Sisters of Charity
Many religious communities have the term Sisters of Charity as part of their name. While some Sisters of Charity communities refer to the Vincentian tradition and it is important to recognize that there may be no family or historical relationship between groups having the phrase Sisters of Charity as part of their name. The rule of Vincent de Paul for the Daughters of Charity has been adopted and adapted by at least sixty founders of religious institutes around the world in the subsequent centuries. In 1633 Vincent de Paul, a French priest and Louise de Marillac, the French Revolution shut down all convents, but the society was restored in 1801 and eventually spread to Austria, Hungary, Israel, Turkey and the Americas. In 1809 American Elizabeth Ann Seton, founded the Sisters of Charity of St. Josephs, adapting the rule of the French Daughters of Charity for her Emmitsburg, in 1817, Mother Seton sent three Sisters were sent to New York City to establish an orphanage. In 1829, four Sisters of Charity from Emmitsburg, Maryland traveled to Cincinnati, to open St.
Peter’s Girl’s Orphan Asylum, in 1850, the Sulpician priests of Baltimore successfully negotiated that the Emmitsburg community be united with the international community based in Paris. The foundations in New York and Cincinnati decided to become independent diocesan congregations, six separate religious congregations trace their roots to the beginnings of the Sisters of Charity in Emmitsburg. In addition to the community of Sisters at Emmitsburg, they are based in New York City, Ohio, Nova Scotia, Convent Station, New Jersey. In 2011, the Daughters of Charity established The Province of St. Louise, bringing together the West Central, East Central, los Altos Hills in California remains a separate province. Paul Sisters of Chartes, known as the Sisters of Charity of St. Paul Religious Sisters of Charity, the most famous convent is at 14 Rue du Bac in Paris, born 1633. This was where Catholics believe Sister Catherine Laboure received the vision of Immaculate Mary on the eve of St. Vincents feastday,1830, Sisters of Charity have been one of the convents implicated in labor abuse scandal in Ireland
By contrast, the mendicants avoided owning property, did not work at a trade, and embraced a poor, often itinerant lifestyle. They depended for their survival on the goodwill of the people to whom they preached, what is called the mendicant movement in Church history arose primarily in the 13th century in Western Europe. Until that time the monks of Europe worked at their trade in their monastery, renouncing personal property, they owned all things in common as a community after the example of chapters 2 and 4 of the Acts of the Apostles. With the rise of Western monasticism, monasteries attracted not only individuals aspiring to become monks and nuns, the idea that Christ came down to earth poor and that the true Church must be the church of the poor clashed with this image. The desire for true Christian authenticity was thus seen by some to contrast to the reality of the empirical Church, the twelfth century saw great changes in western Europe. As commerce revived, urban centers arose and with them an urban middle class, new directions in spirituality were called for.
Ecclesiastical reform became a theme of the cultural revival of this era. In response to crisis, there emerged the new mendicant orders founded by Francis of Assisi. The mendicant friars were bound by a vow of poverty and dedication to a way of life, renouncing property. Their survival was dependent upon the good will and material support of their listeners and it was this way of life that gave them their name, derived from the Latin mendicare, meaning to beg. The mendicant movement had started in France and Italy and became popular in the poorer towns and cities of Europe at the beginning of the thirteenth century. The refusal of the mendicants to own property and therefore to pay taxes was seen as threatening the stability of the established Church which was planning a crusade. Francis came to this manner of life through a period of personal conversion, the Franciscans spread far and wide the devotion to the humanity of Christ, with the commitment to imitate the Lord. The Franciscan movement summarized and surpassed all the others and this was not only in the obvious holiness of Francis of Assisi, but in the personality of the followers whom Francis attracted.
Many of them were priests and men of learning whose contributions were notable in the rapid evolution, notable Franciscans include Anthony of Padua, who were inspirations to the formation of Christian mendicant traditions. While on a visit to southern France, Saint Dominic met the Albigensians, before this time, religious life had been monastic, but with Dominic the secluded monastery gave way to priories in the cities. With deep insight the Franciscans and Dominicans put into practice a pastoral strategy suited to the social changes, the emergence of urban centers meant concentrated numbers of the homeless and the sick. This created problems for the churches who found themselves unable to address these issues
Cenobitic monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life. Often in the West, the community belongs to an order and the life of the cenobitic monk is regulated by a religious rule. The older style of monasticism, to live as a hermit, is called eremitic, a third form of monasticism, found primarily in the East, is the skete. The English words cenobite and cenobitic are derived, via Latin, from the Greek words koinos, the adjective can be cenobiac. A group of living in community is often referred to as a cenobium. Cenobitic monasticism exists in various religions, although Buddhist and Christian cenobitic monasticism are the most prominent. The word Cenobites was initially applied to the followers of Pythagoras in Crotona, who founded a commune not just for philosophical study but for the amicable sharing of worldly goods. In the 1st century CE, Philo of Alexandria describes a Jewish ascetic community of men and women on the shores of Lake Mareotis in the vicinity of Alexandria, members of the community composed books of midrash, an allegorical method for interpreting scripture.
Every seventh sabbath was accorded a festival of learning and singing, the organized version of Christian cenobitic monasticism is commonly thought to have started in Egypt in the 4th century AD. Christian monks of previous centuries were usually hermits, especially in the Middle East and this form of solitary living, did not suit everyone. Some monks found the style to be too lonely and difficult, and if one was not spiritually prepared. For this reason, organized monastic communities were established so that monks could have support in their spiritual struggle. While eremitic monks did have an element of socializing, since they would meet once a week to pray together, the cenobitic monks practised more socializing because the monasteries where they lived were often located in or near inhabited villages. Cenobitic monks were different from their predecessors and counterparts in their actual living arrangements. Whereas the eremitic monks lived alone in a monastery consisting of merely a hut or cave, in the latter case, each dwelling would house about twenty monks, and within the house there were separate rooms or cells that would be inhabited by two or three monks.
This structure of living for the cenobitic monks has been attributed to the man that is usually hailed as the father of cenobitic monasticism. Pachomius is thought to have got the idea for living quarters like these from the time he spent in the Roman army, as the style is very reminiscent of army barracks. The account of how Pachomius was given the idea to start a monastery is found in Palladius of Galatias The Lausiac History
Society of apostolic life
A society of apostolic life is a group of men or women within the Catholic Church who have come together for a specific purpose and live fraternally. However, unlike members of an institute of consecrated life, members of apostolic societies do not make religious vows--that is and this type of organization is defined in the Code of Canon Law under canons 731-746. Under the 1917 Code of Canon Law, which preceded the current one, while members of apostolic societies have some community life, the mission of the community is given emphasis. In community, apostolic societies must maintain a balance between prayer and active works, the work of various apostolic societies differs significantly from one another. They may focus on preaching, health-care, seminary education, foreign missions, retreat work, advocacy for justice, almost all apostolic societies had their origins in a need to be addressed that their founders recognized. Most apostolic societies focus on one or more aspects of the corporal and spiritual works of mercy, vincent de Pauls, Congregation of the Mission and the Daughters of Charity belong to a group of societies founded in the 16th and 17th century to respond to increasing poverty in France. A community needs the approval of a bishop to operate within his diocese.
Clerics of a society of apostolic life are usually incardinated into the society and not the diocese, each community has a right to its own oratory. Members of a Society of Apostolic Life are allowed to own personal property, Canon Law speaks of such societies as being comparable to institutes of consecrated life. They are regulated by the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life, uncertain attribution Daughters of Charity of St. M. Clerical Society of the Missionaries of the Holy Apostles, M. S. A, clerical Society of Virgo Flos Carmeli, E. P. Confederation of Oratories of Saint Philip Neri, C. O, Congregation of Jesus and Mary, C. I. M. /C. J. M. Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest I. C. R. S. S, Mission Society of the Philippines, M. S. P. Missionaries of the Holy Cross, M. S. C, Missionaries of the Precious Blood, C. PP. S. Missionary Society of Saint Columban, S. S. C. M. E, pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions, P. I. M. E. Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter, F. S. S. P, priestly Fraternity of the Missionaries of St.
Charles Borromeo, F. S. C. B. Saint Francis Xavier Spanish Institute for Foreign Missions, I. E. M. E, Saint Joseph’s Missionary Society of Mill Hill, M. H. M. Saint Patrick’s Society for the Foreign Missions, S. P. S, Society of Bethlehem Mission Immensee, S. M. B
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions, in the Greek language the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics, although the term monachos is of Christian origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, anchorite, hesychast. In Eastern Orthodoxy monasticism holds a special and important place. Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world and they do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis, or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, the level of contact though will vary from community to community.
Hermits, on the hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, basil the Great and the Philokalia, which was compiled by St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth. Hesychasm is of importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Meals are usually taken in common in a dining hall known as a trapeza. Food is usually simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the writings of the Holy Fathers. The monastic lifestyle takes a deal of serious commitment. Within the cenobitic community, all monks conform to a way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal honestly with them. For this same reason, bishops are almost always chosen from the ranks of monks, Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms, anchoritic and the middle way between the two, known as the skete.
One normally enters a community first, and only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced. However, one is not necessarily expected to join a skete or become a solitary, in general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families
Catholic religious order
Catholic religious orders are, historically, a category of Catholic religious institutes. Subcategories are canons regular, monastics and clerks regular, original Catholic religious orders of the Middle Ages include the Order of Saint Benedict, the Carmelites, the Order of Friars Minor, the Dominican Order, and the Order of Saint Augustine. As such, the Teutonic Order may qualify, today mainly monastic, in the past, what distinguished religious orders from other institutes was the classification of the vows that the members took in religious profession as solemn vows. According to this criterion, the last religious order founded was that of the Bethlehem Brothers in 1673. Nevertheless, in the course of the 20th century some religious institutes outside the category of orders obtained permission to make solemn vows, at least of poverty, solemn vows were originally considered indissoluble. As noted below, dispensations began to be granted in times, the members of a religious order for men were called regulars, those belonging to a religious congregation were simply religious, a term that applied to regulars.
However, it abolished the distinction according to which solemn vows, thus members of orders were barred absolutely from marriage, and any marriage they attempted was invalid. Those who made simple vows were obliged not to marry, but if they did break their vow, after publication of the 1917 Code, many institutes with simple vows appealed to the Holy See for permission to make solemn vows. The Apostolic Constitution Sponsa Christi of 21 November 1950 made access to that permission easier for nuns, many of these latter institutes of women petitioned for the solemn vow of poverty alone. It has accordingly dropped the language of the 1917 code and uses the term religious institute to designate all such institutes of consecrated life alike. Thus the Church no longer draws the distinction between religious orders and congregations. It applies to all such institutes the single name religious institute, a religious order is characterized by an authority structure where a superior general has jurisdiction over the orders dependent communities.
An exception is the Order of St Benedict which is not an order in this technical sense, because it has a system of independent houses. However, the Constitutions governing the global independent houses and its distinct congregations were approved by the pope. The Canons Regular of Saint Augustine are in a similar to that of the Benedictines. They are organized in eight congregations, each headed by an abbot general, and the Cistercians are in thirteen congregations, each headed by an abbot general or an abbot president, but do not use the title of abbot primate. The Annuario Pontificio lists for both men and women the institutes of consecrated life and the like that are of pontifical right, for the men, it gives what it now calls the Historical-Juridical List of Precedence. The arrangement in this list dates back many decades and it is found, for instance, in the 1964 edition of the Annuario Pontificio, pp. 807–870, where the heading is States of Perfection
In the Catholic Church, a consecrated virgin is a woman who has been consecrated by the church to a life of perpetual virginity in the service of God. Consecrated virgins are to spend their time in works of penance and mercy, in activity and in prayer, according to their state of life. Consecrated virgins should not be confused with consecrated hermits and anchorites, the Christian concept originated in the Vestal Virgins of ancient Roman religion. A life of virginity for the sake of Jesus and the Church, according to Catholic and Orthodox thought, the first sacred virgin was Mary, the mother of Jesus, who was consecrated by the Holy Spirit during the Annunciation. Tradition has it that the Apostle Matthew consecrated virgins, apostolic era virgins either continued to live with their own family or lived in a private house, because this form of life predated the foundation of religious orders. A number of early Christian martyrs were women or girls who had given themselves to Christ in perpetual virginity, such as Saint Agnes and Saint Lucy.
During the Middle Ages, the Rite of Consecration of a virgin who lived in the world gradually fell into disuse although individual bishops continued to bestow the consecration to some virgins. At the same time, the rite of consecration was maintained by nuns in monastic orders, such as the Benedictines and this consecration could be done either concurrently with or some time after the profession of solemn vows. It has been speculated by scholars that this is a vestige of the Order of deacon, in 1963 the Second Vatican Council requested a revision of the rite of the consecration of virgins that was found in the Roman Pontifical. The revised Rite was approved by Pope Paul VI and published in 1970 and this consecration could be bestowed either on women in monastic orders or on women living in the world, which revived the form of life that had been found in the early Church. Indeed, no vows are made or received in the Rite of Consecration to a Life of Virginity for Women Living in the World, the bishop who confers the consecration, by his ministry makes the virgin a sacred person.
The virgin who receives the consecration is elevated to the consecrated state and she becomes a member of the Order of Virgins, just as deacons belong to the Order of Deacons. In 1972 Elizabeth Bailey became the first virgin to be consecrated in England since the 3rd century and this consecration is a sacramental which may be bestowed on nuns or women living in the world. Nuns who have received this consecration are still referred to as nuns and not as consecrated virgins, the approved liturgical rite whereby the bishop consecrates the candidate is by the solemn rite of Consecratio Virginium. The usual minister of the rite of consecration is the bishop who is the local ordinary, the woman is committed, not only to perpetual virginity, but to leading a life of prayer and service, and is strongly advised to observe the Liturgy of the Hours. The legislation outlining this was provided in the most recent Code of Canon Law of the Catholic Church, in order to observe their commitment more faithfully and to perform by mutual support service to the Church which is in harmony with their state these virgins can form themselves into associations.
Consecrated virgins belong to consecrated life and they are not supported financially by their bishop, but must provide for their own upkeep. These women work in professions ranging from teachers and attorneys to that of firefighter, some lead lives of contemplation as hermits
The Latin Church, commonly called Roman Catholic Church, sometimes Western Church, is the largest autonomous particular church sui iuris within the Catholic Church, applying Latin liturgical rites. There are 24 such sui iuris particular churches within the Catholic Church, all the other particular churches sui iuris, of which there are 23, originated farther east and are, collectively known as the Eastern Catholic Churches. Because of the migrations, members of all of these particular churches sui iuris are no longer confined to their areas of origin. A person is a member of or belongs to a particular church, a person inherits or is of, a particular patrimony or rite. Since the rite has liturgical, theological and disciplinary elements, Particular churches that inherit and perpetuate a particular patrimony are identified by metonymy with that patrimony. Accordingly, rite has been defined as a division of the Christian church using a distinctive liturgy, is considered equal to the Latin rite within the Church.
It thus used the rite as a technical designation of what may now be called a particular church. Church or rite is used as a single heading in the United States Library of Congress classification of works. The last known use was Pope Pius XII in Humani generis who taught that the Mystical Body of Christ and the Roman Catholic Church are one. Most ecclesiologists - experts in the theology of the Church itself - instead use Roman Catholic to refer exclusively to the Latin Church. The reasons for this are that each of the 24 Catholic Churches sui iuris have a modifier - Maronite, Roman, etc. - and that Latin and Roman are virtually interchangeable. Further, as Adrian Fortescue noted in his article in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, the most common Latin liturgical rites are the Roman Rite, the Ambrosian Rite, the Mozarabic Rite, and variations of the Roman Rite. The 23 Eastern Catholic Churches share five families of liturgical rites, the Latin liturgical rites, like the Armenian, are used only in a single sui iuris particular church.
In the Eastern Churches these sacraments are usually administered immediately after baptism, celibacy, as a consequence of the duty to observe perfect continence, is obligatory for priests in the Latin Church. Rare exceptions are permitted for men who, after ministering as clergy in other churches and this contrasts with the discipline in most Eastern Catholic Churches. In the Latin Church, a man may not be admitted even to the diaconate unless he is legitimately destined to remain a deacon. Marriage after ordination is not possible, and attempting it can result in canonical penalties, Latin Mass Church of Rome Particular church General Roman Calendar Eastern Catholic Churches Catholic Encyclopedia, Latin Church
The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity and obedience. As Jesus of Nazareth stated in the Canonical gospels, they are counsels for those who desire to become perfect, the Catholic Church interprets this to mean that they are not binding upon all and hence not necessary conditions to attain eternal life. Rather they are acts of supererogation that exceed the minimum stipulated in the Commandments in the Bible, there are early forms of religious vows in the Christian monastic traditions. These vows are made now by the members of all Roman Catholic religious institutes founded subsequently and constitute the basis of their other regulations of their life and conduct. Again in the Gospels, Jesus speaks of eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven, and added He that can receive it, let him receive it. These counsels have been analyzed as a way to keep the world from distracting the soul and it is, the object of the three counsels of perfection to free the soul from these hindrances.
Abstinence from unlawful indulgence in any of these directions is expected of all Christians as a matter of precept, the sophists in the universities have been perplexed by these texts. In order not to make heathen of the princes, they taught that Christ did not demand these things but merely offered them as advice or counsel to those who would be perfect. And their poisonous error has spread thus to the world until everyone regards these teachings of Christ not as precepts binding on all Christians alike. Despite my inadequacy I can take comfort in the thought that God has forgiven me my sins, but no, he went away sorrowful. Because he would not obey, he could not believe, in this the young man was quite honest. He went away from Jesus and indeed this honesty had more promise than any apparent communion with Jesus based on disobedience and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Enclosed religious orders
Enclosed religious orders of the Christian churches have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world. The term cloistered is synonymous with enclosed, in the Catholic Church enclosure is regulated by the Code of Canon Law, either the Latin code or the Oriental code, and by subsidiary legislation. The stated purpose for such enclosure is to prevent distraction from prayer, depending upon the reason and the length of time, the proper authority can allow enclosed men or women to leave the enclosure. More commonly, cloistered individuals are temporarily released from the obligation of enclosure to participate in a religious event - a papal visit or a bishops visit. Some men and women who are cloistered may have knowledge of fields like education or health care, depending on their training during formation or the cloistered life. They can provide for the needs of their community, rarely, there are procedures in place for the cloistered to receive the needed utilities, communication needs, and medical needs while keeping leaving the cloister to a minimum.
Benedictine monks, for instance, have often staffed parishes and been allowed to leave monastery confines. In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, once a man or woman has made solemn, perpetual religious vows, the release from these monastic vows has to be approved by the ecclesiastical authorities. Normally there is a period, called exclaustration, in which the person looks to establish a new life. This usually lasts up to six years under the current Code of Canon Law, after this period the appropriate authority, generally the Holy See, determines that the wish to leave this life is valid and grants the former monk or nun release from their vows. Anglican religious orders have different procedures for the release from perpetual vows, contemplative orders prioritise worship and prayer over economic or outreach activity. They exist in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions as well as in Buddhist settings, cenobite Convent Monasticism Religious order New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff