Woodstock was a music festival held on a dairy farm in the Catskill Mountains, northwest of New York City, between August 15–18, 1969, which attracted an audience of more than 400,000. Billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music", it was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre dairy farm near White Lake in Bethel, New York, 43 miles southwest of Woodstock. Over the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors, it is regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history, as well as the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation. Rolling Stone listed it as number 19 of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Roll; the event was captured in the Academy Award-winning 1970 documentary movie Woodstock, an accompanying soundtrack album, Joni Mitchell's song "Woodstock", which commemorated the event and became a major hit for both Crosby, Nash & Young and Matthews Southern Comfort. Joni Mitchell said, "Woodstock was a spark of beauty" where half-a-million kids "saw that they were part of a greater organism".
In 2017, the festival site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Woodstock was initiated through the efforts of Michael Lang, Artie Kornfeld, Joel Rosenman, John P. Roberts. Roberts and Rosenman financed the project. Lang had some experience as a promoter, having co-organized a festival on the East Coast the prior year, the Miami Pop Festival, where an estimated 25,000 people attended the two-day event. Early in 1969, Roberts and Rosenman were New York City entrepreneurs, in the process of building Media Sound, a large audio recording studio complex in Manhattan. Lang and Kornfeld's lawyer, Miles Lourie, who had done legal work on the Media Sound project, suggested that they contact Roberts and Rosenman about financing a similar, but much smaller, studio Kornfeld and Lang hoped to build in Woodstock, New York. Unpersuaded by this Studio-in-the-Woods proposal and Rosenman counter-proposed a concert featuring the kind of artists known to frequent the Woodstock area. Kornfeld and Lang agreed to the new plan, Woodstock Ventures was formed in January 1969.
The company offices were located in an oddly decorated floor of 47 West 57th Street in Manhattan. Burt Cohen, his design group, Curtain Call Productions, oversaw the psychedelic transformation of the office. From the start, there were differences in approach among the four: Roberts was disciplined and knew what was needed for the venture to succeed, while the laid-back Lang saw Woodstock as a new, "relaxed" way of bringing entrepreneurs together; when Lang was unable to find a site for the concert and Rosenman, growing concerned, took to the road and came up with a venue. Similar differences about financial discipline made Roberts and Rosenman wonder whether to pull the plug or to continue pumping money into the project. In April 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival became the first act to sign a contract for the event, agreeing to play for $10,000; the promoters had experienced difficulty landing big-name groups prior to Creedence committing to play. Creedence drummer Doug Clifford commented, "Once Creedence signed, everyone else jumped in line and all the other big acts came on."
Given their 3 a.m. start time and omission from the Woodstock film, Creedence members have expressed bitterness over their experiences regarding the festival. Woodstock was designed as a profit-making venture, it famously became a "free concert" only after the event drew hundreds of thousands more people than the organizers had prepared for. Tickets for the three-day event cost $18 in $24 at the gate. Ticket sales were limited to record stores in the greater New York City area, or by mail via a post office box at the Radio City Station Post Office located in Midtown Manhattan. Around 186,000 advance tickets were sold, the organizers anticipated 200,000 festival-goers would turn up; the original venue plan was for the festival to take place in Wallkill, New York near the proposed recording studio site owned by Alexander Tapooz. After local residents shot down that idea and Kornfeld thought they had found another possible location in Saugerties, New York, but they had misunderstood, as the landowner's attorney made clear, in a brief meeting with Roberts and Rosenman.
Growing alarmed at the lack of progress and Rosenman took over the search for a venue, discovered the 300-acre Mills Industrial Park in the town of Wallkill, New York, which Woodstock Ventures leased for $10,000 in the Spring of 1969. Town officials were assured. Town residents opposed the project. In early July, the Town Board passed a law requiring a permit for any gathering over 5,000 people. On July 15, 1969, the Wallkill Zoning Board of Appeals banned the concert on the basis that the planned portable toilets would not meet town code. Reports of the ban, turned out to be a publicity bonanza for the festival. In his 2007 book Taking Woodstock, Elliot Tiber relates that he offered to host the event on his 15-acre motel grounds, had a permit for such an event, he claims to have introduced the promoters to dairy farmer Max Yasgur. Lang, disputes Tiber's account and says that Tiber introduced him to a realtor, who drove him to Yasgur's farm without Tiber. Sam Yasgur, Max's son, agrees with Lang's account.
Yasgur's land formed a natural bowl sloping down to Filippini Pond on the land's north side. The stage would be set up at the bottom of the
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras on the theory and practice of yoga. The Yoga Sutras were compiled prior to 400 CE by Sage Patanjali who synthesized and organized knowledge about yoga from older traditions; the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali was the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era, having been translated into about forty Indian languages and two non-Indian languages: Old Javanese and Arabic. The text fell into relative obscurity for nearly 700 years from the 12th to 19th century, made a comeback in late 19th century due to the efforts of Swami Vivekananda, the Theosophical Society and others, it gained prominence again as a comeback classic in the 20th century. Before the 20th century, history indicates that the medieval Indian yoga scene was dominated by the various other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Vasistha, texts attributed to Yajnavalkya and Hiranyagarbha, as well as literature on hatha yoga, tantric yoga and Pashupata Shaivism yoga rather than the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali.
In the 20th century, modern practitioners of yoga elevated the Yoga Sutras to a status it never knew previously. Hindu orthodox tradition holds the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali to be one of the foundational texts of classical Yoga philosophy. However, the appropriation - and misappropriation - of the Yoga Sutras and its influence on systematizations of yoga has been questioned by scholars such as David Gordon White; the Yoga Sūtras text is attributed to Patanjali. Much confusion surrounds this Patañjali, because an author of the same name is credited to be the author of the classic text on Sanskrit grammar named Mahābhāṣya, yet the two works in Sanskrit are different in subject matter. Furthermore, before the time of Bhoja, no known text states. Philipp A. Maas assesses Patañjali's Yogasutra's date to be about 400 CE, based on tracing the commentaries on it published in the first millennium CE, a review of extant literature. Edwin Bryant, on the other hand, surveys the major commentators in his translation of the Yoga Sūtras.
He observes that "Most scholars date the text shortly after the turn of the Common Era, but that it has been placed as early as several centuries before that." Bryant concludes that "A number of scholars have dated the Yoga Sūtras as late as the fourth or fifth century C. E. but these arguments have all been challenged.... All such arguments are problematic."Michele Desmarais summarizes a wide variety of dates assigned to Yogasutra, ranging from 500 BCE to 3rd century CE, noting that there is a paucity of evidence for any certainty. She states the text may have been composed at an earlier date given conflicting theories on how to date it, but latter dates are more accepted by scholars; the Yoga Sutras are a composite of various traditions. The levels of samādhi taught in the text resemble the Buddhist jhanas. According to Feuerstein, the Yoga Sutras are a condensation of two different traditions, namely "eight limb yoga" and action yoga; the kriya yoga part is contained in chapter 1, chapter 2 sutras 1-27, chapter 3 except sutra 54, chapter 4.
The "eight limb yoga" is described in chapter 2 sutras 28-55, chapter 3 sutras 3 and 54. According to Maas, Patañjali's composition was entitled Pātañjalayogaśāstra and consisted of both Sūtras and Bhāṣya. According to Wujastyk, referencing Maas, Patanjali integrated yoga from older traditions in Pātañjalayogaśāstra, added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that, since 1100 CE, has been considered the work of two people. Together the compilation of Patanjali's sutras and the Vyasabhasya, is called Pātañjalayogaśāstra. According to Maas, this means that the earliest commentary on the Yoga Sūtras, the Bhāṣya, ascribed to some unknown author Vyāsa, was Patañjali's own work. Patañjali divided his Yoga Sutras into four chapters or books, containing in all 196 aphorisms, divided as follows: Samadhi Pada. Samadhi refers to a state of direct and reliable perception where the yogi's self-identity is absorbed into the object meditated upon, collapsing the categories of witness and witnessed.
Samadhi is the main technique the yogin learns by which to dive into the depths of the mind to achieve Kaivalya. The author describes yoga and the nature and the means to attaining samādhi; this chapter contains the famous definitional verse: "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ". Sadhana Pada. Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Ashtanga Yoga. * Kriyā Yoga in the Yoga Sūtras is the practice of three of the Niyamas of Aṣṭāṅga Yoga: tapas, svādhyaya, iśvara praṇidhana – austerity, self-study, devotion to god. * Aṣṭāṅga Yoga is the yoga of eight limbs: Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prāṇāyāma, Pratyahara, Dhāraṇa, Dhyāna, Samādhi. Vibhuti Pada. Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation".'Supra-normal powers' are acquired by the practice of yoga. Combined simultaneous practice of Dhāraṇā, Dhyana and Samādhi is referred to as Samyama, is considered a tool of achieving various perfections, or Siddhis; the text warns. Kaivalya Pada. Kaivalya translates to "isolation", but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation or liberation and is used where other texts employ the term moksha.
The Kaivalya Pada describes the process of liberation a
Yogaville, or Satchidananda Ashram, was founded in 1980 by Yogiraj Sri Swami Satchidananda, whose western notability stems from his opening of the Woodstock festival. The ashram is the international organizational headquarters of Swami Satchidananda's documented teachings and is located in Buckingham County, Virginia; the primary goal of guru Yogiraj Sri Swami Satchidananda was interfaith understanding as a vehicle to world peace. To this end, the LOTUS was constructed and inaugurated in 1986. Swami Satchidananda was living in Yogaville at the time of his death, though he was visiting Madras, in South India at the time; the property in rural Virginia, along the James River, was identified for the community from the air as the swami flew over, looking for land farther south than his ashram in Pomfret, Connecticut. Swami Satchidananda acquired 600 acres in 1979 to form his town, financing it by selling property in Falls Village, Connecticut, given to him by Carole King; as of 1986, when the LOTUS was dedicated, around 120 people were living on a total of 750 acres.
Reports cited plans to house a population between 600 and 1,000. The ashram in Yogaville maintains a large dining room for residents and guests. In 1996 a book of favorite ashram recipes is now in its 9th printing. According to the official website, there are around 200 residents as of 2015. In May 2016 Yogaville received Landmark Status. In addition to the Virginia and Connecticut ashrams, Yogaville-West was founded in Seigler Springs, California in 1972. Costing $2 million and dedicated on July 20, 1986, the shrine is the centerpiece of Yogaville; the structure is shaped like a lotus flower, features a gold-leaf dome, houses 12 altars representing Christian, Hindu, Tao, Islam, Native American, African religions. Blue neon tubes extend from each altar up along the spines of the vaulted ceiling. Official website http://yogirajsriswamisatchidananda.googlepages.com http://integralyogamexico.googlepages.com Complete selection of Swami Satchidananda's books and teachings as well as CDs, links to yoga materials and lifestyle guides
Haṭha yoga is a branch of the south Asian tradition of yoga practice. The Sanskrit word हठ haṭha means "force" and thus alludes to a system of physical techniques. In India, haṭha yoga is associated in popular tradition with the'Yogis' of the Natha Sampradaya through its mythical founder Matsyendranath. Matsyendranath known as Minanath or Minapa in Tibet, is celebrated as a saint in both Hindu and Buddhist tantric and haṭha yoga schools. However, James Mallinson associates haṭha yoga with the Dashanami Sampradaya and the mystical figure of Dattatreya. According to the Dattatreya Yoga Śastra, there are two forms of haṭha yoga: one practiced by Yajñavalkya consisting of the eight limbs of ashtanga yoga and another practiced by Kapila consisting of eight mudras; the oldest dated text to describe haṭha yoga, the 11th century CE Amṛtasiddhi, comes from a tantric Buddhist milieu. The oldest texts to use the terminology of hatha are Vajrayana Buddhist. Haṭha yoga texts adopt the practices of haṭha yoga mudras into a Saiva system, melding it with Layayoga methods which focus on the raising of kuṇḍalinī through energy channels and chakras.
In the 20th century, a development of haṭha yoga, focusing on asanas, became popular throughout the world as a form of physical exercise. This modern form of yoga is now known as "yoga". According to the Indologist James Mallinson, some haṭha yoga techniques can be traced back at least to the 1st-century CE, in texts such as the Sanskrit epics and the Pali canon; the Pali canon contains three passages in which the Buddha describes pressing the tongue against the palate for the purposes of controlling hunger or the mind, depending on the passage. However, there is no mention of the tongue being inserted into the nasopharynx as in true khecarī mudrā; the Buddha used a posture where pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, similar to modern postures used to stimulate Kundalini. In the Mahāsaccaka sutta, the Buddha mentions how physical practices such as various meditations on holding one's breath did not help him "attain to greater excellence in noble knowledge and insight which transcends the human condition."
After trying these, he sought another path to enlightenment. According to Birch, the earliest mentions of haṭha yoga are from Buddhist texts Tantric works from the 8th century onwards, such as Puṇḍarīka’s Vimalaprabhā commentary on the Kālacakratantra. In this text, haṭha yoga is defined within the context of tantric sexual ritual: "when the undying moment does not arise because the breath is unrestrained when the image is seen by means of withdrawal and the other having forcefully made the breath flow in the central channel through the practice of nada, about to be explained, should attain the undying moment by restraining the bindu of the bodhicitta in the vajra when it is in the lotus of wisdom ". While the actual means of practice are not specified, the forcing of the breath into the central channel and the restraining of bindu are central features of haṭha yoga practice texts. Around the 11th century, certain techniques which are associated with haṭha yoga begin to be outlined in a series of early texts.
The aims of these practices were mukti. James Mallinson gives a list of what he terms “early” haṭha yoga works, which he contrasts with "classical" works such as the Haṭhapradīpikā: The Amṛtasiddhi a Tantric Buddhist text, which dates to the 11th century CE, teaches mahābandha, mahāmudrā, mahāvedha which involve bodily postures and breath control, as a means to preserve amrta or bindu in the head from dripping down the central channel and being burned by the fire at the perineum; the text attacks Vajrayana Deity yoga as ineffective. The Dattātreyayogaśāstra, a Vaisnava text composed in the 13th century CE, teaches an eightfold yoga identical with Patañjali's 8 limbs that it attributes to Yajnavalkya and others as well as eight mudras that it says were undertaken by the rishi Kapila and other ṛishis; the Dattātreyayogaśāstra teaches mahāmudrā, mahābandha, khecarīmudrā, jālandharabandha, uḍḍiyāṇabandha, mūlabandha, viparītakaraṇī, vajrolī, amarolī, sahajolī. The Vivekamārtaṇḍa, contemporaneous with the Dattātreyayogaśāstra, teaches nabhomudrā, mahāmudrā, viparītakaraṇī and the three bandhas.
It teaches six chakras and the raising of Kundalinī by means of “fire yoga”. The Goraksaśatakạ, a Nāth text, contemporaneous with the Dattātreyayogaśāstra, teaches śakticālanīmudrā along with the three bandhas. “Stimulating Sarasvatī” is done by wrapping the tongue in a cloth and pulling on it, stimulating the goddess Kundalinī, said to dwell at the other end of the central channel. This text does not mention the preservation of bindu, but says that liberation is achieved by controlling the mind through controlling the breath; the ̣Śārṅgadharapaddhati is an anthology of verses on a wide range of subjects compiled in 1363 CE, which in its description of Hatha Yoga includes ̣the Dattātreyayogaśāstra’s teachings on five mudrās. The Khecarīvidyā teaches only the method of khecarīmudrā, meant to give one access to stores of amrta in the body and to raise Kundalinī via the six chakras; the Yogabīja teaches the three bandhas and śakticālanīmudrā for the purpose of awakening Kundalinī. The Amaraughaprabodha the three bandhas as in the Amṛtasiddhi, but adds
Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, achieve a mentally clear and calm and stable state. Some of the earliest written records of meditation, come from the Hindu traditions of Vedantism around 1500 BCE. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs as part of the path towards enlightenment and self realization. Since the 19th century, it has spread from its origins to other cultures where it is practiced in private and business life. Meditation may be used with the aim of reducing stress, anxiety and pain, increasing peace, self-concept, well-being. Meditation is under research to define other effects; the English meditation is derived from Old French meditacioun and the Latin meditatio from a verb meditari, meaning "to think, devise, ponder". The use of the term meditatio as part of a formal, stepwise process of meditation goes back to the 12th century monk Guigo II.
Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation was introduced as a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, referred to as dhyāna in Hinduism and Buddhism and which comes from the Sanskrit root dhyai, meaning to contemplate or meditate. The term "meditation" in English may refer to practices from Islamic Sufism, or other traditions such as Jewish Kabbalah and Christian Hesychasm. In popular usage, the word "meditation" and the phrase "meditative practice" are used imprecisely to designate broadly similar practices, or sets of practices, that are found across many cultures and traditions. What is considered meditation can include any practice that trains the attention or teaches calm or compassion. Definitions in the Oxford and Cambridge living dictionaries and Merriam-Webster include both the original Latin meaning of "think about". Criteria for defining a practice as meditation "for use in a comprehensive systematic review of the therapeutic use of meditation" were identified by Bond et al. using "a 5-round Delphi study with a panel of 7 experts in meditation research" who were trained in diverse but empirically studied forms of meditation.
Other criteria deemed important involve a state of psychophysical relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor, the presence of a state of suspension of logical thought processes, a religious/spiritual/philosophical context, or a state of mental silence. It is plausible that meditation is best thought of as a natural category of techniques best captured by'family resemblances' or by the related'prototype' model of concepts." The table shows several other definitions of meditation that have been used by influential modern reviews of research on meditation across multiple traditions. In modern psychological research, meditation has been defined and characterized in a variety of ways. Scientific reviews have proposed that researchers attempt to more define the type of meditation being practiced in order that the results of their studies be made clearer. One review of the field provides a detailed set of questions as a starting point in reaching this goal; the practitioner of meditation attempts to get beyond the reflexive, "thinking" mind This may be to achieve a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state.
In this article the terms "meditative practice" and "meditation" are used in this broad sense. However, in some contexts more specialized meanings of "meditation" may be intended; some of the difficulty in defining meditation has been the difficulty in recognizing the particularities of the many various traditions. There may be differences between the theories of one tradition of meditation as to what it means to practice meditation; the differences between the various traditions themselves, which have grown up a great distance apart from each other, may be starker. Taylor noted that to refer only to meditation from a particular faith...is not enough, since the cultural traditions from which a particular kind of meditation comes are quite different and within a single tradition differ in complex ways. The specific name of a school of thought or a teacher or the title of a specific text is quite important for identifying a particular type of meditation. Ornstein noted that "Most techniques of meditation do not exist as solitary practices but are only artificially separable from an entire system of practice and belief."
This means that, for instance, while monks engage in meditation as a part of their everyday lives, they engage the codified rules and live together in monasteries in specific cultural settings that go along with their meditative practices. These meditative practices sometimes have similarities, for instance concentration on the breath is practiced in Zen and Theravadan contexts, these similarities or "typologies" are noted here. In the West, meditation techniques have sometimes been thought of in two broad categories: focused (