Native American cuisine
Native American cuisine includes all food practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Modern-day native peoples retain a varied culture of traditional foods, some of which have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings. Foods like cornbread, cranberry, blueberry and mush are known to have been adopted into the cuisine of the United States from Native American groups. In other cases, documents from the early periods of contact with European and Asian peoples allow the recovery of food practices which passed out of popularity; the most important native American crops include corn, squash, sunflowers, wild rice, sweet potatoes, peppers, avocados, papayas and chocolate. Modern-day Native American cuisine is varied; the use of indigenous domesticated and wild food ingredients can represent Native American food and cuisine. North American native cuisine can differ somewhat from Southwestern and Mexican cuisine in its simplicity and directness of flavor; the use of ramps, wild ginger, miners' lettuce, juniper berry can impart subtle flavours to various dishes.
Country food, in Canada, refers to the traditional diets of Indigenous peoples in remote northern regions where Western food is an expensive import, traditional foods are still relied upon. The Government of the Northwest Territories estimated in 2015 that nearly half of N. W. T. Residents in smaller communities relied on country food for 75% of their meat and fish intake, in larger communities the percentage was lower, with the lowest percentage relying on country foods being in Yellowknife, the capital and only "large community"; the most common country foods in the NWT's area include mammals and birds and berries. In the eastern Canadian Arctic, Inuit consume a diet of foods that are fished and gathered locally; this may include caribou, ringed seal, bearded seal, beluga whale, polar bear and fireweed. The cultural value attached to certain game species, certain parts, varies. For example, in the James Bay region, a 1982 study found that beluga whale meat was principally used as dog food, whereas the blubber, or muktuk was a "valued delicacy".
Value varies by age, with Inuit preferring younger ring seals, using the older ones for dog food. Contaminants in country foods are a public health concern in Northern Canada. In 2017, the Government of the N. W. T. Committed to using country foods in the soon-to-open Stanton Territorial Hospital, despite the challenges of obtaining and preparing sufficient quantities of wild game and plants. In Southern Canada, wild foods are relatively rare in restaurants, due to wildlife conservation rules against selling hunted meat, as well as strict meat inspection rules; therefore there is a cultural divide between rural and remote communities that rely on wild foods, urban Canadians, who have little or no experience with them. The essential staple foods of the Eastern Woodlands Aboriginal Americans were corn and squash; these were called the "Three Sisters" because they were planted interdependently: the beans grew up the tall stalks of the maize, while the squash spread out at the base of the three plants and provided protection and support for the root systems.
A number of other domesticated crops were popular during some time periods in the Eastern Woodlands, including a local version of quinoa, a variety of amaranth, little barley and sunflowers. Maple syrup is another example of the essential food staples of the Woodland Indigenous peoples. Tree sap is collected from sugar maple trees during the beginning of springtime when the nights are still cold. Birch bark containers were used in the process of making maple syrup, maple cakes, maple sugar, maple taffy; when the sap is boiled to a certain temperature, it is at these temperatures the different variations of maple food products are processed. At one point when the sap starts to thicken, snow is used by pouring the thick sap into the snow to make taffy. Southeastern Native American culture has formed the cornerstone of Southern cuisine from its origins till the present day. From Southeastern Native American culture came one of the main staples of the Southern diet: corn, either ground into meal or limed with an alkaline salt to make hominy, using a Native American technology known as nixtamalization.
Corn was used to make all kinds of dishes from the familiar cornbread and grits to liquors such as whiskey, which were important trade items. Though a lesser staple, potatoes were adopted from Native American cuisine and were used in many ways similar to corn. Native Americans introduced the first non-Native American Southerners to many other vegetables still familiar on southern tables. Squash, many types of beans, many types of peppers, sassafras all came to the settlers via the native tribes. Many fruits are available in this region. Muscadines, blackberries and many other wild berries were part of Southern Native Americans' diet. Southeastern Native Americans supplemented their diets with meats derived from the hunting of native game. Venison was an important meat staple, due to the abundance of white-tailed deer in the area, they hunted rabbits, squirrels and raccoons. Li
Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association
The Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association is the national governing body for organized sports at the collegiate level in Canada. Its name in French is l'Association canadienne du sport collégial. CCAA members compete for national championships in the following sports: Golf Men's Soccer Women's Soccer Cross-Country Running Badminton Men's Volleyball Women's Volleyball Men's Basketball Women's Basketball CurlingPast national championships include: Men's Hockey 2018 CCAA Golf National ChampionshipsOctober 15–19, 2018 Host: Medicine Hat College Location: Medicine Hat, AB2018 CCAA Men's Soccer National ChampionshipNovember 7–10, 2018 Host: Holland College Location: Charlottetown, PE2018 CCAA Women's Soccer National ChampionshipNovember 7–10, 2018 Host: Douglas College Location: Coquitlam, BC2018 CCAA Cross-Country Running National ChampionshipsNovember 9–10, 2018 Host: Seneca College Location: Toronto, ON2019 CCAA Badminton National ChampionshipsMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Dalhousie Agricultural Campus Location: Truro, NS2019 CCAA Men's Volleyball National ChampionshipMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Red Deer College Location: Red Deer, AB2019 CCAA Women's Volleyball National ChampionshipMarch 6–9, 2019 Host: Niagara College Location: Welland, ON2019 CCAA Men's Basketball National ChampionshipMarch 13–16, 2019 Host: Langara College Location: Langley, BC2019 CCAA Women's Basketball National ChampionshipMarch 13–16, 2019 Host: Cégep de Sainte-Foy Location: Quebec City, QC2019 CCAA / Curling Canada ChampionshipsMarch 15–19, 2019 Location: Fredericton, NB The CCAA has five member conferences: Camosun College Chargers in Victoria, BC Capilano University Blues in North Vancouver, BC College of the Rockies Avalanche in Cranbrook, BC Columbia Bible College Bearcats in Abbotsford, BC Douglas College Royals in New Westminster, BC Langara College Falcons in Vancouver, BC Okanagan College Coyotes in Kelowna, BC UBC Okanagan Heat in Kelowna, BC University of the Fraser Valley Cascades in Abbotsford, BC Vancouver Island University Mariners in Nanaimo, BC Ambrose University College Lions in Calgary, AB University of Alberta Augustana Faculty Vikings in Camrose, AB Briercrest Bible College Clippers in Caronport, SK Concordia University of Edmonton Thunder in Edmonton, AB Grande Prairie Regional College Wolves in Grande Prairie, AB Keyano College Huskies in Fort McMurray, AB King's University College Eagles in Edmonton, AB Lakeland College Rustlers in Lloydminster, AB Lethbridge College Kodiaks in Lethbridge, AB MacEwan University Griffins in Edmonton, AB Medicine Hat College Rattlers in Medicine Hat, AB NAIT Ooks in Edmonton, AB Olds College Broncos in Olds, AB Portage College Voyageurs in Lac La Biche, AB Red Deer College Kings in Red Deer, AB St. Mary's University Lightning in Calgary, AB SAIT Trojans in Calgary, AB Algonquin College Thunder in Ottawa, ON Collège Boréal Vipères in Sudbury, ON Cambrian College Golden Shield in Sudbury, ON Canadore College Panthers in North Bay, ON Centennial College Colts in Scarborough, ON Conestoga College Condors in Kitchener, ON Confederation College Thunderhawks in Thunder Bay, ON Durham College Lords in Oshawa, ON Fanshawe College Falcons in London, ON Fleming College Knights in Peterborough, ON George Brown College Huskies in Toronto, ON Georgian College Grizzlies in Barrie, ON Humber College Hawks in Etobicoke, ON La Cité collégiale Coyotes in Ottawa, ON Lakehead University Timberwolves in Orillia, ON Lambton College Lions in Sarnia, ON Loyalist College Lancers in Belleville, ON Mohawk College Mountaineers in Hamilton, ON Niagara College Knights in Welland, ON Redeemer University College Royals in Ancaster, ON Sault College Cougars in Sault Ste.
Marie, ON Seneca College Sting in North York, ON Sheridan College Bruins in Brampton and Oakville, ON St. Clair College Saints in Windsor, ON St. Lawrence College Vikings in Kingston, ON University of Toronto Mississauga Eagles in Mississauga, ON Wilfred Laurier University Golden Hawks in Brantford, ON Collège Ahuntsic Indiens in Montreal, QC Collège André-Grasset Phénix in Montreal, QC Cégep André-Laurendeau Boomerang in LaSalle, QC Collège de Bois-de-Boulogne Cavaliers in Montreal, QC Champlain College Lennoxville Cougars in Lennoxville, QC Champlain College Saint-Lambert Cavaliers in St-Lambert, QC Champlain College St. Lawrence Lions in Ste-Foy, QC Cégep de Chicoutimi Cougars in Chicoutimi, QC Dawson College Blues in Montreal, QC Cégep Édouard-Montpetit Lynx in Longueuil, QC Cégep Garneau Élans in Quebec City, QC Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf Dynamiques in Montreal, QC John Abbott College Islanders in Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC Cégep de Jonquière Gaillards in Jonquière, QC Cégep régional de Lanaudière Cyclones in L'Assomption, QC Cégep de Lévis-Lauzon Faucons in Lévis, QC Cégep Limoilou Titans in Quebec, QC Collège Lionel-Groulx Nordiques in Ste-Thérèse, QC Collège Montmorency Nomades in Laval, QC Cégep de l'Outaouais Griffons in Gatineau, QC Cégep de Rimouski Pionniers in Rimouski, QC Cégep de Sainte-Foy Dynamiques in Ste-Foy, QC Cégep de Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Géants in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, QC Cégep de Saint-Jérôme Cheminots in Saint-Jerome, QC Cégep de Sherbrooke Volontaires in Sherbrooke, QC Cégep de Trois-Rivières Diablos in Trois-Rivières, QC Collège de Valleyfield Noir et Or in Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, QC Vanier College Cheetahs in Ville de St-Laurent, QC Cégep de Victoriaville Vulkins in Victoriaville, QC Cégep du Vieux Montréal Spartiates in Montreal, QC Crandall University Chargers in Moncton, NB Dalhousie University Faculty of Agriculture Rams in Truro, NS Holland College Hurricanes in Charlottetown, PE Mount Allison University Mounties in Sackville, NB Mount Saint Vincent University Mystics in Halifax, NS St. Thomas University Tommies in Fredericton, NB University of King's College Blue Devils in Halifax, NS University of New Brunswick in Fredericton, NB UNB Saint John Seawolves in Saint J
Mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas comprise numerous different cultures. Each has its own mythologies; some are quite distinct. There is no single mythology of the Indigenous North American peoples, but numerous different canons of traditional narratives associated with religion and beliefs; such stories are based in Nature and are rich with the symbolism of seasons, plants, earth, fire and the heavenly bodies. Common elements are the principle of an all-embracing and omniscient Great Spirit, a connection to the Earth and its landscapes, a belief in a parallel world in the sky, diverse creation narratives, visits to the'land of the dead', collective memories of ancient sacred ancestors A characteristic of many of the myths is the close relationship between human beings and animals, they feature shapeshifting between animal and human form. Marriage between people and different species is a common theme. In some stories, animals foster human children. Although most Native North American myths are profound and serious, some use light-hearted humour – in the form of tricksters – to entertain, as they subtly convey important spiritual and moral messages.
The use of allegory is common, exploring issues ranging from love and friendship to domestic violence and mental illness. Some myths are connected to traditional religious rituals involving dance, music and trance. Most of the myths from this region were first transcribed by ethnologists during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; these sources were collected from Native American elders who still had strong connections to the traditions of their ancestors. They may be considered the most authentic surviving records of the ancient stories, thus form the basis of the descriptions below. All the original sources quoted are now available to read online through websites such as archive.org Myths from this region feature female deities such as the creator Big Turtle, First Mother from whose body grew the first corn and tobacco. The two great divine culture heroes are Manabus. Other stories explore the complex relationships between human beings; some myths were recited as verse narratives. Iroquois mythology Ho-Chunk mythology Wyandot religion Seneca mythology Stories unique to this region feature buffalo – the animals whose bodies provided the Plains peoples with food, clothing and utensils.
In some myths they are benign, in others malevolent. The Sun is an important deity. A common theme is the making of a journey to a supernatural place across the landscape or up to the parallel world in the sky. One of the most dominant tricksters of the Plains is Old Man, about whom numerous humorous stories are told. An important supernatural hero is the Blood Clot Boy, transformed from a clot of blood. Important myths of this region deal with the origin of hunting and farming, the origin of sickness and medicine. See also: Cherokee mythology Choctaw mythology Creek mythology Myths of this region are dominated by the sacred creator / trickster Coyote. Other significant characters include the Star Women and Darkness. See also: Kuksu – a religion in Northern California practiced by members within several Indigenous peoples of California. Miwok mythology – a North American tribe in Northern California. Ohlone mythology – a North American tribe in Northern California. Pomo religion – a North American tribe in Northern California.
Myths of the Navajo and Pueblo peoples tell how the first human beings emerged from an underworld to the Earth. According to the Hopi Pueblo people, the first beings were the Sun, two goddesses known as Hard Being Women and Spider Woman, it was the goddesses who created human beings. Other themes include the origin of tobacco and corn, horses; some stories describe parallel worlds in underwater. See also: Ute mythology – a North American tribe located in both the Northwestern and Southwestern United States. Diné Bahaneʼ – a North American nation from the Southwestern United States. Hopi mythology – a North American tribe in Arizona. Zuni mythology – a North American tribe in New Mexico. Myths of the Plateau region express the people's intense spiritual feeling for their landscapes, emphasise the importance of treating with respect the animals that they depend upon for food. Sacred tricksters here include Fox. See also: Salish mythology – a North American tribe or band in Montana, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada The myths of this region are set in the landscape of tundra and ice.
Memorable stories feature the moon and giants. Some accounts say that Anguta is the supreme being, who created the Earth and heavenly bodies, his daughter, Sedna created all living things -- plants. She is regarded as the protecting divinity of the Inuit people. Here some myths reflect the extreme climate and the people's dependence on salmon as a major food resource. In imagination, the landscape is populated by both malevolent giants. In this region the dominant sacred trickster is Raven, who brought daylight to the world and appears in many other stories. Myths explore the people's relationship with the coast and the rivers along which they traditionally built their towns. There are stories of visits to parallel worlds beneath the sea. and up in the sky See also: Kwakwaka'wakw mythology – an Indigenous peoples of the Pacif
Métis in Canada
The Métis in Canada are groups of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers French in the early decades. They are recognized as one of Canada's aboriginal peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982, along with First Nations and Inuit peoples; as of 2016, they number over 587,545. Canadian Métis represent the majority of people that identify as Métis, although there are a number of Métis in the United States. While the Métis developed as the mixed-race descendants of early unions between First Nations and colonial-era European settlers, within generations, a distinct Métis culture developed; the women in the unions in eastern Canada were Wabanaki and Menominee. Their unions with European men engaged in the fur trade in the Old Northwest were of the type known as Marriage à la façon du pays. After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control in 1763, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, the Anglo-Métis descended from English or Scottish fathers.
Today these two cultures have coalesced into location-specific Métis traditions. This does not preclude a range of other Métis cultural expressions across North America; such polyethnic people were referred to by other terms, many of which are now considered to be offensive, such as Mixed-bloods, Half-breeds, Bois-Brûlés, Black Scots, Jackatars. The contemporary Métis in Canada are a specific Indigenous people. While people of Métis culture or heritage are found across Canada, the traditional Métis "homeland" includes much of the Canadian Prairies; the most known group are the "Red River Métis", centring on southern and central parts of Manitoba along the Red River of the North. Related are the Métis in the United States those in border areas such as northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, eastern Montana; these were areas in which there was considerable Aboriginal and European mixing due to the 19th-century fur trade. But they do not have a federally recognized status in the United States, except as enrolled members of federally recognized tribes.
Although Métis existed further west than today's Manitoba, much less is known about the Métis of Northern Canada. In 2016, 587,545 people in Canada self-identified as Métis, they represented 1.5 % of the total Canadian population. Most Métis people today are descendants of unions between generations of Métis individuals and live in Canadian society with people of other ethnicities; the exception are the Métis in rural and northern parts, who still live in close proximity to First Nations communities. Over the past century, countless Métis have assimilated into the general European Canadian populations. Métis heritage is more common than is realized. Geneticists estimate that 50 percent of today's population in Western Canada has some Aboriginal ancestry. Most people with more distant ancestry are not part of culture. Unlike among First Nations peoples, there is no distinction between Treaty status and non-Treaty status; the Métis did not sign treaties with Canada, with the exception of an adhesion to Treaty 3 in Northwest Ontario.
This adherence was never implemented by the federal government. The legal definition is not yet developed. Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982 recognizes the rights of Indian, Métis and Inuit people. In 2003, the Supreme Court of Canada defined a Métis as someone who self-identifies as Métis, has an ancestral connection to the historic Métis community, is accepted by the modern community with continuity to the historic Métis community; the most well-known and documented mixed-ancestry population in Canadian history are the groups who developed during the fur trade in south-eastern Rupert's Land in the Red River Settlement and the Southbranch Settlements. In the late nineteenth century, they organized politically and had confrontations with the Canadian government in an effort to assert their independence; this was not the only place where métissage between Indigenous people occurred. It was part of the history of colonization from the earliest days of settlements on the Atlantic Coast throughout the Americas.
But the strong sense of ethnic national identity among the French- and Michif-speaking Métis along the Red River, demonstrated during the Riel Rebellions, resulted in wider use of the term "Métis" as the main word used by Canadians for all mixed Euro-Native groups. Continued organizing and political activity resulted in "the Métis" gaining official recognition from the national government as one of the recognized Aboriginal groups in S.35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which states: 35. The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal People of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed. In this Act, "Aboriginal Peoples of Canada" includes the Indian, Métis Peoples of Canada.... Section-35 does not define criteria for an individual, Métis
The Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada
The association between the Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada stretches back to the first decisions between North American Indigenous peoples and European colonialists and, over centuries of interface, treaties were established concerning the monarch and Indigenous tribes. Canada's First Nations, Métis peoples now have a unique relationship with the reigning monarch and, like the Māori and the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand view the affiliation as being not between them and the ever-changing Cabinet, but instead with the continuous Crown of Canada, as embodied in the reigning sovereign; these agreements with the Crown are administered by Canadian Aboriginal law and overseen by the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs. The association between Canada's Indigenous peoples and the Canadian Crown is both statutory and traditional, the treaties being seen by the first peoples both as legal contracts and as perpetual and personal promises by successive reigning kings and queens to protect Aboriginal welfare, define their rights, reconcile their sovereignty with that of the monarch in Canada.
The agreements are formed with the Crown because the monarchy is thought to have inherent stability and continuity, as opposed to the transitory nature of populist whims that rule the political government, meaning the link between monarch and Aboriginals will theoretically last for "as long as the sun shines, grass grows and rivers flow."The relationship has thus been described as mutual—"cooperation will be a cornerstone for partnership between Canada and First Nations, wherein Canada is the short-form reference to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada"—and "special," having a strong sense of "kinship" and possessing familial aspects. Constitutional scholars have observed that First Nations are "strongly supportive of the monarchy," if not regarding the monarch as supreme; the nature of the legal interaction between Canadian sovereign and First Nations has not always been supported. While treaties were signed between European monarchs and First Nations in North America as far back as 1676, the only ones that survived the American Revolution are those in Canada, which date to the beginning of the 18th century.
Today, the main guide for relations between the monarchy and Canadian First Nations is King George III's Royal Proclamation of 1763. The proclamation set parts of the King's North American realm aside for colonists and reserved others for the First Nations, thereby affirming native title to their lands and making clear that, though under the sovereignty of the Crown, the Aboriginal bands were autonomous political units in a "nation-to-nation" association with non-native governments, with the monarch as the intermediary; this created not only a "constitutional and moral basis of alliance" between indigenous Canadians and the Canadian state as personified in the monarch, but a fiduciary affiliation in which the Crown is constitutionally charged with providing certain guarantees to the First Nations, as affirmed in Sparrow v. The Queen, meaning that the "honour of the Crown" is at stake in dealings between it and First Nations leaders. Given the "divided" nature of the Crown, the sovereign may be party to relations with Aboriginal Canadians distinctly within a provincial jurisdiction.
This has at times led to a lack of clarity regarding which of the monarch's jurisdictions should administer his or her duties towards indigenous peoples. From time to time, the link between the Crown and Aboriginal peoples will be symbolically expressed, through pow-wows or other types of ceremony held to mark the anniversary of a particular treaty — sometimes with the participation of the monarch, another member of the Canadian Royal Family, or one of the Sovereign's representatives—or an occasion mounted to coincide with the presence of a member of the Royal Family on a royal tour, Aboriginals having always been a part of such tours of Canada. Gifts have been exchanged and Aboriginal titles have been bestowed upon royal and viceregal figures since the early days of indigenous contact with the Crown: The Ojibwa referred to King George III as the Great Father and Queen Victoria was dubbed as the Great White Mother. Queen Elizabeth II was named Mother of all People by the Salish nation in 1959 and her son, Prince Charles, was in 1976 given by the Inuit the title of Attaniout Ikeneego, meaning Son of the Big Boss.
Charles was further honoured in 1986, when Cree and Ojibwa students in Winnipeg named Charles Leading Star, again in 2001, during the Prince's first visit to Saskatchewan, when he was named Pisimwa Kamiwohkitahpamikohk, or The Sun Looks at Him in a Good Way, by an elder in a ceremony at Wanuskewin Heritage Park. Since as early as 1710, Aboriginal leaders have met to discuss treaty business with Royal Family members or viceroys in private audience and many continue to use their connection to the Crown to further their political aims; the above-mentioned pageants and celebrations have, for instance, been employed as a public platform on which to present complaints to the Monarch or other members of the Royal Family. It has been said that Aboriginal people in Canada appreciate their ability to do this witnessed by both national and international cameras. Explorers commissioned by French and English monarchs made contact with North American Aboriginals in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
These interactions were peaceful—the agents of each sovereign seeking the Indians' alliance in wresting territories away from the other monarch—and the partnerships were sec
Inuit religion is the shared spiritual beliefs and practices of Inuit, an indigenous people from Alaska and Greenland. Their religion shares many similarities with religions of other North Polar peoples. Traditional Inuit religious practices include animism and shamanism, in which spiritual healers mediate with spirits. Today many Inuit follow Christianity, but traditional Inuit spirituality continues as part of a living, oral tradition and part of contemporary Inuit society. Inuit who balance indigenous and Christian theology practice religious syncretism. Inuit cosmology provides the place of people within it. Rachel Attituq Qitsualik writes: The Inuit cosmos is ruled by no one. There are father figures. There are solar creators. There are no eternal punishments in the hereafter, as there are no punishments for children or adults in the here and now. Traditional stories and taboos of the Inuit are precautions against dangers posed by their harsh Arctic environment. Knud Rasmussen asked his guide and friend Aua, an angakkuq, about Inuit religious beliefs among the Iglulingmiut and was told: "We don't believe.
We fear." Authors Inge Kleivan and Birgitte Sonne debate possible conclusions of Aua's words, because the angakkuq was under the influence of Christian missionaries, he converted to Christianity. Their study analyses beliefs of several Inuit groups, concluding that fear was not diffuse. First were unipkaaqs: myths and folktales which took place "back then" in the indefinite past. Among the Canadian Inuit, a spiritual healer is known as an angakkuq or Inuvialuk: ᐊᖓᑦᑯᖅ angatkuq; the duties of an angakkuq includes helping the community when marine animals, kept by Takanaluk-arnaluk or Sea Woman in a pit in her house, become scarce, according to the Aua, an informant and friend of the anthropologist Rasmussen. Aua described the ability of an apprentice angakkuq to see himself as a skeleton, naming each part using the specific shaman language; the Inuit at Amitsoq Lake had other prohibitions for sewing certain items. Boot soles, for example, could only be sewn far away from settlements in designated places.
Children at Amitsoq once had a game called tunangusartut in which they imitated the adults behavior towards the spirits reciting the same verbal formulae as angakkuit. According to Rasmussen, this game was not considered offensive because a "spirit can understand the joke." The homelands of the Netsilik Inuit have long winters and stormy springs. Starvation was a common danger. While other Inuit cultures feature protective guardian powers, the Netsilik have traditional beliefs that life's hardships stemmed from the extensive use of such measures. Unlike the Iglulik Inuit, the Netsilik used a large number of amulets. Dogs could have amulets. In one recorded instance, a young boy had 80 amulets, so many. One particular man had 17 names intended to protect him. Tattooing among Netsilik women provided power and could affect which world they went to after their deaths. Nuliajuk, the Sea Woman, was described as "the lubricous one". If the people breached certain taboos, she held marine animals in the tank of her lamp.
When this happened the angakkuq had to visit her to beg for game. In Netsilik oral history, she was an orphan girl mistreated by her community. Moon Man, another cosmic being, is benevolent towards humans and their souls as they arrived in celestial places; this belief differs from that of the Greenland Inuit, in which the Moon’s wrath could be invoked by breaking taboos. Sila associated with weather, is conceived of as a power contained within people. Among the Netsilik, Sila was imagined as male; the Netsilik believed Sila was a giant baby whose parents died fighting giants. Caribou Inuit is a collective name for several groups of inland Alaskan Natives living in an area bordered by the tree line and the west shore of Hudson Bay, they do not form a political unit and maintain only loose contact, but they share an inland lifestyle and some cultural unity. In the recent past, the Padlermiut took; the Caribou have a dualistic concept of the soul. The soul associated with respiration is called umaffia and the personal soul of a child is called tarneq.
The tarneq is considered so weak. The presence of the ancestor in the body of the child was felt to contribute to a more gentle behavior among boys; this belief amounted to a form of reincarnation. Because of their inland lifestyle, the Caribou have no belief concerning a Sea Woman. Other cosmic beings, named Sila or Pinga, control the caribou, as opposed to marine animals; some groups have made a distinction between the two figures, while others have considered them the same. Sacrificial offerings to them could promote luck in hunting. Caribou angakkuit performed fortune-telling through qilaneq, a technique of asking questions to a qila; the angakkuq raised his staff and belt over it. The qila entered the glove and drew the staff to itself. Qilaneq was practiced among several other Alaskan Native groups and provided "yes" or "no" answers to questions. Spiritual beliefs and practices among Inuit are diverse, just like the cultures themselves. Similar remarks apply for other beliefs: term silap inua / sila, hillap inua / hilla (among Inuit
Indigenous Canadian personalities
Over the course of centuries, many Indigenous Canadians have played a critical role in shaping the history of Canada. From art and music, to law and government, to sports and war; the Indspire Awards are the annual awards presented by Indspire the National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation. The awards were first established in 1993 in conjunction with the United Nations declaring the 1990s "International Decade of the World's Indigenous peoples". June 21 is Canada's National Aboriginal Day, in recognition of the cultural contributions made by Canada's indigenous population; the day was first celebrated in 1996 following Governor General of Canada Roméo LeBlanc's proclamation.1,172,790 million people reported having at least some Indigenous ancestry in 2006, representing 3.8% of the total Canadian population. From 1981 to 2001, the percentage of Indigenous people who obtained college diplomas increased from 15.0 per cent to 22.0 per cent, while the percentage that obtained university degrees increased from 4.0 per cent to 6.0 per cent.
This compares with increases of 20.0 per cent to 25.0 per cent for non-Indigenous people obtaining college diplomas, a narrow gap between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous population. This is due to organizations that focus attention on the achievements and welfare of Indigenous Canadians like, Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, Native Women's Association of Canada, Aboriginal Curatorial Collective, National Aboriginal Health Organization, Metis Child and Family Services Society and Aboriginal Peoples Television Network. For additional Aboriginal leaders: List of Canadian Aboriginal leaders First Nation people have come from a diverse background of history, economy and government. First Nations become active politicians in the Canadian government holding a sense of pride and patriotism towards the nation of Canada. First Nations become politicians within their own well-defined First Nation government known as the Assembly of First Nations which supported by its membership, land base and tribal councils Shanawdithit, born 1801, was the last recorded surviving member of the Beothuk people.
After Shanawdithit's death in 1829, the Beothuk people became extinct as a separate ethnic group. Aatsista-Mahkan, became chief of the Siksika First Nation following the death of his father in 1871. Aatsista-Mahkan was a signatory to Treaty 7, but he and his people continued living the plains Indian lifestyle following the bison until 1881; the Siksika Nation was forced to settle on a reserve 60 miles east of today's Calgary, Alberta. Big Bear was a Cree leader notable for his participation in the 1870 Battle of the Belly River. Following this, in 1873, Big Bear clashed with the Métis. Francis Pegahmagabow was the First Nation soldier most decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I. Mary Greyeyes-Reid was the first First Nations woman. Tommy Prince was one of Canada's most decorated First Nations soldiers, serving in World War II and the Korean War. Mary John, Sr. CM was a leader of the Dakelh people and a social activist. A story of her life is told in the book titled Stoney Creek Woman.
Ethel Blondin-Andrew, was a Canadian politician of Dene descent in the Northwest Territories and the first Indigenous woman to be elected to the Parliament of Canada. Ovide Mercredi is a politician of Cree descent and a former national chief of the Assembly of First Nations. Harold Cardinal was a Cree writer, political leader, teacher and lawyer who demanded, on behalf of all First Nation peoples, the right to be "the red tile in the Canadian mosaic. Skowkale lawyer and judge, Steven Point, OBC, was the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia from 2007 to 2012. Harriet Nahanee was a civil rights activist, a Canadian residential school system survivor and environmentalist. Nahanee was arrested and imprisoned in 2007 at the age of 71 for trying to protect Squamish Nation territory. Theresa Spence a chief of the Attawapiskat First Nation is a prominent figure in the modern Attawapiskat housing and infrastructure crisis and Idle No More protest; the arts and entertainment venue has seen Indigenous peoples stand at the Oscars, an internationally prominent award ceremony such as Chief Dan George.
Dan George OC, was chief of Academy Award-nominated actor and an author. Adam Beach is an actor of Saulteaux descent from Dog Creek First Nations Reserve at Lake Manitoba. Beach has acted in high-profile roles such as, Marine Private First Class Ira Hayes in Flags of Our Fathers, Private Ben Yazzie in Windtalkers, Chester Lake in Law & Order: Special Victims Unit and starred in Canadian television productions such as Arctic Air. Lorne Cardinal of Cree descent, is noted for playing First Nations roles in many productions. Cardinal most notable Canadian role was portraying character Davis Quinton on the Canadian television series Corner Gas. Tantoo Cardinal is a Canadian television actress of Métis and Cree descent. Graham Greene is an Academy Award–nominated Canadian actor from the Oneida tribe, he was born in Ohsweken on the Six Nations Reserve in Ontario. Shania Twain is a country pop artist of partial Cree ancestry. Shania Twain along with Alanis Morissette are the only Canadian musicians male or female to have sold over 2 million units in Canada, receiving the double diamond award.
Kashtin was a Canadian folk rock duo composed of Innu Claude Florent Vollant. Robbie Robertson, musician, singer–songwriter, guitarist is best known for his membership in The Band. Norval Morrisseau, CM, or Copper Thunderbird, was an