Integrated Services Digital Network

Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT "Red Book". Prior to ISDN, the telephone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data; the key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system. The ISDN standards define several kinds of access interfaces, such as Basic Rate Interface, Primary Rate Interface, Narrowband ISDN, Broadband ISDN. ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which provides access to packet switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better voice quality than an analog phone can provide, it offers circuit-switched connections, packet-switched connections, in increments of 64 kilobit/s.

In some countries, ISDN found major market application for Internet access, in which ISDN provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s bandwidth in both upstream and downstream directions. Channel bonding can achieve a greater data rate. ISDN is employed as data-link and physical layers in the context of the OSI model. In common use, ISDN is limited to usage to Q.931 and related protocols, which are a set of signaling protocols establishing and breaking circuit-switched connections, for advanced calling features for the user. They were introduced in 1986. In a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group videoconferencing systems. ISDN uses the H.320 standard for audio coding and video coding, including audio codecs such as G.711 and G.728, discrete cosine transform video codecs such as H.261 and H.263. Integrated services refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections, in any combination of data, voice and fax, over a single line.

Multiple devices can be attached to the line, used as needed. That means an ISDN line can take care of what were expected to be most people's complete communications needs at a much higher transmission rate, without forcing the purchase of multiple analog phone lines, it refers to integrated switching and transmission in that telephone switching and carrier wave transmission are integrated rather than separate as in earlier technology. The entry level interface to ISDN is the Basic Rate Interface, a 128 kbit/s service delivered over a pair of standard telephone copper wires; the 144 kbit/s overall payload rate is divided into two 64 kbit/s bearer channels and one 16 kbit/s signaling channel. This is sometimes referred to as 2B+D; the interface specifies the following network interfaces: The U interface is a two-wire interface between the exchange and a network terminating unit, the demarcation point in non-North American networks. The T interface is a serial interface between a computing device and a terminal adapter, the digital equivalent of a modem.

The S interface is a four-wire bus. The R interface defines the point between a non-ISDN device and a terminal adapter which provides translation to and from such a device. BRI-ISDN is popular in Europe but is much less common in North America, it is common in Japan — where it is known as INS64. The other ISDN access available is the Primary Rate Interface, carried over T-carrier with 24 time slots in North America, over E-carrier with 32 channels in most other countries; each channel provides transmission at a 64 kbit/s data rate. With the E1 carrier, the available channels are divided into 30 bearer channels, one data channel, one timing and alarm channel; this scheme is referred to as 30B+2D. In North America, PRI service is delivered via T1 carriers with only one data channel referred to as 23B+D, a total data rate of 1544 kbit/s. Non-Facility Associated Signalling allows two or more PRI circuits to be controlled by a single D channel, sometimes called 23B+D + n*24B. D-channel backup allows for a second D channel in case the primary fails.

NFAS is used on a Digital Signal 3. PRI-ISDN is popular throughout the world for connecting private branch exchanges to the public switched telephone network. Though many network professionals use the term ISDN to refer to the lower-bandwidth BRI circuit, in North America BRI is uncommon whilst PRI circuits serving PBXs are commonplace; the bearer channel is a standard 64 kbit/s voice channel of 8 bits sampled at 8 kHz with G.711 encoding. B-channels can be used to carry data, since they are nothing more than digital channels; each one of these channels is known as a DS0. Most B channels can carry a 64 kbit/s signal, but some were limited to 56K because they traveled over RBS lines; this has since become less so. X.25 can be carried over the B or D channels of a BRI line, over the B channels of a PRI line. X.25 over the D channel is used at many point-of-sale terminals because it eliminates the modem setup, becaus

Stamatis Mercouris

Stamatis Mercouris was a Greek Army officer and politician, who served as an MP and a Cabinet Minister. A member of the prominent Mercouris family, he was the son of Spyridon Mercouris, long-serving Mayor of Athens in the early 20th century, the younger brother of George Mercouris, far-right politician and Cabinet Minister. In contrast to his conservative father and brother, Stamatis would end up becoming a Member of Parliament for the Left. Stamatis Mercouris was born in Athens in 1895, son of Spyridon Mercouris and younger brother of George Mercouris, he graduated from the Hellenic Military Academy as a second lieutenant of Cavalry, fought in World War I in 1917-18 and the Greco-Turkish War in 1919-22. He left the Army and entered politics, taking part in the creation of the People's Party, Greece's main center-right political force at the time. Mercouris left the People's Party and joined the National Radical Party, founded by the former General Georgios Kondylis. From 1929 until 1932, Stamatis Mercouris served as General Director of the Athens city government, under his father Spyridon Mercouris, serving his last term as Mayor of Athens.

In 1935 he served as Undersecretary to the Prime Minister's Office, during Kondylis's brief premiership. During World War II, after the Nazis had occupied Greece, he founded a resistance organization, the Rizospastiki Organosis which, though small in size, helped many Greek officers and soldiers escape to the Middle East, where they joined the Allied war effort. After the liberation of Greece from the Nazis in 1944, Mercouris resumed his political career and became a government Minister, serving as Minister of Public Order, Minister of Public Works, he founded his own party, the Democratic Progressive Party, disbanded, he ended up collaborating with the Greek United Democratic Left, serving as a Member of Parliament for them representing Athens, from 1958 until 1961, from 1963 until his death in 1967. His daughter was actress and political activist Melina Mercouri, Minister of Culture in the socialist government of Andreas Papandreou is an internet-based self-identified Catholic video-sharing and news site created in Switzerland in 2005. As of 2017 it appeared to be based in Moldova with a contact address in Moscow. In 2017, the registered office was moved to Dover in the state of Delaware in the USA; as of 2019 is a production of Church Social Media Inc. Roman Catholic priest Reto Nay is co-founder of the multilingual video portal, one of the two priests working for, along with Markus Doppelbauer. On 22 January 2009 published a text. Nay refused to delete it, telling the Linz diocesan newspaper that "the whole Catholic spectrum is needed". Media law expert Walter Berka explained that there was a serious suspicion of a violation of the law banning National Socialist re-activation. Nay stated that Austrian or German law was not decisive for, since the website was registered in Moldova. On the evening of 13 March 2013, Reto Nay was dismissed without notice by the Tujetsch parish.

The diocese of Chur called on him to resign from his activities as a pastor. In March 2013, the Graubündner Kantonspolizei initiated an investigation in connection with On 15 March 2013, Bishop Huonder removed Nay from office. Nay attributed this to a "witch hunt"; the parish office in Sedrun announced on 15 March 2013 that Reto Nay had disappeared the day before and was no longer traceable. From April 2013 Nay preached again on and reported to the diocese of Chur, his whereabouts remained unknown for the time being. According to, Nay was active on the Greek island of Patmos in the following years. According to contributions on, he preached in November 2017 in St. Pelagiberg in Switzerland; the individuals responsible for has been difficult to determine. The website was founded by Reto Nay in Switzerland, but since 2014 his name is no longer listed on the website. was produced in Vienna, but was registered in the Republic of Moldova and describes itself as a "private initiative, not directly linked to the ecclesiastical hierarchy".

There was no email address or telephone number. In 2017, the registered office was moved to Dover in the state of Delaware in the USA. On February 18, 2013, the English version of showed pictures of German bishops with swastikas because they had allowed the use of the oral contraceptive in the hospitals of their dioceses. The German Bishops' Conference expressly dissociated itself from the website and announced that in the future contents of the church website could no longer be used by In mid-January the television editorial office of the diocese of Würzburg had deleted its channel on, saying that "...the site was no longer an environment in which we want to see our contributions". The daily blessing produced under the care of the German Bishops' Conference had to be removed from on 20 February 2013 after a prohibition order by the Catholic Television Workers' Office. Burkhard Hose, pastor of the Catholic University Community of Würzburg, filed a criminal complaint against for using marks of unconstitutional organisations.

In March 2013, called reporters from Spiegel TV, who had conducted research in Switzerland via the video portal, "stalkers" and accused them of Nazi methods. On March 12, 2013, three employees had violently attacked a RTL camera team, injuring one RTL camera team member slightly. The news staff of the site have been critical of the papacy of Pope Francis as well as critical of many other bishops and clergy within the modern church, it has been involved in some controversies between it and a few dioceses in the German-speaking world. Journalist and writer Michael Sean Winters has characterized "" as an unintentional "...spoof of rightwing Catholics in the media...undertaken in earnest."In 2013 Die Zeit identified "Gloria tv. as "aggressive and right-wing". In 2017, BuzzFeed News found that of the most viral Facebook articles about Angela Merkel, seven were either false or misleading. One of those was from which featured a clip representing Merkel as saying, "Germans have to accept foreigners' violence," when what was said was ""The thing here is to ensure security on the ground and to eradicate the causes of violence in the society at the same time.

This applies to all parts of the society, but we have to accept that the number of crimes is high among young immigrants. Therefore, the theme of integration is connected with the issue of violence prevention in all parts of our society."According to Spiegel Online, " is a kind of YouTube for Catholic radicals... But instead of the "Good News", the site spreads hatred. Hatred of homosexuals, hatred of abortion advocates, hatred of Christian reformers." Viennese lawyer Georg Bürstmayr comments: "If were established as a company in the EU, I think the portal would have been shut down long ago."According to a 2013 statement by the website, the website receives about 2 million visits each month and contained 400,000 media files