It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
MS-DOS is an operating system for x86-based personal computers developed by Microsoft. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC DOS, some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS". MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface, in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS was the result of the language developed in the seventies, used by IBM for its mainframe operating system. Microsoft acquired the rights to meet IBM specifications. IBM re-released it on August 12, 1981 as PC DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products diverged after twelve years, in 1993, with recognizable differences in compatibility and capabilities. During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000.
MS-DOS was targeted at Intel 8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to store and access not only the operating system, but application software and user data as well. Progressive version releases delivered support for other mass storage media in greater sizes and formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and evolving computer architectures, it was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming language company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUI, it is a flexible operating system, consumes negligible installation space. MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS – owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson. Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was a clone of Digital Research's CP/M, ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M.
This first version was shipped in August 1980. Microsoft, which needed an operating system for the IBM Personal Computer hired Tim Paterson in May 1981 and bought 86-DOS 1.10 for $75,000 in July of the same year. Microsoft kept the version number, but renamed it MS-DOS, they licensed MS-DOS 1.10/1.14 to IBM, who, in August 1981, offered it as PC DOS 1.0 as one of three operating systems for the IBM 5150, or the IBM PC. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, it was designed to be an OS. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its own version of MS-DOS, similar to the situation that existed for CP/M, with MS-DOS emulating the same solution as CP/M to adapt for different hardware platforms. To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers, minimally for primary disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time.
The OEM would use a development kit provided by Microsoft to build a version of MS-DOS with their basic I/O drivers and a standard Microsoft kernel, which they would supply on disk to end users along with the hardware. Thus, there were many different versions of "MS-DOS" for different hardware, there is a major distinction between an IBM-compatible machine and an MS-DOS machine; some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run software written for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture. This design would have worked well for compatibility, if application programs had only used MS-DOS services to perform device I/O, indeed the same design philosophy is embodied in Windows NT. However, in MS-DOS's early days, the greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of hardware was of particular importance for games, which pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware. Soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, before long all 8086-family computers emulated IBM's hardware, only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
This version is the version of MS-DOS, discussed here, as the dozens of other OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only relevant to the systems they were designed for, in any case were similar in function and capability to some standard version for the IBM PC—often the same-numbered version, but not always, since some OEMs used their own proprietary version numbering schemes —with a few notable exceptions. Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-DOS because Microsoft's Unix-based operating system, was multi-user; the company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, the LSI-11. Microsoft advertised MS-DOS and Xenix together, listing the shared features of its "single-user OS" and "the multi-user, multi-tasking, UNIX-derived operating system", promising easy
Addition is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic. The addition of two whole numbers is the total amount of those values combined. For example, in the adjacent picture, there is a combination of three apples and two apples together, making a total of five apples; this observation is equivalent to the mathematical expression "3 + 2 = 5" i.e. "3 add 2 is equal to 5". Besides counting items, addition can be defined on other types of numbers, such as integers, real numbers and complex numbers; this is part of a branch of mathematics. In algebra, another area of mathematics, addition can be performed on abstract objects such as vectors and matrices. Addition has several important properties, it is commutative, meaning that order does not matter, it is associative, meaning that when one adds more than two numbers, the order in which addition is performed does not matter. Repeated addition of 1 is the same as counting. Addition obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as subtraction and multiplication.
Performing addition is one of the simplest numerical tasks. Addition of small numbers is accessible to toddlers. In primary education, students are taught to add numbers in the decimal system, starting with single digits and progressively tackling more difficult problems. Mechanical aids range from the ancient abacus to the modern computer, where research on the most efficient implementations of addition continues to this day. Addition is written using the plus sign "+" between the terms; the result is expressed with an equals sign. For example, 1 + 1 = 2 2 + 2 = 4 1 + 2 = 3 5 + 4 + 2 = 11 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = 12 There are situations where addition is "understood" though no symbol appears: A whole number followed by a fraction indicates the sum of the two, called a mixed number. For example, 3½ = 3 + ½ = 3.5. This notation can cause confusion since in most other contexts juxtaposition denotes multiplication instead; the sum of a series of related numbers can be expressed through capital sigma notation, which compactly denotes iteration.
For example, ∑ k = 1 5 k 2 = 1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 4 2 + 5 2 = 55. The numbers or the objects to be added in general addition are collectively referred to as the terms, the addends or the summands; this is to be distinguished from factors. Some authors call. In fact, during the Renaissance, many authors did not consider the first addend an "addend" at all. Today, due to the commutative property of addition, "augend" is used, both terms are called addends. All of the above terminology derives from Latin. "Addition" and "add" are English words derived from the Latin verb addere, in turn a compound of ad "to" and dare "to give", from the Proto-Indo-European root *deh₃- "to give". Using the gerundive suffix -nd results in "addend", "thing to be added". From augere "to increase", one gets "augend", "thing to be increased". "Sum" and "summand" derive from the Latin noun summa "the highest, the top" and associated verb summare. This is appropriate not only because the sum of two positive numbers is greater than either, but because it was common for the ancient Greeks and Romans to add upward, contrary to the modern practice of adding downward, so that a sum was higher than the addends.
Addere and summare date back at least to Boethius, if not to earlier Roman writers such as Vitruvius and Frontinus. The Middle English terms "adden" and "adding" were popularized by Chaucer; the plus sign "+" is an abbreviation of the Latin word et, meaning "and". It appears in mathematical works dating back to at least 1489. Addition is used to model many physical processes. For the simple case of adding natural numbers, there are many possible interpretations and more visual representations; the most fundamental interpretation of addition lies in combining sets: When two or more disjoint collections are combined into a single collection, the number of objects in the single collection is the sum of the number of objects in the original collections. This interpretation is easy to visualize, with little danger of ambiguity, it is useful in higher mathematics. However, it is not obvious how one should extend this version of addition to include fractional numbers or negative numbers. One possible fix is to consider collections of objects that can be divided, such as pies or, still bet
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to
Belmont is a city in San Mateo County in the U. S. state of California. It is in the San Francisco Bay Area, on the San Francisco Peninsula halfway between San Francisco and San Jose, it was part of Rancho de las Pulgas, for which one of its main roads, the Alameda de las Pulgas, is named. The city was incorporated in 1926, its population was 25,835 at the 2010 census. Ralston Hall is a historic landmark built by Bank of California founder William Chapman Ralston on the campus of Notre Dame de Namur University, it was built around a villa owned by Count Cipriani, an Italian aristocrat. The locally famous "Waterdog Lake" is located in the foothills and highlands of Belmont. One of two surviving structures from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition is on Belmont Avenue; the building was brought to Belmont by E. D. Swift shortly after the exposition closed in 1915. Swift owned a large amount of land in the area. Belmont has attracted national attention for a smoking ordinance passed in January 2009 which bans smoking in all businesses and multi-story apartments and condominiums.
The name seems to derive from the Italian "bel monte," which means "beautiful mountain." It was named such because of its "symmetrically rounded eminence" nearby. Belmont is located at 37°31′5″N 122°17′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.20 square miles of which 4.6 square miles is land and 0.19% is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Belmont had a population of 25,835; the population density was 5,579.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Belmont was 17,455 White, 420 African American, 72 Native American, 5,151 Asian, 198 Pacific Islander, 964 from other races, 1,572 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2,977 persons; the Census reported that 25,321 people lived in households, 394 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 120 were institutionalized. There were 10,575 households, out of which 3,251 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,630 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 830 had a female householder with no husband present, 391 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 510 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 96 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,904 households were made up of individuals and 997 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39. There were 6,851 families; the population was spread out with 5,395 people under the age of 18, 1,668 people aged 18 to 24, 7,645 people aged 25 to 44, 7,284 people aged 45 to 64, 3,843 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. There were 11,028 housing units at an average density of 2,381.8 per square mile, of which 6,280 were owner-occupied, 4,295 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.7%. 16,473 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,848 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 25,123 people, 10,418 households, 6,542 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,551.1 people per square mile.
There were 10,577 housing units at an average density of 2,337.1 per square mile. There were 10,418 households out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.3% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 35.9% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $99,739, the median income for a family was $122,515. Males had a median income of $63,281 versus $46,957 for females; the per capita income for the city was $42,812.
About 1.7% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 and over. In May 2009, Belmont was ranked 11th on Forbes list of "America's Top 25 Towns to Live Well." In the California State Legislature, Belmont is in the 13th Senate District, represented by Democrat Jerry Hill, in the 22nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Kevin Mullin. Federally, Belmont is in California's 14th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jackie Speier. According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Belmont has 15,827 registered voters. Of those, 7,678 are registered Democrats, 2,540 are registered Republicans, 4,994 have declined to state a political party; the city is served by the Belmont Public Library of the San Mateo County Libraries, a member of the Peninsula Library System. The city has a number of parks; this includes Twin Pines Park, Waterdog Lake Ope
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most the symbols "0"–"9" to represent values zero to nine, "A"–"F" to represent values ten to fifteen. Hexadecimal numerals are used by computer system designers and programmers, as they provide a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values; each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits known as a nibble, half a byte. For example, a single byte can have values ranging from 0000 0000 to 1111 1111 in binary form, which can be more conveniently represented as 00 to FF in hexadecimal. In mathematics, a subscript is used to specify the radix. For example the decimal value 10,995 would be expressed in hexadecimal as 2AF316. In programming, a number of notations are used to support hexadecimal representation involving a prefix or suffix; the prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, which would denote this value by 0x2AF3. Hexadecimal is used in the transfer encoding Base16, in which each byte of the plaintext is broken into two 4-bit values and represented by two hexadecimal digits.
In contexts where the base is not clear, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously. A numerical subscript can give the base explicitly: 15910 is decimal 159; some authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159h. In linear text systems, such as those used in most computer programming environments, a variety of methods have arisen: In URIs, character codes are written as hexadecimal pairs prefixed with %: http://www.example.com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space character, ASCII code point 20 in hex, 32 in decimal. In XML and XHTML, characters can be expressed as hexadecimal numeric character references using the notation
ode, thus ’. In the Unicode standard, a character value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value, e.g. U+20AC is the Euro sign. Color references in HTML, CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits prefixed with #: white, for example, is represented #FFFFFF.
CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component: #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33. Unix shells, AT&T assembly language and the C programming language use the prefix 0x for numeric constants represented in hex: 0x5A3. Character and string constants may express character codes in hexadecimal with the prefix \x followed by two hex digits:'\x1B' represents the Esc control character. To output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In MIME quoted-printable encoding, characters that cannot be represented as literal ASCII characters are represented by their codes as two hexadecimal digits prefixed by an equal to sign =, as in Espa=F1a to send "España". In Intel-derived assembly languages and Modula-2, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h: FFh or 05A3H; some implementations require a leading zero when the first hexadecimal digit character is not a decimal digit, so one would write 0FFh instead of FFh Other assembly languages, Delphi, some versions of BASIC, GameMaker Language and Forth use $ as a prefix: $5A3.
Some assembly languages use the notation H'ABCD'. Fortran 95 uses Z'ABCD'. Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based "numeric quotes": 16#5A3#. For bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x"5A3". Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8'hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value and FF is the hexadecimal constant; the Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r: 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#: 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs: AA213FD51B3801043FBC... Common Lisp uses the prefixes # 16r. Setting the variables *read-base* and *print-base* to 16 can be used to switch the reader and printer of a Common Lisp system to Hexadecimal number representation for reading and printing numbers, thus Hexadecimal numbers can be represented without the #x or #16r prefix code, when the input or output base has been changed to 16. MSX BASIC, QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H: &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex.
TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix: 0h5A3 ALGOL 68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers: 16r5a3. Binary and octal numbers can be specified similarly; the most common format for hexadecimal on IBM mainframes and midrange computers running the traditional OS's is X'5A3', is used in Assembler, PL/I, COBOL, JCL, scripts and other places. This format was common on