The Instrument of Government was a constitution of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland. Drafted by Major-General John Lambert in 1653, it was the first sovereign codified and written constitution in England; the Instrument of Government included elements incorporated from an earlier document "Heads of Proposals", agreed to by the Army Council in 1647, as set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the First English Civil War. Charles had rejected the propositions, but before the start of the Second Civil War the "Grandees" of the New Model Army had presented the Heads of Proposals as their alternative to the more radical Agreement of the People presented by the Agitators and their civilian supporters at the Putney Debates. On 4 January 1649, the Rump Parliament declared "that the people are, under God, the original of all just power; this was used as the basis for the House of Commons to pass acts of parliament which did not have to be passed by the House of Lords or receive royal assent.
Two days the Rump alone passed the act creating the high court of justice that would try Charles as a traitor. Charles was tried and executed that month. On 17 March, the Rump passed an act abolishing the monarchy and two days an act abolishing the House of Lords. On 19 May 1649 the Rump passed An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth, it was a simple declaration that Parliament would appoint "Officers and Ministers under them for the good of the People... without any King or House of Lords". The Instrument of Government split the government of England across three elements. Executive power was held by the Lord Protector. Although this post was elective, not hereditary, appointment was to be held for life. Legislation was raised in Parliament; these had to be called triennially, with each sitting for at least five months. An English Council of State of around twenty members to provide advice in the same manner as former Privy Councils, though with strengthened powers, so that many of the actions taken by the Lord Protector require the consent of a majority of the council.
The council nominates ministers and elects the Lord Protector upon the death of the previous one. Thus the Lord Protector was far from an absolute ruler, with his powers limited in many areas. All three branches of government had checks upon each other, with the Lord Protector having the authority to veto a bill from Parliament, but a second majority vote after twenty days would pass the bill; the instrument declared "That the supreme legislative authority of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland, the dominions thereunto belonging, shall be and reside in one person, the people assembled in Parliament: the style of which person shall be the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland" Provision for a standing army "of 10,000 horse and dragoons, 20,000 foot, in England and Ireland, for the defence and security thereof" and "a convenient number of ships for guarding of the seas". The instrument defined the numbers of MPs to be elected to parliament but at the same time disbarred Royalists from election and temporarily from voting - and Catholics from election or voting.
Electors needed to have a property holding of £200. The Instrument of Government was adopted by the Council of Officers on 15 December 1653 and Oliver Cromwell was installed as Lord Protector on the following day. In January 1655, Cromwell dissolved the first Protectorate Parliament, ushering in a period of military rule by the Major Generals; the Instrument of Government was replaced in May 1657 by England's second, last, codified constitution, the Humble Petition and Advice. Since America had been colonised by the English—in 1607, at Jamestown, in 1620, at Plymouth—the United States has sometimes claimed this historic document as a part of its political and historic heritage. Provisions of Oxford The Heads of Proposals and the Putney Debates Far, David. Henry Ireton and the English Revolution, Boydell Press, ISBN 1-84383-235-6, ISBN 978-1-84383-235-5 Fritze, Ronald H. & Robison, William B.. Historical dictionary of Stuart England, 1603–1689, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-28391-5 Tyacke, Nicholas.
Aspects of English Protestantism, c. 1530–1700, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-5392-7, ISBN 978-0-7190-5392-4 Washington, George. American Historical Documents 1000–1904, Wildside Press LLC, 2008. ISBN 1-4344-7343-0, ISBN 978-1-4344-7343-1 Instrument of Government Instrument of Government Modern History Sourcebook: Commonwealth Instrument of Government, 1653
Gerard Francis Martin MP, a former Australian politician, was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly representing the electorate of Bathurst between 1999 and 2011 for the Labor Party. Martin has worked as an administrator in the coal industry for 30 years and is married with two children, he was a councillor on the Lithgow City Council from 1974 to 1999 and was the longest-serving mayor of Lithgow, for sixteen years. Prior to entering New South Wales politics, he was Deputy Chair, Central West Regional Development Board, is a former Chairman of Blayney Abattior County Council. In Parliament, he was Government Whip and was a member of both the Standing Committee on Natural Resource Management and the Standing Orders and Procedure Committee. Martin, a Catholic, expressed his opposition to stem cell research in 2007 by voting against legislation allowing the practice; the bill subsequently passed. On 19 October 2010, Martin announced his decision to not seek re-election for the seat of Bathurst at the 2011 state election
The western yellow-spotted barbet is a bird species in the family Lybiidae. It is distributed in West Africa west of the Dahomey Gap, where it is found in Ivory Coast, Guinea and Sierra Leone, it was considered conspecific with the eastern yellow-spotted barbet, but was split from it on account of their differing songs. The western yellow-spotted barbet has a song described by Nigel James Collar and Peter Boesman as "a series of 7–10 accelerating notes similar to a song of hairy-breasted barbet", while the eastern yellow-spotted barbet has a song described by Collar and Boesman as a "characteristic purring, unique among barbets"; these song differences led to the description of B. dowsetti as a distinct species
Tajen University is a private university in Yanpu Township, Pingtung County, Taiwan. Taoyi Huang, the incumbent chairman of the board, Yuan Tsai Lee, founded Tajen Pharmacy Institute in 1966. Tajen has prospered during the years; when the institute was established, there was only one Department of Pharmacy, a five-year program for junior college students. In 1980 other departments were established. Since its foundation, Tajen has been implementing its motto and pursuing the goal of becoming an excellent institute of higher learning, it has gained recognition from the Ministry of Education and society-at-large. Tajen was upgraded from a five-year junior college to a university-level institute of Tajen University with affiliate five-year junior college programs since August 1, 1999 by permission of the Ministry of Education. Moreover, to carry out the education policy of lifelong learning, Tajen provides programs such as a two-year bachelor program for junior college graduates, another two-year program for high school graduates.
The student population exceeds 14,000. The present president is Dr. Rhei-Long Chen. College of Pharmacy and Health Care College of Informatics and Management College of Leisure and Hospitality College of Humanities and Social Science List of universities in Taiwan Official website Official website
Season two of the 2013 edition of El Gran Show premiered on August 17, 2013. This season continued with the format of last season, in the duel the couple saved is the highest score with the help of 2 extra points from the public; the modality of teams and coaches was continued. On November 2, 2013, model & reality TV star Gino Pesaressi and Jacqueline Alfaro were declared the winners, model & reality TV star Sheyla Rojas and Emanuel Colombo finished second, while actress Carolina Cano and Eduardo Pastrana were third; the 12 celebrities were presented during the final of last season. Among them returned Edith Tapia, who could not compete last season, Luis Baca, dreamer on El Show de los sueños, becoming the first dreamer to compete as a celebrity in the history of the show; the professional dancers who returned were Jacqueline Alfaro, Angelo Cano, Vania Carbone, Emanuel Colombo, André Lecca, Eduardo Pastrana, Gustavo Rivera, Juan Tamayo and Kevin Ubillus. Gisela Valcárcel, Aldo Díaz, Paco Bazán and Gachi Rivero returned as hosts, while Morella Petrozzi, Carlos Cacho, Phillip Butters, Pachi Valle Riestra and the VIP Jury returned as judges.
Red numbers indicate the sentenced for each week Green numbers indicate the best steps for each week the couple was eliminated that week the couple was safe in the duel the couple was eliminated that week and safe with a lifeguard this couple withdrew from the competition the winning couple the runner-up couple the third-place couple This table only counts dances scored on a 40-point scale. The best and worst performances in each dance according to the judges' 40-point scale are as follows: Scores are based upon a potential 40-point maximum. Individual judges' scores in the charts below are listed in this order from left to right: Morella Petrozzi, Carlos Cacho, Phillip Butters, Pachi Valle Riestra, VIP Jury; the couples danced cumbia, latin pop, reggaeton or salsa. This week, none couples were sentenced. Running order The couples performed a dance chosen by celebrities. In the challenge, it was decided that two members of each team would face each other, Maria Victoria "La Pánfila" Santana represented Team Chumbe while Vania Bludau represented Team Chechi, with Bludau being the winner, granting an extra point to each team member.
Running order The couples danced a team dance of pachanga. In the challenge, it was decided that two members of each team would face each other, Grasse Becerra represented Team Chumbe while Sheyla Rojas represented Team Chechi, with Rojas being the winner, granting an extra point to each team member. Running order*The duelAntonio & Yanilú: Eliminated Christian & Vania: Safe The couples danced cumbia or disco and a team dance rock and roll. Due to an injury during the rehearsals, María Victoria "La Pánfila" Santana had to withdraw the competition. Running order*The duelEdith & André: Eliminated Grasse & Angelo: Safe The couples performed one unlearned dance to famous'90s songs. In the versus, the couples faced dancing jazz, while in the little train, only the celebrities faced dancing reggaetón. Running order*The duelEdith & André: Safe Christian & Vania: Eliminated The couples performed the world dances and a team dance of axé. In the versus, the couples faced dancing different dance styles, while in the little train, only the celebrities faced dancing hula.
Running order*The duelLuis & Milagros: Safe Grasse & Angelo: Eliminated The couples performed a trio ballroom dance involving another celebrity to famous'80s songs. In the versus, the couples faced dancing pachanga. Running order*The duelMónica & Gustavo: Safe Edith & André: Eliminated The couples danced salsa and a dancethon of salsa. In the versus, the couples faced dancing different dance styles. Running order*The duelVania & Juan: Safe Junior & Julliana: Eliminated The couples danced cumbia or tex-mex and adagio. Running order*The duelJunior & Julliana: Eliminated Luis & Milagros: Safe The couples performed a trio cha-cha-cha involving another celebrity, merengue and a dancethon of cumbia. Running order*The duelMónica & Gustavo: Eliminated Vania & Juan: Safe The couples performed strip dance, a fusion dance that fused two dance styles and a dancethon of salsa. In the little train, the participants faced dancing danza de tijeras. Running order*The duelVania & Juan: Safe Luis & Milagros: Eliminated On the first part, the couples danced a favorite dance and a freestyle performed in a rotating room.
On the second part, the final three couples danced quickstep. Running order Running order The celebrities and professional partners will dance one of these routines for each corresponding week: Week 1: Cumbia, latin pop, jazz, reggaeton or salsa Week 2: One unlearned dance Week 3: Hip-Hop or vallenato & team dances Week 4: Cumbia or disco & team dances Week 5: One unlearned dance, the versus & the little train Week 6: One unlearned dance, team dances, the versus & the little train Week 7: Trio ballroom dances & the versus Week 8: Salsa, the dancethon & the versus Week 9: Cumbia or tex-mex & adagio Week 10: Trio Cha-cha-cha, merengue & the dancethon Week 11: Strip dance
William Booth or Bothe was Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield from 1447 before becoming Archbishop of York in 1452 until his death in 1464. Prior to his election as Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, Booth had served as Rector of Prescot, Lancashire from 1441, he was provided to the see of Coventry and Lichfield on 26 April 1447 and consecrated on 9 July 1447. Booth was translated to the archdiocese of York on 21 July 1452. In the late summer of 1463, allied with the Neville brothers Richard, Earl of Warwick and John, Marquess of Montagu, Archbishop Booth led an army in the north of England which repelled an attempted invasion by the Scots and former King Henry VI with Margaret of Anjou. Booth died the following year, on 12 September 1464, at Bishopthorpe Palace and is buried in a family vault at Southwell Minster. Archbishop Lawrence Booth Booth baronets Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. Ross, Charles. Edward IV. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.