Integration is the annual techno-cultural fest of Indian Statistical Institute held during last three weekends of January each year. It is one of the biggest campus events in Kolkata, attracts participation from all over the world. Integration is a new addition to the set of Kolkata fests, yet, it has carved out a niche for itself. Integration is one of the biggest fests in the city and is organised by the students and research scholars of Indian Statistical Institute; the fest is held in three parts, the Tech Chapter, the Sports Chapter and the Cultural Chapter. The Tech Chapter is held on the second weekend of January. In this part of Integration, they hold competitive events such as hackathons, scavenger hunts, esports tournaments; the Tech Quiz, organised during this part of Integration, is one of the biggest of its kind in West Bengal. Apart from these, there are workshops and seminars on various technical fields, conducted by eminent personalities from the academia; the Cultural Fest is held within one week after the Tech Chapter.
This part of Integration witnesses the active involvement of stalwarts from various fields, like Mr. Sourav Ganguly, Sri Pranab Mukherjee, Mr. Anupam Kher, Mr. Arun Shourie, Mr. Harsha Bhogle and others; the competitive events include debate, singing competitions, movie making, dance competitions, band competition and many other events. Prahelika, the biggest campus quiz in Eastern India, is held during this part of Integration; the Sports Chapter was introduced in January 2013. It consists of numerous indoor and outdoor sporting events such as football, chess, volleyball, etc; the chess tournament is held in association with West Bengal Chess Association. 2010: Integration was revived after 10 years. On-stage competitions: Smart, Choice of Chance, Stand-up Comedy, Singing Competition, Extempore, etc. Offstage competitions: Creative Writing, Cartooning, Junk yard wars. An initiative called eco-pals where students took a green pledge to make the hostel campus plastic free. There were talks on Environment.
Underground Authority known as "Banned", won the band competition. 2011: As 2011 came, participation increased by leaps and bounds. Short movies and online events had participants from all over the world. Prahelika -the biggest campus quiz in Eastern India- became a part of Integration. Integration organised a panel discussion on Expectations from Future Leaders, an interactive session attended by Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Mr. Sourav Ganguly, Dr. Arun Shourie, Mr. Anupam Kher and Mrs. Rita Bhimani; the event was compered by Mr. Harsha Bhogle. There were rocking performances by the reputed bands Hip Pocket and Colors. A traditional folk dance "Chou-Nach" event was organised. 2012: This time integration saw the first international performance by Love Runs Blind, featuring the guitar legend Ayub Bachchu. This year, the Cultural Chapters were held separately on two consecutive weekends; the Gaming Competition was introduced. The 125th birth anniversary of Sukumar Ray was celebrated through a unique event named "Choracchi" - the Kabya Sabha, where renowned poets like Srijato and Apurba Dutta along with Mr. Chandi Lahiri, the famous cartoonist shed light on the life of Sukumar Ray and recited poems.
A stage show on sand animation was held. 2013: Integration this year reached new heights as she celebrated 100 years of Indian Cinema. Usual events went on along with brand new ones in line with the theme. Prahelika maintained its stature with Arul Mani enchanting the crowd with his charismatic quizzing. Avial registered their first jig at Kolkata on the second day of the Cultural Chapter while Taaltantra, featuring Tanmoy Bose, closed with a mind-blowing showdown. Integration added an new dimension to itself as it went forward to organize a Sports Chapter, which has arguably been the biggest on-campus sporting event in the city in recent times; the tech-part of the integration is for the first two days. Following are the major events under the tech-chapter of Integration: GROUND-ZERO: The national gamers meet, with teams participating in for the grand prize in games like Counter-Strike: Global Offensive and Dota 2 and individuals fighting their way to top in NFSMW and FIFA 11. Tech Quiz: This quiz contest tests the young minds from all over India on their acquaintance with all forms of Technology.
It is attended by participants from all over West Bengal and carry attractive prizes. Robowars: This competition has two categories: manual and autonomous, it is a competition where teams will make their own bots at home, they will be judged based on some predefined criteria. Junkyard Wars: It is a challenge to the best engineering minds; the participating teams are given the task to make a device out of junk material, on the spot. The teams will have to compete on a track or field using the device they make, their performance will be judged based on some declared criteria. Seminars and Workshops: It provides an opportunity for students to interact with the maestros in academics and corporate sector. Workshop on ethical hacking and animation using sand medium has been held in the previous years. Integration has a series of online events. Myst-IQ is a complete set of puzzles and quiz relying on logic and common sense. Market Mania is a virtual portfolio management game where participants follow the Indian share market in real time, with huge prize money at stake.
Code-IT the biggest online coding competition organised by any research institute
Site-specific recombinase technology
Site-specific recombinase technologies are genome engineering tools that depend on recombinase enzymes to replace targeted sections of DNA. In the late 1980s gene targeting in murine embryonic stem cells enabled the transmission of mutations into the mouse germ line and emerged as a novel option to study the genetic basis of regulatory networks as they exist in the genome. Still, classical gene targeting proved to be limited in several ways as gene functions became irreversibly destroyed by the marker gene that had to be introduced for selecting recombinant ES cells; these early steps led to animals in which the mutation was present in all cells of the body from the beginning leading to complex phenotypes and/or early lethality. There was a clear need for methods to restrict these mutations to specific points in development and specific cell types; this dream became reality when groups in the USA were able to introduce bacteriophage and yeast-derived site-specific recombination systems into mammalian cells as well as into the mouse Common genetic engineering strategies require a permanent modification of the target genome.
To this end great sophistication has to be invested in the design of routes applied for the delivery of transgenes. Although for biotechnological purposes random integration is still common, it may result in unpredictable gene expression due to variable transgene copy numbers, lack of control about integration sites and associated mutations; the molecular requirements in the stem cell field are much more stringent. Here, homologous recombination can, in principle, provide specificity to the integration process, but for eukaryotes it is compromised by an low efficiency. Although meganucleases, zinc-finger- and transcription activator-like effector nucleases are actual tools supporting HR, it was the availability of site-specific recombinases which triggered the rational construction of cell lines with predictable properties. Nowadays both technologies, HR and SSR can be combined in efficient "tag-and-exchange technologies". Many site-specific recombination systems have been identified to perform these DNA rearrangements for a variety of purposes, but nearly all of these belong to either of two families, tyrosine recombinases and serine recombinases, depending on their mechanism.
These two families can mediate up to three types of DNA rearrangements along different reaction routes based on their origin and architecture. The founding member of the YR family is the lambda integrase, encoded by bacteriophage λ, enabling the integration phage DNA into the bacterial genome. A common feature of this class is a conserved tyrosine nucleophile attacking the scissile DNA-phosphate to form a 3'-phosphotyrosine linkage. Early members of the SR family are related resolvase / DNA invertases from the bacterial transposons Tn3 and γδ, which rely on a catalytic serine responsible for attacking the scissile phosphate to form a 5'-phosphoserine linkage; these undisputed facts, were compromised by a good deal of confusion at the time other members entered the scene, for instance the YR recombinases Cre and Flp, which were welcomed as new members of the "integrase family". The converse examples are PhiC31 and related SRs, which were introduced as resolvase/invertases although, in the absence of auxiliary factors, integration is their only function.
Nowadays the standard activity of each enzyme determines its classification reserving the general term "recombinase" for family members which, per se, comprise all three routes, INT, RES and INV: Our table extends the selection of the conventional SSR systems and groups these according to their performance. All of thesse enzymes recombine two target sites, which are either distinct. Whereas for A1 these sites have individual designations, the terms "attP" and "attB" are valid in the other cases. In case of subfamily A1 we have to deal with short sites consisting of two identical 13 bp arms flanking an 8 bp spacer. Note that for Flp there is an alternative, 48 bp site available with three arms, each accommodating a Flp unit. AttP- and attB-sites follow similar architectural rules, but here the arms show only partial identity and differ in both cases; these features account for relevant differences: recombination of two identical educt sites leads to product sites with the same composition, although they contain arms from both substrates.
In order to streamline this chapter the following implementations will be focused on two recombinases and just one integrase since their spectrum covers the tools which, at present, are used for directed genome modifications. This will be done in the framework of the following overview; the mode integration/resolution and inversion depend on the orientation of recombinase target sites, among these pairs of attP and attB. Section C indicates, in a streamlined fashion, the way recombinase-mediated cassette exchange can be reached by synchronous double-reciprocal crossovers. Of note is the way reversible Flp-integ
Integration (Kellee Maize album)
Integration is the third studio album by American rapper Kellee Maize. It was released on November 11, 2011 and was recorded in her home studio, Nakturnal Studio. Musical styles present on the album include reggae and electropop; the album's theme revolves around the idea of having a good balance between the opposites in human nature. The album received positive reviews, reaching the top on both Amazon and Frostwire, it was downloaded over 160,000 times within its first month of release. The first single from the album, "Hasta Abajo," peaked at number 7 on Jamendo. Maize performed multiple tracks from the LP at the album's release party in Pittsburgh at a local Middle-Eastern inspired performance venue
Integrated Farming - UNI 11233-2009 new European agriculture organic standard, integrated production or Integrated Farm Management is a whole farm management system which aims to deliver more sustainable agriculture. It is a dynamic approach, it involves attention to detail and continuous improvement in all areas of a farming business through informed management processes. Integrated Farming combines the best of modern tools and technologies with traditional practices according to a given site and situation. In simple words, it means using many ways of cultivation in land. Based on UNI 11233-2009 European standard, The International Organisation of Biological Control describes Integrated Farming according to the UNI 11233-2009 European standard as a farming system where high quality organic food, feed and renewable energy are produced by using resources such as soil, water and nature as well as regulating factors to farm sustainably and with as little polluting inputs as possible. Particular emphasis is placed on an integrated organic management approach looking at the whole Bio farm as cross-linked unit, on the fundamental role and function of agro-ecosystems, on nutrient cycles which are balanced and adapted to the demand of the crops, on health and welfare of all livestock on the farm.
Preserving and enhancing soil fertility and improving a diverse environment and the adherence to ethical and social criteria are indispensable basic elements. Crop protection takes into account all biological and chemical methods which are balanced and with the objective to protect the environment, to maintain profitability of the business and fulfil social requirements. EISA European Initiative for Sustainable Development in Agriculture e. V. have an Integrated Farming Framework which provides additional explanations on key aspects of Integrated Farming. These include: Organisation & Planning, Human & Social Capital, Energy Efficiency, Water Use & Protection, Climate Change & Air Quality, Soil Management, Crop Nutrition, Crop Health & Protection, Animal Husbandry, Health & Welfare, Landscape & Nature Conservation and Waste Management Pollution Control. LEAF in the UK promotes a comparable model and defines Integrated Farm Management as whole farm business approach that delivers sustainable farming.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO promotes Integrated Pest Management as the preferred approach to crop protection and regards it as a pillar of both sustainable intensification of crop production and pesticide risk reduction. IPM thus is one indispensable element of Integrated Crop Management which in turn is one essential part of the holistic Integrated Farming approach towards sustainable agriculture. KELLER, 1986 highlights that Integrated Crop Management is not to be understood as compromise between different agricultural production systems, it rather must be understood as production system with a targeted and continuous use and development of experiences which were made in the so-called conventional farming. In addition to natural scientific findings, impulses from organic farming are taken up. Integrated Pest Management can be seen as starting point for a holistic approach to agricultural production. Following the excessive use of crop protection chemicals, first steps in IPM were taken in fruit production at the end of the 1950s.
The concept was further developed globally in all major crops. On the basis of results of the system-oriented IPM approach, models for Integrated Crop Management were developed. Animal husbandry was not seen as part of such integrated approaches. In the years to follow, various national and regional initiatives and projects were formed; these include FNL in Germany, FARRE in France, FILL or OiB in Sweden. However, there are few if any figures on the uptake of Integrated Farming in the major crops throughout Europe for example, leading to a recommendation by the European Economic and Social Committee in February 2014, that the EU should carry out an in-depth analysis of integrated production in Europe in order to obtain insights into the current situation and potential developments. There is evidence, that between 60 and 80% of pome and soft fruits were grown and marketed according to "Integrated Production Guidelines" in 1999 in Germany for example. In the UK, 22% of fresh fruit and vegetables are grown to Integrated Farm Management standards as recognised by the LEAF Marque.
Animal husbandry and Integrated Crop Management are just two branches of one agricultural enterprise. In modern agriculture, animal husbandry and crop production must be understood as interlinked sectors which cannot be looked at in isolation, as the context of agricultural systems leads to tight interdependencies. Uncoupling animal husbandry from arable production is therefore not considered in accordance with the principles and objectives of Integrated Farming. Accordingly, holistic concepts for Integrated Farming or Integrated Farm Management such as the EISA Integrated Farming Framework, the concept of sustainable agriculture are developed and implemented at the global level. Related to the'sustainable intensification' of agriculture, an objective which in part is discussed controversially, efficiency of res
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material, silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components; the IC's mass production capability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. Since their origins in the 1960s, the size and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that fit more and more transistors on chips of the same size – a modern chip may have many billions of transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail.
These advances following Moore's law, make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early 1970s. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because the IC's components switch and consume comparatively little power because of their small size and close proximity; the main disadvantage of ICs is the high cost to fabricate the required photomasks. This high initial cost means. An integrated circuit is defined as: A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce. Circuits meeting this definition can be constructed using many different technologies, including thin-film transistors, thick-film technologies, or hybrid integrated circuits.
However, in general usage integrated circuit has come to refer to the single-piece circuit construction known as a monolithic integrated circuit. Arguably, the first examples of integrated circuits would include the Loewe 3NF. Although far from a monolithic construction, it meets the definition given above. Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when German engineer Werner Jacobi filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported; the idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey Dummer, a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D. C. on 7 May 1952.
He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956. A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares, each containing a single miniaturized component. Components could be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid; this idea, which seemed promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program. However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC. Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September 1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material … wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are integrated." The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
His work was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009. Half a year after Kilby, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor developed a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon. Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p–n junction isolation, a key concept behind the IC; this isolation allows each transistor to operate independently despite being part of the same piece of silicon. Fairchild Semiconductor was home of the first silicon-gate IC technology with self-aligned gates, the basis of all modern CMOS integrated circuits; the technology was developed by Italian physicist Federico Faggin in 1968. In 1970, he joined Intel in order to develop the first single-chip central processing unit microprocessor, the Intel 4004, for which he received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2010; the 4004 was designed by Busicom's Masatoshi Shima and Intel's Ted Hoff in 1969, but it was Faggin's improved design in 1970 that made it a reality.
Advances in IC technology smaller features and la
Enterprise architecture framework
An enterprise architecture framework defines how to create and use an enterprise architecture. An architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system, it structures architects' thinking by dividing the architecture description into domains, layers, or views, offers models - matrices and diagrams - for documenting each view. This allows for making systemic design decisions on all the components of the system and making long-term decisions around new design requirements and support. Enterprise architecture regards the enterprise as system of systems. To manage the scale and complexity of this system, an architectural framework provides tools and approaches that help architects abstract from the level of detail at which builders work, to bring enterprise design tasks into focus and produce valuable architecture description documentation; the components of an architecture framework provide structured guidance, divided into three main areas: Descriptions of architecture: how to document the enterprise as a system, from several viewpoints.
Each view describes one slice of the architecture. Methods for designing architecture: processes. An overarching enterprise architecture process, composed of phases, broken into lower-level processes composed of finer grained activities. A process is defined by its objectives, inputs and outputs, it may be supported by approaches, tools, principles and practices. Organization of architects: guidance on the team structure and the governance of the team, including the skills and training needed; the earliest rudiments of the step-wise planning methodology advocated by TOGAF and other EA frameworks can be traced back to the article of Marshall K. Evans and Lou R. Hague titled "Master Plan for Information Systems" published in 1962 in Harvard Business Review. Since the 1970s people working in IS/IT have looked for ways to engage business people – to enable business roles and processes - and to influence investment in business information systems and technologies – with a view to the wide and long term benefits of the enterprise.
Many of the aims, principles and methods now employed in EA frameworks were established in the 1980s, can be found in IS and IT architecture frameworks published in that decade and the next. By 1980, IBM's Business Systems Planning was promoted as a method for analyzing and designing an organization's information architecture, with the following goals: understand the issues and opportunities with the current applications and technical architecture. In 1982, when working for IBM and with BSP, John Zachman was the first to mention Enterprise Architecture in the public domain, and in papers, Zachman used the word enterprise as a synonym for business. "Although many popular information systems planning methodologies, design approaches, various tools and techniques do not preclude or are not inconsistent with enterprise-level analysis, few of them explicitly address or attempt to define enterprise architectures." However, in this article the term "Enterprise Architecture" was mentioned only once without any specific definition and all subsequent works of Zachman used the term "Information Systems Architecture".
In 1986, the PRISM architecture framework was developed as a result of the research project sponsored by a group of companies, including IBM, the first published EA framework. In 1987, John Zachman, a marketing specialist at IBM, published the paper, A Framework for Information Systems Architecture; the paper provided a classification scheme for artifacts that describe the what, where, who and why of information systems. Given IBM employed BSP, Zachman had no need to provide planning process; the paper did not mention enterprise architecture. In 1989, the National Institute of Standards and Technology published the NIST Enterprise Architecture Model; this was a five-layer reference model that illustrates the interrelationship of business, information system, technology domains. It was promoted within the U. S. federal government. It was not an EA framework as we see it now, but it helped to establish the notion of dividing EA into architecture domains or layers; the NIST Enterprise Architecture Model was the first publication that used the term "Enterprise Architecture".
In 1990, the term "Enterprise Architecture" was formally defined for the first time as an architecture that "defines and interrelates data, hardware and communications resources, as well as the supporting organization required to maintain the overall physical structure required by the architecture". In 1992, a paper by Zachman and Sowa started thus "John Zachman introduced a framework for information systems architecture, adopted by systems analysts and database designers." The term enterprise architecture did not appear. The paper was about using the ISA framework to describe, “...the overall information system and how it relates to the enterprise and its surrounding environment.” The word enterprise was used as a synonym for business. In 1993, Stephen Spewak's boo
Racial integration, or integration, includes desegregation. In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than bringing a racial minority into the majority culture. Desegregation is a legal matter, integration a social one. Morris J. MacGregor, Jr. in his paper "Integration of the Armed Forces 1940–1969" writes concerning the words integration and desegregation:... In recent years many historians have come to distinguish between these like-sounding words.. The movement toward desegregation, breaking down the nation's Jim Crow system, became popular in the decade after World War II. Integration, on the other hand, Professor Oscar Handlin maintains, implies several things not yet accepted in all areas of American society. In one sense it refers to the "levelling of all barriers to association other than those based on ability and personal preference".
But in another sense integration calls for the random distribution of a minority throughout society. Here, according to Handlin, the emphasis is on racial balance in areas of occupation, education and the like. From the beginning the military establishment rightly understood that the breakup of the all-black unit would in a closed society mean more than mere desegregation, it used the terms integration and equal treatment and opportunity to describe its racial goals. If does one find the word desegregation in military files that include much correspondence. Keith M. Woods writing on the need for precision in journalistic language writes, "Integration happens when a monolith is changed, like when a black family moves into an all-white neighborhood. Integration happens without a mandate from the law. Desegregation," on the other hand, "was the legal remedy to segregation." Making the same point, Henry Organ, identifying himself as " a participant in the Civil Rights Movement on the Peninsula in the'60s... and... an African American," wrote in 1997, " The term'desegregation' is reserved to the legal/legislative domain, it was the legalization of discrimination in public institutions based on race that many fought against in the 1960s.
The term'integration,' on the other hand, pertains to a social domain. We call this phenomenon virtual integration, it is the primary reason why the integration illusion – the belief that we are moving toward a colorblind nation – has such a powerful influence on race relations in America today." Reviewing this book in the libertarian magazine Reason, Michael W. Lynch sums up some of their conclusions as, "Blacks and whites live, work, pray and entertain separately." He cites Stephan and Abigail Themstrom's America in Black and White as making the case to the contrary, gives anecdotal evidence on both sides of the question, writes: The problem, as I see it, is that access to the public spheres the commercial sphere depends on being comfortable with the norms of white society. If a significant number of black children aren't comfortable with them, it isn't by choice: It's because they were isolated from those norms. It's one thing for members of the black elite and upper middle class to choose to retire to predominantly black neighborhoods after a lucrative day's work in white America.
It's quite another for people to be unable to enter that commercial sphere because they spent their formative years in a community that didn't, or couldn't, prepare them for it. Writes Patterson, "The greatest problem now facing African-Americans is their isolation from the tacit norms of the dominant culture, this is true of all classes." Although widespread, this distinction between integration and desegregation is not universally accepted. For example, it is possible to find references to "court-ordered integration" from sources such as the Detroit News, PBS, or Encarta; these same sources use the phrase "court-ordered desegregation" with the same meaning. When the two terms are confused, it is always to use integration in the narrower, more legalistic sense of desegregation. Civil rights movement Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity Auto-segregation Silk Road discusses an instance of racial integration in Southern Asia in the Middle Ages. Intercultural Garden Online segregation Anti-discrimination law United States v. Fordice Steinhorn and Diggs-Brown, Barbara, By the Color of Our Skin: The Illusion of Integration and the Reality of Race.
New York: Dutton, 1999. ISBN 0-525-94359-5 Themstrom and Abigail, America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible New York, NY: Touchstone, 1997. ISBN 0-684-84497-4. Adel Iskandar and Hakem Rustom, From Paris to Cairo: Resistance of the Unacculturated The Ambassadors online magazine. Hong, Dorothy "Tales from a Korean Maiden in America" ISBN 0-595-28390-X Memphis Civil Rights Digital Archive New York Civil Rights Coalition Prominent integrationist grou