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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond to the hormone insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter cells which reduces blood glucose. Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to carbohydrates consumed in the diet. In states of insulin resistance, the same amount of insulin does not have the same effect on glucose transport and blood sugar levels. There are many causes of insulin resistance and the underlying process is still incompletely understood. Risk factors for insulin resistance include obesity, sedentary lifestyle, family history of diabetes, various health conditions, certain medications. Insulin resistance is considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. There are multiple ways to measure insulin resistance such as fasting insulin levels or glucose tolerance tests but these are not used in clinical practice. Insulin resistance can be improved or reversed with lifestyle approaches such as exercise and dietary changes. There are a number of risk factors for insulin resistance, including being overweight or obese or having a sedentary lifestyle.

Various genetic factors can increase risk, such as a family history of diabetes, there are some specific medical conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as polycystic ovary syndrome. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases state specific risks include: being aged 45 or older having African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander American ethnicity having health conditions such as high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels having a history of gestational diabetes having a history of heart disease or stroke. In addition some medications and other health conditions can raise the risk. Dietary factors contribute to insulin resistance, however causative foods are difficult to determine given the limitations of nutrition research. Foods that have independently been linked to insulin resistance include those high in sugar with high glycemic indices, high in dietary fat and fructose, low in omega-3 and fiber, which are hyper-palatable which increases risk of overeating.

Overconsumption of fat- and sugar-rich meals and beverages have been proposed as a fundamental factor behind the metabolic syndrome epidemic. Diet has the potential to change the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated phospholipids in cell membranes; the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely correlated with insulin resistance. It is hypothesized that increasing cell membrane fluidity by increasing PUFA concentration might result in an enhanced number of insulin receptors, an increased affinity of insulin to its receptors, reduced insulin resistance. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with insulin resistance. Sedentary lifestyle increases the likelihood of development of insulin resistance. In epidemiological studies, higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%. Studies have shown that there is a link between insulin resistance and circadian rhythm, with insulin sensitivity being higher in the morning and lower in the evening. A mismatch between the circadian rhythm and the meals schedule, such as in circadian rhythm disorders, may increase insulin resistance.

Some medications are associated with insulin resistance including corticosteroids, protease inhibitors, atypical antipsychotics. Many hormones can induce insulin resistance including cortisol, growth hormone, human placental lactogen. Cortisol counteracts insulin and can lead to increased hepatic gluconeogenesis, reduced peripheral utilization of glucose, increased insulin resistance, it does this by decreasing the translocation of glucose transporters to the cell membrane. Based on the significant improvement in insulin sensitivity in humans after bariatric surgery and rats with surgical removal of the duodenum, it has been proposed that some substance is produced in the mucosa of that initial portion of the small intestine that signals body cells to become insulin resistant. If the producing tissue is removed, the signal ceases and body cells revert to normal insulin sensitivity. No such substance has been found as yet, the existence of such a substance remains speculative. Leptin, a hormone produced from the ob gene and adipocytes Its physiological role is to regulate hunger by alerting the body when it is full.

Studies show that lack of leptin causes severe obesity and is linked with insulin resistance. Polycystic ovary syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are associated with insulin resistance. Hepatitis C makes people three to four times more to develop type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Acute or chronic inflammation, such as in infections, can cause insulin resistance. TNF-α is a cytokine that may promote insulin resistance by promoting lipolysis, disrupting insulin signaling, reducing the expression of GLUT4. Several genetic loci have been determined to be associated with insulin insensitivity; this includes variation in loci near the NAT2, GCKR, IGFI genes associated with insulin resistance. Further research has shown. However, these loci are estimated to only account for 25-44% of the genetic component of insulin resistance. In normal metabolism, the elevated blood glucose instructs beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans, located in the pancreas, to release insulin into the blood.

The insulin makes insulin-sensitive tissues in the body absorb glucose which provides energy as well as lowers blood glucose. The beta cells reduce insulin

In Search of Sunrise 6: Ibiza

In Search of Sunrise 6: Ibiza is the sixth album in the In Search of Sunrise series mixed by trance DJ/producer Tiësto, released on September 7, 2007 in the Netherlands and October 16, 2007 in the United States as a double disc album. This information was confirmed on July 2007 on Tiësto's website. Many file-sharing websites, earlier in 2007, released a fake torrent of In Search of Sunrise 6, labeled In Search of Sunrise 6 - London, which included a CD cover; this was noted as a fake as information of the CD had not been released via Tiësto's website nor the In Search of Sunrise series website. A special release party was held at the Heineken Music Hall in Amsterdam on November 3, 2007. Like previous In Search of Sunrise albums, this album contains a special slipcase; the album picture was taken by Stephanie Pistel. The compilation was awarded in the 2008 WMC Awards in Miami, it won for "Best Full Length DJ Mix CD". Inspiration to produce this album came from returning to Ibiza after a two-year stint in June 2007.

This album was produced in 2007 during the summer time the old-fashioned way as Tiësto stated on his website. Tiësto did not use any programs or computer gadgets. Tiësto stated on his website on August 13, 2007, "Most of the tracks are so exclusive that, if I'd still be mixing with records, I wouldn't have been able to get those productions on vinyl!" On August 17, 2007 on Tiësto's MySpace blog, a thirty-second promotional video was released on YouTube. Note: Allure featuring Julie Thompson - "Somewhere Inside of Me" on became known only as "Somewhere Inside" when it was released as a single. Note: Glenn Morrison - "Contact" is a collaboration between Glenn Morrison and Joel Zimmerman with Joel Zimmerman credited as a co writer/producer and Glenn Morrison as the Artist. On August 15 and 25th, two samplers exclusive to Beatport were released with four songs each. On August 29, 2007, Tiësto released a limited edition vinyl sampler that included all 8 songs from the first two samplers, made available online, a third sampler was released in Netherlands as a CD.

In Search of Sunrise 6 @ Black Hole Recordings In Search of Sunrise 6: Ibiza In Search of Sunrise 6 Promotional video In Search Of Sunrise 6: Ibiza review on Trance Hub

King's Oak Academy

King's Oak Academy known as Kingsfield School and Kingswood Grammar School, is a Mathematics and Computing College located in Kingswood, England. Ofsted rated it a "Good" school in 2018, it is located just within the unitary authority of South Gloucestershire. The school is a mixed comprehensive providing education for 712 students as of January 2012, predominantly from a catchment area of around 3 miles, it is situated at the roundabout between Warmley Hill and Warmley. The school was founded in 1921 as Kingswood Grammar School, a co-educational grammar school when administered by the Gloucestershire Education Committee. On 15 October 1946, 13-year-old Robert Hayes of Kingswood died at Cossham Memorial Hospital after being injured at the school when playing with blank cartridges he had found at an ammunition dump, his right hand was blown off and he had other injuries to his body. In the 1960s it had around 850 girls, with 250 in the sixth form. By 1970 it was a comprehensive school, was renamed "Kingsfield School".

The school was rebuilt after burning to the ground in 1976. Kingsfield School was rebranded as King's Oak Academy in September 2011, its motto is now "work hard be kind". Blue jumpers and red ties are worn, with coloured stripes according to house colour. Olympus --> Yellow Orpheus --> Blue Pegasus --> Red Hercules --> Green Kingswood RFC Old Boys was founded in 1954/55 by a group of former students of Kingswood Grammar School. To this day, the club still play in Brown colours. Janet Anderson, Labour Party politician, former Labour Member of Parliament for Rossendale and Darwen and Minister for Tourism and Broadcasting Anttix, musician David Drew, Labour Member of Parliament for Stroud Adrian Harris, actor Bernard Lovell, OBE, FRS, Knight of the Realm and radio astronomer Kerry-Anne Mendoza and editor of The Canary Colin Pillinger, CBE FRS FRAS FRGS, planetary scientist Richard Scudamore, Chief Executive, Premier League James Tooley, Professor of Education Robert Willis, Dean of Canterbury [ Official website

Jan Roegiers

Jan Roegiers was a professor at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, university archivist and curator. He specialised in early modern academic history, in particular the history of the pre-1797 University of Leuven. During his lifetime he was "generally regarded as one of the most authoritative voices in the world of academic history and library science and the heritage sector in Belgium." He is credited with giving the newly established Flemish university a sense of historical continuity with Leuven's past. Jan Roegiers was born in Sleidinge, East Flanders, on 19 October 1944, he attended the Sint-Vincentiuscollege in Eeklo and from there entered the diocesan seminary in Ghent. After a short time in the seminary he enrolled at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, where he completed degrees in History and in library and archive science, he became a senior lecturer in the faculty of Arts and the faculty of Theology, chief archivist of the university, head of Leuven University Library, curator of the university's art collection.

He was director of the Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, chair of the editorial board of LIAS: Journal of Early Modern Intellectual Culture and its Sources, chair of the editorial board of Trajecta. He was a moving influence on the early stages of the Flemish short-title catalogue. Roegiers gave his valedictory lecture, on academic heritage and university history, on 19 February 2010. On the same occasion he was presented with a Festschrift celebrating his career, The Quintessence of Lives: Intellectual Biographies in the Low Countries presented to Jan Roegiers, edited by P. Delsaerdt, H. Schwall, D. Vanysacker, J.-P. Delville, his retirement was marked with a special exhibition in Leuven University's Central Library, Anima Academiae Bibliotheca, from 10 June to 25 August 2010. Roegiers was buried on 19 July in the Sint-Jan-de-Doperkerk in Leuven; the reading room of the university archive was named "Jan Roegiers reading room" in his memory

Royal Marriages Act 1772

The Royal Marriages Act 1772 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British royal family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard against marriages that could diminish the status of the royal house. The right of veto vested in the sovereign by this act provoked severe adverse criticism at the time of its passage, it was repealed as a result of the 2011 Perth Agreement, which came into force on 26 March 2015. Under the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, the first six people in the line of succession need permission to marry if they and their descendants are to remain in the line of succession; the Act said that no descendant of King George II, male or female, other than the issue of princesses who had married or might thereafter marry "into foreign families", could marry without the consent of the reigning monarch, "signified under the great seal and declared in council". That consent was to be set out in the licence and in the register of the marriage, entered in the books of the Privy Council.

Any marriage contracted without the consent of the monarch was to be void. However, any member of the royal family over the age of 25, refused the sovereign's consent could marry one year after giving notice to the Privy Council of their intention so to marry, unless both houses of Parliament expressly declared their disapproval. There is, however; the Act further made it a crime to perform or participate in an illegal marriage of any member of the royal family. This provision was repealed by the Criminal Law Act 1967; the Act was proposed by George III as a direct result of the marriage of his brother, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, who in 1771 had married the commoner Anne Horton, the daughter of Simon Luttrell and the widow of Christopher Horton. Royal Assent was given to the Act on 1 April 1772, it was only on 13 September following that the King learned that another brother, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, had in 1766 secretly married Maria, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole and the widow of the 2nd Earl Waldegrave.

Both alliances were considered unsuitable by the King, who "saw himself as having been forced to marry for purely dynastic reasons". On 15 December 1785, the King's eldest son George, Prince of Wales, married and in contravention of this Act the twice-widowed Maria Anne Fitzherbert, a practising Roman Catholic, at her house in Park Lane, according to the rites of the Church of England. Although viewed as a canonically sound marriage by Roman Catholics, this marriage was invalid under the Act. Had the marriage been valid, it would have excluded the Prince from succession to the throne under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701. On 29 September 1791, the King's second son Prince Frederick, Duke of York, married Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia, at Charlottenburg, but the ceremony had to be repeated in London on 23 November 1791 as, although consent had been given at the Privy Council on 28 September, it had proved impossible to obtain the Great Seal in time and doubt had thus been thrown on the legality of the marriage.

On 4 April 1793, Prince Augustus, the sixth son of the King, married Lady Augusta Murray, in contravention of the Act and without witnesses, according to the rites of the Church of England at the Hotel Sarmiento and again, after banns, on 5 December 1793, at St George's, Hanover Square, London. Both marriages were declared null and void by the Court of Arches on 14 July 1794, the two resulting children were subsequently considered illegitimate. After the death of Lady Augusta Murray, Prince Augustus, now Duke of Sussex married, again in contravention of the Act, about 2 May 1831, at her house in Great Cumberland Place, Lady Cecilia Buggin, who on that day had taken the surname Underwood in lieu of Buggin and who, on 10 April 1840, was created Duchess of Inverness by Queen Victoria; the Queen had thereby, as Lord Melbourne wrote, "recognized the moral and religious effect of whatever has taken place whilst she avoided the legal effects of a legal marriage, what her Majesty was most anxious to do".

Acceptance of the marriage would have meant acceptance of the Duke's earlier marriage and the legitimacy of his two children. However, the couple cohabited and were accepted as husband and wife. On 8 January 1847, the Queen's first cousin Prince George of Cambridge married, by licence of the Faculty Office but in contravention of this Act, Sarah Fairbrother, a pregnant actress with four illegitimate children, at St James, Clerkenwell. From about 1858, Fairbrother took the name Mrs FitzGeorge; the marriage was non-existent, not a morganatic marriage as many have called it. It is incorrect to say that Queen Victoria refused to consent to this marriage, as no application was made to her under the Act, it being apparent that no consent would be given. After Charles Edward, Duke of Albany was deprived of his British titles under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 due to his German loyalties during World War I, his descendants married without consent from the British monarch; as Charles Edward was a male-line grandson of Queen Victoria, application of the Royal Marriages Act as written renders null and void for the purposes of British law the marriages of his children, despite having been lawfully contracted in Germany.

The only known case in which permission to marry was withheld by the British sovereign despite a formal request under the Royal Marriages Act is that of Prince George William of Hanover, a G

2011 Major League Baseball season

The 2011 Major League Baseball season began on Thursday, March 31, ended on Wednesday, September 28. This marked the first time a season began on a Thursday since 1976, the first time a regular season ended on a Wednesday since 1990; the 82nd edition of the Major League Baseball All-Star Game was played at Chase Field in Phoenix, Arizona, on July 12 with the National League defeating the American League for the second straight year, by a score of 5–1. As has been the case since 2003, the league winning that game has home field advantage in the World Series. Accordingly, the World Series began on October 19, ended on October 28, with the St. Louis Cardinals winning in seven games over the Texas Rangers. Only two teams were unable to complete the entire 162-game regular season schedule, as the make-up game between the Los Angeles Dodgers and the Washington Nationals at Nationals Park on September 8 was cancelled due to rain and not made up, owing to scheduling constraints and the game being inconsequential to the playoffs.

Green backgrounds indicate teams. Numbers in parentheses indicate seedings for the postseason, determined by won-lost records. On the last day of the 2011 regular season, the post-season fate of four teams fighting for two playoff spots across both leagues was decided. In the National League, the St. Louis Cardinals defeated their National League Central division rival Houston Astros to win the National League wild card berth after the Atlanta Braves lost to their National League East division rivals, the Philadelphia Phillies. In the American League, the Tampa Bay Rays defeated their American League East division rivals the New York Yankees with dramatic home runs in the 9th inning by Dan Johnson and in extra innings by Evan Longoria to win the American League wild card berth after the Baltimore Orioles defeated the Boston Red Sox, both rivals in the American League East, on a walk-off single; this has been cited as the "most thrilling 129 minutes in baseball history." They will go down as the most thrilling 129 minutes in baseball history.

Never before and never again—if we dare to assume anything else can be ever again—will baseball captivate and exhilarate on so many fronts in so small a window the way it did September 28, 2011. The Rays returned to the playoffs for the second consecutive year despite losing many players from the year before; the Red Sox and Braves suffered two of the most epic collapses their respective franchises had had, losing their playoff spots on the last day and in the last game of the season despite leading the next contending teams by multiple games at the start of the last month of the season. The Cardinals rode the momentum of their win to win the NLDS and NLCS on their way to defeating the Texas Rangers for their 11th World Series title; the 2011 season was the final season of the single wildcard format, as MLB added second wildcard teams to each league starting with the 2012 season. The excitement of the final day of the 2011 season was cited as an argument against this change in format, as the new format would not have allowed for such an ending to the season.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011 – 7:05 pm at Oriole Park at Camden Yards in Baltimore, Maryland The Red Sox were favored by pundits to win the American League pennant prior to the start of the season due to acquisitions of Adrián González, Carl Crawford and Bobby Jenks. Despite a slow start, Boston darted to the top of the division during the summer months. Injuries plagued the team and they lost first place to the Yankees, but were still in comfortable contention for the wild card; the month of September started an epic slump for the team where the team had allowed the Rays to get back into contention. However, Boston still controlled its own destiny going into their final series with the last place Orioles, but wound up having the season come down to the last game; the Red Sox had taken a lead for a good part of the game. The game was interrupted by a rain delay in the middle of the 7th with Boston ahead 3–2. After play had resumed an hour and a half the Orioles still trailed by a run in the bottom of the 9th.

When leading after eight innings, the Red Sox were 77–0 in 2011. Facing closer Jonathan Papelbon, Chris Davis and Nolan Reimold hit back-to-back doubles with two outs, which tied the game; the next batter, Robert Andino, hit a line drive to left field which Carl Crawford was unable to catch, allowing Reimold to score and the Orioles walked off with the win. After the Orioles won, a Red Sox killer of late, said, "End of season like this, to make Boston go home sad, crying, I'll take it all day." Wednesday, September 28, 2011 – 7:10 pm at Tropicana Field in St. Petersburg, Florida The Yankees had won the American League East several days prior to this contest; the Rays had been in the Red Sox for much of the season. However, Boston had started to lose many games in September due to poor starting and relief pitching, disappointing hitting from newly acquired free agent Carl Crawford throughout the year, injuries to key players like Kevin Youkilis; the Rays, who had won the division in 2010, had lost many of their players to free agency.

Despite the losses, the Rays had crawled back into contention and faced the Yankees in the final series of the year. Yankees manager Joe Girardi indicated that he would approach the final games so that the team's pitching staff would be set up for the 2011 ALDS against the Detroit Tigers. Suspicions rose to whether or not the Yankees would compete intensely due to them wanting to rest their aging players for the playoffs and to keep the Red Sox out, their fierce rivals whom they had a lopsided losing record to that se