Three members of Jesus College have received a Nobel Prize. Two fellows of the college have been appointed to the International Court of Justice. Notable alumni include Thomas Cranmer, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Reid, Lord Toulson, Sir Rupert Jackson, Sir David Hare, Sir Roger Scruton, Nick Hornby. Jesus College has assets of £243m making it Cambridge’s third-wealthiest college; the college is known for its expansive grounds which include its sporting fields and for its close proximity to its boathouse.
Ian White, current van Eck Professor of Engineering in the university, has been master of Jesus College since 2011. When founded in 1496, the College consisted of buildings taken over from the Nunnery of St Mary and St Radegund, founded at the beginning of the 12th century; the Benedictine Convent, upon dissolution, included the cloister attached to it. This set of buildings remains the core of the college to this day and this accounts for its distinctly monastic architectural style, which sets it apart from other Cambridge colleges. A library was soon added, the chapel was modified and reduced in scale by Alcock. At its foundation, the college had six fellows and six scholars. Jesus College admits undergraduate and graduates students to all subjects at the university though accepts a larger number of students for engineering, law, natural sciences, economics, history and human, social and political sciences; the college offers a wide range of scholarships. The college performs well in the informal Tompkins Table, which ranks Cambridge colleges by undergraduate results.
Along with students from Trinity, King's, Christ's and St John's, students of the college have been members of the Cambridge Apostles. The main entrance to Jesus College is a walled passage known as the "Chimney"; the term is derived the Middle French word chemin, for "path" or "way". The Chimney leads directly to the Porter's Lodge and into First Court. All the courts at the college, with the exception of the cloister, are open on at least one side; the Quincentenary Library is open 24 hours a day. The library was designed by Eldred Evans and David Shalev in commemoration of the 500th anniversary of the foundation of the college in 1996. Completion of the library was shortly followed by a new accommodation building in 2000, now known as Library Court; the Quincentenary Library has a large law collection, housed in a law library on the ground floor. The Old Library was in regular use until 1912, it still is available to private researchers upon appointment. The Old Library includes the Malthus Collection, being the family collection of alumnus Thomas Malthus.
Jesus College has large sporting grounds all on-site. These include football, cricket, squash and hockey pitches; the Jesus College Boat House is only 400 yards away, across Midsummer Common. The college hosts exhibitions of sculpture by contemporary artists, it has hosted work by Sir Antony Gormley, Sir Eduardo Paolozzi, Barry Flanagan. The college grounds include a nature trail, inspired by poetry composed by Samuel Taylor Coleridge during his time as a student. Jesus College is one of the few colleges to allow anyone to walk on the lawns of its courts, with the exception of First Court, Cloister Court and those that are burial sites for deceased nuns from the original nunnery. In common with other Cambridge colleges, this privilege is only extended during Easter term; the College Chapel was founded in 1157 and took until 1245 to complete, is believed to be the oldest university building in Cambridge still in use. It was the Benedictine Convent of St Mary and St Radegund, dissolved by Bishop John Alcock.
The original structure of the chapel was cruciform in shape and the nave had both north and south aisles. A high, pitched roof was surmounted by a steeple; the chapel was used as the parish church of St Radegund. Twice the chapel was ravaged by fire, in 1313 and 1376; when the College took over the precincts during the 15th century, the parish was renamed after the College as Jesus parish, with the churchyard still being used for burials. This, was short lived, as by the middle of the 16th century Jesus parish was absorbed into that of All Saints. Significant alterations were carried out to the church under Alcock, transforming the cathedral-sized church, the largest in Cambridge into a College chapel for a small group of scholars. A large part of the original nave was replaced by College rooms, subsequently part of the Master's Lodge; the misericords were created by the famous English architect Augustus Pugin between 1849 and 1853. Pugin used fragments of the misericords dating from 1500, preserved in the Master's Lodge as templates.
Repairs were undertaken by George Fr
Downing College, Cambridge
Downing College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge and has around 650 students. Founded in 1800, it was the only college to be added to Cambridge University between 1596 and 1869, is described as the oldest of the new colleges and the newest of the old. Downing College was formed "for the encouragement of the study of Law and Medicine and of the cognate subjects of Moral and Natural Science", has developed a reputation amongst Cambridge colleges for Law and Medicine. Downing has been named one of the two most eco-friendly Cambridge colleges. Upon the death of Sir George Downing, 3rd Baronet in 1749, the wealth left by his grandfather, Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet, who served both Cromwell and Charles II and built 10 Downing Street, was applied by his will. Under this will, as he had no direct issue, the family fortune was left to his cousin, Sir Jacob Downing, 4th Baronet, if he died without heir, to three cousins in succession. If they all died without issue, the estates were to be used to found a college at Cambridge called Downing.
Sir Jacob died in 1764, as the other named heirs had died, the college should have come into existence but Sir Jacob's widow, refused to give up the estates and the various relatives who were Sir George's legal heirs had to take costly and prolonged action in the Court of Chancery to compel her to do so. She died in 1778 but her second husband and the son of her sister continued to resist the heirs-at-law's action until 1800 when the Court decided in favour of Sir George's will and George III granted Downing a Royal Charter, marking the official foundation of the college; the architect William Wilkins was commissioned by the trustees of the Downing estate, who included the Master of Clare College and St John's College and the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, to design the plan for the college. Wilkins, a disciple of the neo-classical architectural style, designed the first wholly campus-based college plan in the world based on a magnificent entrance on Downing Street reaching back to form the largest court in Cambridge, extending to Lensfield Road.
But this was not to be. The estate was much reduced by the suit in Chancery, the grand plans failed. Much of the north side of what was the Pembroke Leys was sold to the University and is now home to scientific buildings. In fact, only limited East and West ranges were built, with the plans for a library and chapel on the south face of the college shelved; the third side of the square was only completed in 1951 with the building of the college chapel. Where the fourth side would have been is now a large paddock, with many trees. Though not enclosed, the court formed before the Downing College is largest in Cambridge or Oxford. An urban legend amongst Cambridge students claims that Trinity pays an undisclosed sum to the college annually with the condition that it will never build the fourth side of the square, so that Trinity may maintain the distinction of having the largest enclosed court of all colleges of Cambridge; the most recent building additions are the Howard Lodge accommodation, the Howard Building, most recent of all the Howard Theatre which opened in 2010.
These were sponsored by the Howard family and are located behind the main court around their own small garden. These facilities are used for conference and businesses gatherings outside the student term; the Heong Gallery, opened in February 2016, is a modern and contemporary art gallery at Downing, named by Alwyn Heong, an alumnus of the college, a supporter of the visual arts. The conversion of a stables building by Caruso St John won a RIBA regional award. Downing students remain prominent in the University world, it is a politically active college, with politically active members and alumni occupying different parts of the British political spectrum, from the far left to the extreme right. In this sense, it is quite different from other colleges, as the student body of many of the politically active colleges tend to incline toward one party or another. Downing has a particular reputation for law; the Griffin has been the undergraduate student magazine for over 100 years. The college fields teams in a range of sports including, men's football, men's and women's rugby and Ultimate Frisbee.
Downing College Boat Club is successful too, with the Women's first boat gaining Lents Headship of the river in the 1994 Lent Bumps, more the Mays Headship in the 2014 and 2015 May Bumps. The men's first boat has held the headship several times in the 1980s and 1990s while gaining the Mays headship in 1996 and the Lents Headship in 2014, on each occasion recognising the tradition of "burning the boat", while the rowers of the winning boat jump the flames, they both hold positions at or near the top in both University bumps races. The college is renowned for its strong legal tradition, being built up by Clive Parry, his pupil and successor John Hopkins and Graham Virgo. Legal notables who have been honorary fellows of the college include the late Sir John Smith, the pre-eminent criminal lawyer of his generation. Downing College website Downing JCR (J
Girton College, Cambridge
Girton College is one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge. The college was established in 1869 by Emily Davies, Barbara Bodichon and Lady Stanley of Alderley as the first women's college in Cambridge. In 1948, it was granted full college status by the university, marking the official admittance of women to the university. In 1976, it was the first Cambridge women's college to become coeducational; the main College site, situated on the outskirts of the village of Girton, about 2.5 miles northwest of the university town, comprises 33 acres of land. In a typical Victorian red brick design, most was built by architect Alfred Waterhouse between 1872 and 1887, it provides extensive sports facilities, an indoor swimming pool, an award-winning library and a chapel with two organs. There is an accommodation annexe, known as Wolfson Court, situated in Cambridge's western suburbs, close to the Centre for Mathematical Sciences; this annexe was opened in 1961 and provides housing for graduates, for second-year undergraduates and above.
The College's formal governance is led by a Mistress, Susan J. Smith, who has held the position since 2009; the College has several equal-access admittance schemes. It has a reputation for musical talent. Several art collections are held on the main site, including People's Portraits, the millennial exhibition of the Royal Society of Portrait Painters, an Egyptian collection containing the world's most reproduced portrait mummy. Among Girton’s notable alumni are Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, UK Supreme Court President Lady Hale, HuffPost co-founder Arianna Huffington, the comedian/author Sandi Toksvig, the comedian/broadcaster/GP Phil Hammond, the economist Joan Robinson, the anthropologist Marilyn Strathern Mistress from 1998 to 2009, its sister college is one of the first two women's colleges of Oxford. The early feminist movement began to argue for the improvement of women's education in the 1860s: Emily Davies and Barbara Bodichon met through their activism at the Society for the Employment of Women and the Englishwoman's Review.
They shared the aim of securing women's admission to university. In particular, they wanted to determine whether girls could be admitted at Oxford or Cambridge to sit the Senior and Junior Local Examinations. Davies and Bodichon set up a committee to that effect in 1862. In 1865, with the help of Henry Tomkinson, Trinity College alumnus and owner of an insurance company with good contacts within the University, 91 female students entered the Cambridge Local Examination; this first concession to women's educational rights met little resistance, as admission to the examination did not imply residence of women at the university site. At that time, students had the option of doing a Pass degree, which consisted of'a disorderly collection of fragmented learning', or an Honours degree, which at that time meant the Mathematics Tripos, natural or moral sciences. An Honours degree was considered more challenging than the Pass degree. In 1869, Henry Sidgwick helped institute the Examinations for Women, designed to be of intermediate difficulty.
This idea was opposed by Emily Davies, as she demanded admittance to the Tripos examinations. The college was established on 16 October 1869 under the name of the College for Women at Benslow House in Hitchin, considered to be a convenient distance from Cambridge and London, it was thought to be less'risky' and less controversial to locate the college away from Cambridge in the beginning. The college was one of England's first residential colleges for women. In July and October 1869, entrance examinations were held in London; the first term started on 16 October 1869, when five students began their studies: Emily Gibson, Anna Lloyd, Louisa Lumsden, Isabella Townshend and Sarah Woodhead. Elizabeth Adelaide Manning was registered as a student, although with the intention of staying for a single term, her step-mother Charlotte Manning was the first Mistress; the first three students to unofficially sit the Tripos exams in Lent term 1873, Rachel Cook and Lumsden, who both took the Classical Tripos, as well as Woodhead, who took the Mathematical Tripos, were known as "The Pioneers".
Through fundraising, £7,000 were collected, which allowed for the purchase of land either at Hitchin or near Cambridge in 1871. By 1872, sixteen acres of land at the present site were acquired near the village of Girton; the college was renamed Girton College, opened at the new location in October 1873. The buildings had cost £12,000, consisted of a single block which comprised the east half of Old Wing. At the time, thirteen students were admitted. In 1876, Old Wing was completed, Taylor's Knob, the college laboratory and half of Hospital Wing built. In 1884, Hospital Wing was completed, Orchard Wing, Stanley Library and the Old Kitchens added. At that time, Girton had 80 students. By 1902, Tower Wing, Chapel Wing and Woodlands Wing as well as the Chapel and the Hall were finished, which allowed the college to accommodate 180 students. In 1921, a committee was appointed to draft a charter for the college. By summer 1923 the committee had completed the task, on 21 August 1924 the King granted the charter to "the Mistress and Governors of Girton College" as a Body Corporate.
Girton was not a college yet, nor were its members part of the University. Girton and Newnham were classed as "recognised institutions for the higher education for women", not colleges of the university. On 27 April 1948, women were admitted to full membership of the University of Cambridge, Girton College rece
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
Gonville & Caius College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college is the fourth-oldest college at one of the wealthiest; the college has been attended by many students who have gone on to significant accomplishment, including fourteen Nobel Prize winners, the second-most of any Oxbridge college. The college has long historical associations with medical teaching due to its alumni physicians: John Caius and William Harvey. Other famous alumni in the sciences include James Chadwick and Howard Florey. Stephen Hawking Cambridge's Lucasian Chair of Mathematics Emeritus, was a fellow of the college until his death in 2018; the college maintains reputable academic programmes in many other disciplines, including law, English literature and history. Gonville & Caius is said to have rights to much of the land in Cambridge. Several streets in the city, such as Harvey Road, Glisson Road and Gresham Road, are named after alumni of the College; the college and its masters have been influential in the development of the university, founding other colleges like Trinity Hall and Darwin College and providing land on the Sidgwick Site, e.g. for the Squire Law Library.
The college was first founded, as Gonville Hall, by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk in 1348, making it the fourth-oldest surviving college. When Gonville died three years he left a struggling institution with no money; the executor of his will, William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, stepped in, transferring the college to its current location. He leased himself the land close to the river to set up his own college, Trinity Hall, renamed Gonville Hall The Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bateman appointed as the first Master of the new college his former chaplain John Colton Archbishop of Armagh. By the sixteenth century, the college had fallen into disrepair, in 1557 it was refounded by Royal Charter as Gonville & Caius College by the physician John Caius. John Caius was master of the college from 1559 until shortly before his death in 1573, he provided the college with significant funds and extended the buildings. During his time as Master, Caius insisted on several unusual rules.
He insisted that the college admit no scholar who “is deformed, blind, maimed, mutilated, a Welshman, or suffering from any grave or contagious illness, or an invalid, sick in a serious measure”. Caius built a three-sided court, Caius Court, “lest the air from being confined within a narrow space should become foul”. Caius did, found the college as a strong centre for the study of medicine, a tradition that it aims to keep to this day. By 1630, the college had expanded having around 25 fellows and 150 students, but numbers fell over the next century, only returning to the 1630 level in the early nineteenth century. Since the college has grown and now has one of the largest undergraduate populations in the university; the college first admitted women as fellows and students in 1979. It now has over 110 Fellows, over about 200 staff. Gonville & Caius is one of the wealthiest of all Cambridge colleges with net assets of £180 million in 2014; the college’s present Master, the 43rd, is Pippa Rogerson.
The first buildings to be erected on the college’s current site date from 1353 when Bateman built Gonville Court. The college chapel was added in 1393 with the Old Hall and Master’s Lodge following in the next half century. Most of the stone used to build the college came from Ramsey Abbey near Cambridgeshire. Gonville and Caius has the oldest purpose-built college chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge, in continuous use as such; the chapel is situated centrally within the college, reflecting the college's religious foundation. On the re-foundation by Caius, the college was updated. In 1565 the building of Caius Court began, Caius planted an avenue of trees in what is now known as Tree Court, he was responsible for the building of the college's three gates, symbolising the path of academic life. On matriculation, one arrives at the Gate of Humility. In the centre of the college one passes through the Gate of Virtue regularly, and graduating students pass through the Gate of Honour on their way to the neighbouring Senate House to receive their degrees.
The Gate of Honour, at the south side of Caius Court, though the most direct way from the Old Courts to the College Library, is only used for special occasions such as graduation. The students of Gonville and Caius refer to the fourth gate in the college, between Tree Court and Gonville Court, which gives access to some lavatories, as the Gate of Necessity; the buildings of Gonville Court were given classical facades in the 1750s, the Old Library and the Hall were designed by Anthony Salvin in 1854. On the wall of the Hall hangs a college flag which in 1912 was flown at the South Pole by Cambridge's Edward Adrian Wilson during the famous Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913. Gonville Court, though remodelled in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is the oldest part of the college. New lecture rooms were designed by Alfred Waterhouse and completed by Rattee and Kett in 1884. Tree Court is the largest of the Old Courts, it is so named. Although none of the
Clare College, Cambridge
Clare College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college was founded in 1326 as University Hall, making it the second-oldest surviving college of the University after Peterhouse, it was refounded in 1338 as Clare Hall by an endowment from Elizabeth de Clare. Clare is famous for its chapel choir and for its gardens on "The Backs"; the current Master is barrister Baron Grabiner. Clare is one of the most popular Cambridge colleges amongst prospective applicants; the college was founded in 1326 by the university's Chancellor, Richard Badew, was named University Hall. Providing maintenance for only two fellows, it soon hit financial hardship. In 1338, the college was refounded as Clare Hall by an endowment from Elizabeth de Clare, a granddaughter of Edward I, which provided for twenty fellows and ten students; the college was known as Clare Hall until 1856, when it changed its name to "Clare College". Clare's Old Court, a Grade I listed building, frames King's College Chapel as the left border of one of the most celebrated architectural vistas in England.
It was built with a long interruption for the English Civil War. The period spans the arrival of true classicism into the mainstream of British architecture, such that its progress can be traced in the marked differences between the oldest wing to the north, which still has vaulting and other features in the unbroken tradition of English Gothic, the final southern block, which shows a articulated classic style; the college's chapel was built in 1763 and designed by Sir James Burrough, the Master of neighbouring Caius College. Its altarpiece is Annunciation by Cipriani. Clare has a much-photographed bridge over the River Cam and is the oldest of Cambridge's current bridges, it was built of stone in 1640 by Thomas Grumbold and restored in 1969, is a Grade I listed building. Fourteen stone balls decorate it. A number of apocryphal stories circulate concerning this – the one most cited by members of college is that the original builder of the bridge was not paid the full amount for his work and so removed the segment to balance the difference in payment.
A more explanation is that a wedge of stone cemented into the ball as part of a repair job became loose and fell out. Clare's bridge connects Old Court to Memorial Court, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott and dedicated in 1926. Memorial Court was extended in the 1950s by the construction of Thirkill Court, was divided into two parts when the College's Forbes Mellon Library was constructed in the centre of Memorial Court. A new court, Lerner Court, designed by architects van Heyningen and Haward, was opened in January 2008, it occupies the last piece of undeveloped land in the central area of the College next to Memorial Court and houses a lecture theatre, fellows offices, residential accommodation and a student laundry. Clare is known as a progressive college. In 1972 it became one of the three male Cambridge colleges that led the way in admitting female undergraduates. Clare has won praise for the transparency of its admissions process. Clare is known as one of the most musical colleges in Cambridge.
Its choir has performed all over the world. Many Clare students play instruments, the Clare College Music Society, is well known the orchestra. Like most Cambridge colleges, Clare allows students to have a piano in their college rooms; as well as popular jazz and comedy nights, Clare is renowned for Clare Ents, a student night held every Friday in term time. The night is popular with students across the university and in the past it has hosted such acts as Tinie Tempah, Bombay Bicycle Club and Chase and Status. Clare's student newspaper, won "Best University College Paper" in The Cambridge Student in 2005. Published by the Union of Clare Students, it comprises satirical articles mocking Cambridge traditions, reports on silly student antics, college gossip in the "Clareifornication" column. On 3 February 2007 the college cut its funding to the paper following the publication of the guest-edited edition of 2 February, retitled Crucification. In addition to the paper's usual satirical attacks on Christianity, this edition featured several articles which mocked Islam, a reproduction of the cartoon illustrations of the prophet Mohammed which provoked international protest when they first appeared in Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten in September 2005.
Clare holds. It is one of the largest is well known for securing popular headliners. Clare Boat Club is the rowing club for current members of Clare College. There is De Burgh Boat Club, for alumni. In 2012, Clare Boat Club had the highest membership relative to the size of its student body of any college-affiliated boat club in Cambridge, fielding six men's VIIIs in the May Bumps competition; the club's Head Coach and Boathouse Manager, Anton Wright, appeared on Channel 4's year-long reality TV show, Eden. The undergraduates of Clare College have performed well based on the results published in the Tompkins Table, placing Clare within the top ten colleges from 2000 to 2005. However, their performance in the following years was poorer, leaving them in 12th in 2006 and 18th in 2009, their 2010 performance however showed an increase of 10 places over the
Newnham College, Cambridge
Newnham College is a women's constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded in 1871 by a group organising Lectures for Ladies, members of which included philosopher Henry Sidgwick and suffragist campaigner Millicent Garrett Fawcett, it was the second women's college to be founded following Girton College. The history of Newnham begins with the formation of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women in Cambridge in 1869; the progress of women at Cambridge University owes much to the pioneering work undertaken by the philosopher Henry Sidgwick, fellow of Trinity. Lectures for Ladies had been started in Cambridge in 1869, such was the demand from those who could not travel in and out on a daily basis that in 1871 Sidgwick, one of the organisers of the lectures, rented a house at 74, Regent Street to house five female students who wished to attend lectures but did not live near enough to the University to do so, he persuaded Anne Jemima Clough, who had run a school in the Lake District, to take charge of this house.
The following year, Anne Clough moved to Merton House on Queen's Road to premises in Bateman Street. Clough became president of the college. Demand continued to increase and the supporters of the enterprise formed a limited company to raise funds, lease land and build on it. In 1875 the first building for Newnham College was built on the site off Sidgwick Avenue where the college remains. In 1876 Henry Sidgwick married Eleanor Mildred Balfour, a supporter of women's education, they lived at Newnham for two periods during the 1890s. The college formally came into existence in 1880 with the amalgamation of the Association and the Company. Women were allowed to sit University examinations as of right from 1881; the demand from prospective students remained buoyant and the Newnham Hall Company built providing three more halls, a laboratory and a library, in the years up to the First World War. The architect Basil Champneys was employed throughout this period and designed the buildings in the Queen Anne style to much acclaim, giving the main college buildings an extraordinary unity.
These and buildings are grouped around beautiful gardens, which many visitors to Cambridge never discover, unlike most Cambridge colleges, students may walk on the grass for most of the year. Many young women in mid-19th century England had no access to the kind of formal secondary schooling which would have enabled them to go straight into the same university courses as the young men - the first principal herself had never been a pupil in a school. So Newnham's founders allowed the young women to work at and to a level which suited their attainments and abilities; some of them, with an extra year's preparation, did indeed go on to degree-level work. And as girls' secondary schools were founded in the last quarter of the 19th century, staffed by those, to the women's colleges of Cambridge and London, the situation began to change. In 1890 the Newnham student Philippa Fawcett was ranked above the Senior Wrangler, i.e. top in the Mathematical Tripos. By the First World War the vast majority of Newnham students were going straight into degree-level courses.
In tailoring the curriculum to the students, Newnham found itself at odds with the other Cambridge college for women, founded at the same time. Emily Davies, Girton's founder, believed passionately that equality could only be expressed by women doing the same courses as the men, on the same time-table; this meant. But the Newnham Council held its ground, reinforced by the commitment of many of its members to educational reform and a wish to change some of the courses Cambridge was offering to its men. In 1948 Newnham, like Girton, attained the full status of a college of the university; the university as an institution at first took no notice of these women and arrangements to sit examinations had to be negotiated with each examiner individually. In 1868 Cambridge's Local Examinations Board allowed women to take exams for the first time. Concrete change within the university would have to wait until the first female colleges were formed, following the foundation of Girton College and Newnham women were allowed into lectures, albeit at the discretion of the lecturer.
By 1881, however, a general permission to sit examinations was negotiated. A first attempt to secure for the women the titles and privileges of their degrees, not just a certificate from their colleges, was rebuffed in 1887 and a second try in 1897 went down to more spectacular defeat. Undergraduates demonstrating against the women and their supporters did hundreds of pounds' worth of damage in the Market Square; the First World War brought a catastrophic collapse of fee income for the men's colleges and Cambridge and Oxford both sought state financial help for the first time. This was the context in which the women tried once more to secure inclusion, this time asking not only for the titles of degrees but for the privileges and involvement in university government that possession of degrees proper would bring. In Oxford this was secured in 1920 but in Cambridge the women went down to defeat again in 1921, having to settle for the titles - the much-joked-about BA tit - but not the substance of degrees.
This time the male undergraduates celebrating victory over the women used a handcart as a battering ram to destroy the lower half of the bronze gates at Newnham, a memorial to Anne Clough. The women spent the inter-war years trapped on the threshold of the university, they could hold university posts but they