Memory cell (computing)
The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory. The memory cell is an electronic circuit that stores one bit of binary information and it must be set to store a logic 1 and reset to store a logic 0, its value is maintained/stored. The value in the memory cell can be accessed by reading it. Over the history of computing many different memory cell architectures have been used including core memory and bubble memory, but the most common ones used are flip-flops and capacitors; the SRAM, static ram memory cell is a type of flip-flop circuit implemented using FETs. These require low power to keep the stored value when not being accessed. A second type, DRAM is based around a capacitor. Charging and discharging this capacitor can store a'1' or a'0' in the cell. However, the charge in this capacitor will leak away, must be refreshed periodically; because of this refresh process, DRAM can achieve greater storage densities. The memory cell is the fundamental building block of memory.
It can be implemented using different technologies, such as bipolar, MOS, other semiconductor devices. It can be built from magnetic material such as ferrite cores or magnetic bubbles. Regardless of the implementation technology used, the purpose of the binary memory cell is always the same, it stores one bit of binary information that can be accessed by reading the cell and it must be set to store a 1 and reset to store a 0. Logic circuits without memory cells or feedback paths are called combinational, their outputs values depend only on the current value of their input values, they do not have memory. But memory is a key element of digital systems. In computers, it allows to store both programs and data and memory cells are used for temporary storage of the output of combinational circuits to be used by digital systems. Logic circuits that use memory cells are called sequential circuits, its output depends not only on the present value of its inputs, but on the circuits previous state, as determined by the values stored on is memory cells.
These circuits require a timing clock for their operation. Computer memory used in most contemporary computer systems is built out of DRAM cells, since the layout is much smaller than SRAM, it can be more densely packed yielding cheaper memory with greater capacity. Since the DRAM memory cell stores its value as the charge of a capacitor, there are current leakage issues, its value must be rewriten; this is one of the reasons that make DRAM cells slower than the larger SRAM cells, which has its value always available. That is the reason why SRAM memory is used for on-chip cache included in modern microprocessor chips. On December 11, 1946 Freddie Williams applied for a patent on his cathode-ray tube storing device with 128 40-bit words, it was operational in 1947 and is considered the first practical implementation of random-access memory. In that year, the first patent applications for magnetic-core memory were filed by Frederick Viehe. An Wang, Ken Olsen and Jay Forrester contributed to its development.
The first modern memory cells were introduced in 1965, when John Schmidt designed the first 64-bit MOS p-channel SRAM. The first bipolar 64-bit SRAM was released by Intel in 1969 with the 3101 Schottky TTL. One year it released the first DRAM chip, the Intel 1103 that by 1972 beat all worldwide records in semiconductor memory sales; the following schematics detail the three most used implementations for memory cells: The Dynamic Random Access Memory cell The Static Random Access Memory cell Flip flops like the J/K shown below. The storage element of the DRAM memory cell is the capacitor labeled in the diagram above; the charge stored in the capacitor degrades over time, so its value must be refreshed periodically. The nMOS transistor acts as a gate to allow storing when closed. For reading the Word line drives a logic 1 into the gate of the nMOS transistor which makes it conductive and the charge stored at the capacitor is transferred to the bit line; the bit line will have a parasitic capacitance that will drain part of the charge and slow the reading process.
The capacitance of the bit line will determine the needed size of the storage capacitor. It is a trade-off. If the storage capacitor is too small, the voltage of the bit line would take too much time to raise or not rise above the threshold needed by the amplifiers at the end of the bit line. Since the reading process degrades the charge in the storage capacitor its value is rewritten after each read; the writing process is the easiest, the desired value logic 1 or logic 0 is driven into the bit line. The word line activates the nMOS transistor connecting it to the storage capacitor; the only issue is to keep it open enough time to ensure that the capacitor is charged or discharged before turning off the nMOS transistor. The working principle of SRAM memory cell can be easier to understand if the transistors M1 through M4 are drawn as logic gates; that way it is clear that at its heart, the cell storage is built by using two cross-coupled inverters. This simple loop creates a bi-stable circuit.
A logic 1 at the input of the first inverter turns into a 0 at its output, it is fed into the second inverter which transforms that logic 0 back to a logic 1 feeding back the same value to the input of the first inverter. That creates a stable state; the other stable state of the circuit is to have a logic 0 at the input of the first inverter. After been inver
Mobileye is an Israeli subsidiary of Intel corporation that develops vision-based advanced driver-assistance systems providing warnings for collision prevention and mitigation. Mobileye headquarters and main R&D centre is located in Jerusalem operating under the company name Mobileye Vision Technology Ltd; the company has sales and marketing offices in Jericho, New York. In March 2017, Intel announced; this is the largest acquisition of an Israeli company to date. Mobileye N. V. was founded in 1999, by Amnon Shashua, when he evolved his academic research into a technical solution for a vision system which could detect vehicles using only a camera and software algorithms on a processor. After receiving a license to use the technology, owned by Yissum it was possible to incorporate the company. Together with Ziv Aviram, he set up the company's R&D headquarters in Israel. At first, the company developed algorithms, a custom accelerator processor chip called the EyeQ chip. All of Mobileye's proprietary image processing algorithms run on the EyeQ chip.
After years of testing, the chip and software algorithms began to be sold as commercial products to original equipment manufacturer customers. The company's first clients were automotive manufacturers such as General Motors and Volvo; these companies electronics suppliers integrated Mobileye's technologies into the companies' cars, at first as an optional accessory when buying a new car, as a standard option in new cars. In 2006, Mobileye set up an aftermarket department, which sells finished products manufactured by Mobileye at their Philippines factory, IMI; the aftermarket products are sold to an international network of distributors on all continents who sell the products to fleets of trucks and buses, to car dealerships, to car accessory shops. In August 2015, Tesla Motors announced that it is using Mobileye's technology to enable its self-drive solution, which would be incorporated into Model S cars from August 2015. After the first deadly crash of a self-driving Model S with active Autopilot became public in June 2016, Mobileye issued a statement that its technology won't be able to recognize a crossing trailer until 2018.
In July 2016, Mobileye announced the end of its partnership with Tesla after the EyeQ3. EyeQ is used in over 15 million vehicles sold as of 2017. In January 2017, Mobileye, BMW and Intel announced that they were developing a test fleet of autonomous vehicles that would be on the road in the second half of 2017; the companies plan to develop autonomous vehicles for the consumer market by 2021. In March 2017, Intel announced their recent deals to buy Mobileye for $15.3 billion. The deal was completed August 8, with Rothschild & Co and Citigroup as financial advisors to Intel and Raymond James advising Mobileye. On 29 October 2018, Mobileye's parent company, released plans for an autonomous ride-hailing service to launch in Israel. In the press briefing, Volkswagen Group was announced as the automobile supplier, with Mobileye implementing self-driving capabilities and Israeli car distributor Champion Motors providing fleet support and operations. Intel specified a program launch in early 2019, with a timeline to commercial availability by 2022.
1999: Mobileye NV co-founded by Mr. Ziv Aviram and Prof. Amnon Shashua 1999: Introduction of the first generation Live Demonstration System 1999: Mobileye received a license from Yissum to be able to use the technology. 2000: Introduction of the second generation Live Demonstration System 2001: Introduction of the third generation Live Demonstration System 2001: Introduction of the fourth generation Live Demonstration System 2002: Introduction of the fifth generation Live Demonstration System for Multi-Vision Applications 2003: Mobileye signed cooperation agreements with Denso and Delphi. 2004: Introduction of the first generation EyeQ System-on-a-Chip 2004: Mobileye and SVDO/Continental sign a development agreement 2005: Mobileye and ST Microelectronics sign a chip manufacture and development partnership agreement 2006: Introduction of the sixth generation Live Demonstration System for Pedestrian Detection 2006: Introduction of Mobileye's Aftermarket Department 2006: Mobileye and Magna Electronics announce partnership to develop advanced automotive driver assistance features 2007: U.
S. investment bank Goldman Sachs invests $100 million in Mobileye 2007: Mobileye launches multiple series productions for LDW on GM Cadillac STS and DTS vehicles, for LDW on BMW 5 and 6 Series vehicles and for radar-vision fusion for enhanced Adaptive Cruise Control with Collision Mitigation by Braking on Volvo S80, XC90/70/60 and V70 vehicles 2007: Introduction of the Mobileye Advanced Warning System providing a world's first Aftermarket system featuring functions of lane and vehicle Detection running on a single processor 2008: Mobileye and Continental launch a world's first combination of multiple functions of Lane Departure Warning, Intelligent Highbeam Control and Traffic Sign Recognition on the BMW 7 series 2008: Introduction of the second generation EyeQ2 System-on-a-Chip 2009: Mobileye and Visteon sign cooperation agreement 2010: Co-Founders Ziv Aviram and Amnon Shashua launch the company OrCam 2010: U. S. investment bank Goldman Sachs, Leumi Partners and Menora Mivtachim Holdings Ltd. invest $37 million in Mobileye 2010: Mobileye launches newest aftermarket product, the C2-270 Collision Prevention System, with vehicle, pedestrian and motorcycle detection capabilities.
2010: Mobileye launches a world-first vision based Pedestrian Forward Collision Warning as part of a radar-v
The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is a type of field-effect transistor, most fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon. It has an insulated gate; this ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. A metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor or MISFET is a term synonymous with MOSFET. Another synonym is IGFET for insulated-gate field-effect transistor; the basic principle of the field-effect transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. The main advantage of a MOSFET is that it requires no input current to control the load current, when compared with bipolar transistors. In an enhancement mode MOSFET, voltage applied to the gate terminal increases the conductivity of the device. In depletion mode transistors, voltage applied at the gate reduces the conductivity; the "metal" in the name MOSFET is sometimes a misnomer, because the gate material can be a layer of polysilicon.
"oxide" in the name can be a misnomer, as different dielectric materials are used with the aim of obtaining strong channels with smaller applied voltages. The MOSFET is by far the most common transistor in digital circuits, as billions may be included in a memory chip or microprocessor. Since MOSFETs can be made with either p-type or n-type semiconductors, complementary pairs of MOS transistors can be used to make switching circuits with low power consumption, in the form of CMOS logic; the basic principle of this kind of transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. In 1959, Dawon Kahng and Martin M. Atalla at Bell Labs invented the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor as an offshoot to the patented FET design. Operationally and structurally different from the bipolar junction transistor, the MOSFET was made by putting an insulating layer on the surface of the semiconductor and placing a metallic gate electrode on that, it used crystalline silicon for the semiconductor and a thermally oxidized layer of silicon dioxide for the insulator.
The silicon MOSFET did not generate localized electron traps at the interface between the silicon and its native oxide layer, thus was inherently free from the trapping and scattering of carriers that had impeded the performance of earlier field-effect transistors. The semiconductor of choice is silicon; some chip manufacturers, most notably IBM and Intel, have started using a chemical compound of silicon and germanium in MOSFET channels. Many semiconductors with better electrical properties than silicon, such as gallium arsenide, do not form good semiconductor-to-insulator interfaces, thus are not suitable for MOSFETs. Research continues on creating insulators with acceptable electrical characteristics on other semiconductor materials. To overcome the increase in power consumption due to gate current leakage, a high-κ dielectric is used instead of silicon dioxide for the gate insulator, while polysilicon is replaced by metal gates; the gate is separated from the channel by a thin insulating layer, traditionally of silicon dioxide and of silicon oxynitride.
Some companies have started to introduce a high-κ dielectric and metal gate combination in the 45 nanometer node. When a voltage is applied between the gate and body terminals, the electric field generated penetrates through the oxide and creates an inversion layer or channel at the semiconductor-insulator interface; the inversion layer provides a channel through which current can pass between source and drain terminals. Varying the voltage between the gate and body modulates the conductivity of this layer and thereby controls the current flow between drain and source; this is known as enhancement mode. The traditional metal-oxide-semiconductor structure is obtained by growing a layer of silicon dioxide on top of a silicon substrate and depositing a layer of metal or polycrystalline silicon; as the silicon dioxide is a dielectric material, its structure is equivalent to a planar capacitor, with one of the electrodes replaced by a semiconductor. When a voltage is applied across a MOS structure, it modifies the distribution of charges in the semiconductor.
If we consider a p-type semiconductor, a positive voltage, V GB, from gate to body creates a depletion layer by forcing the positively charged holes away from the gate-insulator/semiconductor interface, leaving exposed a carrier-free region of immobile, negatively charged acceptor ions. If V GB is high enough, a high concentration of negative charge carriers forms in an inversion layer located in a thin layer next to the interface between the semiconductor and the insulator. Conventionally, the gate voltage at which the volume density of electrons in the inversion layer is the same as the volume density of holes in the body is called the threshold voltage; when the voltage between transistor gate and source exceeds the threshold voltage, the difference is known as overdrive voltage. This structure with p-type body is the basis of the n-type MOSFET, which requires the addition of n-type source and drain regions; the MOS capacitor structure is the heart of the MOSFET. Let's consider a MOS capacitor.
If a positive voltage is applied at
Recon Instruments was a Canadian technology company that produced smartglasses and wearable displays marketed by the company as "heads-up displays" for sports. Recon's products delivered live activity metrics, GPS maps, notifications directly to the user's eye. Recon's first heads-up display offering was released commercially in October 2010 a year and a half before Google introduced Google Glass. Recon received investments from companies including Motorola Solutions and Intel, it partnered with enterprise software vendors in order to make its latest smart eyewear device, the Jet, suitable for industrial applications. On June 17, 2015, Recon was acquired by Intel. Recon described itself as "an Intel company."In June 2017, Intel announced that all remaining Recon Instruments products were going to be discontinued by the end of the year. According to a Bloomberg report in October 2017, Intel had in fact closed its Recon Instruments division in early summer 2017; the technology behind Recon Instruments' products was born in September 2006 from an integrated MBA project.
That project was undertaken by co-founders Dan Eisenhardt, Hamid Abdollahi, Fraser Hall, Darcy Hughes at the University of British Columbia, Robert H. Lee Sauder School of Business. Recon Instruments incorporated in January 2008, operating from small office and lab spaces rented from the University of British Columbia. In April 2010, the company moved to its current headquarters in the Yaletown area of downtown Vancouver; as of March 2015, Recon is still led by co-founders Dan Hamid Abdollahi. Recon's co-founders looked into developing a HUD product for swimmers. Eisenhardt, a competitive swimmer himself, believed a HUD would be a valuable replacement for the clock at the side of the pool. Eisenhardt and his fellow founders developed the idea while studying at the University of British Columbia. However, a patent existed for swimming goggles with a heads-up display; because of that patent and the challenges presented by the technology's small form factor and intended operating conditions, the team chose to focus on a winter sports product.
The co-founders subsequently turned this school project into their first retail product, distributed globally in October 2010. Recon has received investments from other technology companies. In January 2012, Recon received $10 million in Series A funding from Vanedge Capital and Kopin Corporation. Vanedge Capital is a Canadian venture capital firm that specializes in "interactive entertainment and digital media businesses." Kopin Corporation is a U. S. firm known for microdisplays aimed at mobile electronics. In September 2013, Intel Capital, the venture capital arm of Intel, announced that it had invested in Recon. Details of the deal were not disclosed. However, the announcement described wearables as "an area of significant focus" for Intel Capital, it said the investment would allow Recon to "accelerate product development and global sales, as well as gain access to Intel Capital's expertise in manufacturing and technology."In April 2014, Motorola Solutions announced an investment in Recon.
Motorola Solutions describes itself as a provider of communications equipment for "government and enterprise customers." The terms of the deal were not made public. In July 2014, Motorola Solutions demonstrated a Recon product as a piece of kit for law enforcement personnel. On June 17, 2015, Recon was acquired by Intel; the value of the deal was reported to be as high as C$175M. However, this sum was not confirmed by Recon Instrument's Dan Eisenhardt, was generally considered inaccurate. After the acquisition, Recon stayed in Vancouver and planned to make use of Intel's technological resources in order to "develop smart device platforms for a broader set of customers and market segments." In June 2017, it became known that Intel intended to discontinue all remaining Recon Instruments products, i.e. Recon Jet and Recon Jet Pro. Around the same time, Recon Instruments ceased all activities on both social media and its own website. According to a Bloomberg report in October 2017, Intel had in fact closed its Recon Instruments division in early summer 2017.
Recon's first products were smart goggles and what the company marketed as "heads-up displays" aimed at the winter sports market. More the company broadened its focus with the Jet, a smart eyewear device designed for activities like cycling and running. All of Recon Instrument's products were head-worn, self contained mobile devices equipped with GPS and environmental sensors. A near-eye display was provided in the form of a single non-translucent micro display situated below and to the side of one eye; this required the wearer to the side in order to read the screen contents. Recon's head-worn displays were therefore Peripheral Head-Mounted Displays rather than Head-up displays in the common meaning of the term. Recon's first commercial product, the Transcend, was released in October 2010, it was designed for winter sports and featured a small LCD screen embedded into a snow goggle frame by eyewear maker Zeal Optics, now a subsidiary of Maui Jim, Inc. The Transcend displayed data like GPS maps, temperature and altitude, it allowed users to share that data.
In 2011, the Transcend earned the Consumer Electronics Show's Best of Innovations award for Personal Electronics. Re
3DLABS was a fabless semiconductor company that developed the GLINT and PERMEDIA high-end graphics chip technology, used on many of the world's leading computer graphics cards in the CAD and DCC markets, including its own Wildcat and Oxygen cards. In 2006 the company focused development efforts on its emerging media processing business and in 2009 rebranded as ZiiLABS. 3DLABS was formed from a management buy-out of Dupont Pixel Systems in the UK in April, 1994 and went public on Nasdaq in October, 1996. 3DLABS acquired Dynamic Pictures in July, 1998 and the Intense3D division of Intergraph in July, 2000 before being acquired by Creative Labs in June, 2002. In February, 2006, 3Dlabs announced that it would stop developing professional 3D graphic chips and focus on embedded and mobile media processors. 3DLABS was an early pioneer in bringing 3D graphics to the PC. Its GLINT 300SX graphics processor was the industry's first single chip, 3D-capable graphics device, shipped on graphics boards from multiple vendors.
Gamma was the first single chip graphics geometry processor for the PC. Permedia was the first low-cost OpenGL accelerator chip. 3Dlabs was a member of the OpenGL Architecture Review Board and played an important role in the development of OpenGL 2.0 and ongoing evolution of the OpenGL API. The new media processor business was developed out of the original UK R&D center with most of the workstation graphics teams that came from Intense3D and Dynamic Pictures having been hired by Intel and NVIDIA. In November 2006 3DLABS introduced the DMS-02, its first media processor capable of 720P HD Video for portable devices. In January, 2009 the SoC team merged with a Creative product division and rebranded as ZiiLABS to offer processors and complete market-ready hardware and software platforms to consumer OEMs and ODMs. In November 2012, Creative announced an agreement to sell the ZiiLabs subsidiary to Intel; the ZMS processors are based on a low-power multicore architecture including dual ARM cores for handling traditional CPU tasks plus a coupled programmable SIMD array processor to do the heavy lifting for intensive media processing tasks such as.
The processors integrate on-chip peripherals and interfaces suitable for a broad range of handheld and embedded devices. Developed under the 3DLABS name, the processor related products are now sold and supported by ZiiLABS; these are the legacy cards supplied by 3DLABS. Drivers and limited support for these products can be found at: https://web.archive.org/web/20080227235127/http://www.3dlabs.com/content/legacy/ Chips: 3Dlabs Permedia 2 3Dlabs Permedia NT 3Dlabs Permedia 3Dlabs GLINT GMX - GMX 1000, GMX 2000 3Dlabs GLINT Gamma 3Dlabs GLINT DMX - DMX 1000, DMX 2000 3Dlabs GLINT Delta 3Dlabs GLINT MX 3Dlabs GLINT 500TX 3Dlabs GLINT 300SXBoards: Wildcat Realizm series - consists of Vertex/Scalability Units, Visual Processing Units 3Dlabs Wildcat Realizm 800 - 1 VSU, 2 VPU, 512 + 128 MB GDDR3, 512-bit memory interface, x16 PCIe 3Dlabs Wildcat Realizm 500 - 1 VPU, 256 MB GDDR3, 256-bit memory interface, x16 PCIe, 3Dlabs Wildcat Realizm 200 - 1 VPU, 512 MB GDDR3, 256-bit memory interface, AGP x8 3Dlabs Wildcat Realizm 100 - 1 VPU, 256 MB GDDR3, 256-bit memory interface, AGP x8 Wildcat VP Series - based on P10 and P9 chips: 3Dlabs Wildcat VP990 Pro - P10, 512 MB RAM, AGP x8 3Dlabs Wildcat VP880 Pro - P10, 256 MB RAM, AGP x8 3Dlabs Wildcat VP970 - P10, 128 MB RAM, AGP x8 3Dlabs Wildcat VP870 - P10, 128 MB RAM, AGP x8 3Dlabs Wildcat VP760 - P10, 64 MB RAM, AGP x8 3Dlabs Wildcat VP560 - P9, 64 MB RAM, AGP x8 Wildcat4 Series: 3Dlabs Wildcat4 7210 - 256 MB texture memory and 128 MB frame buffer, AGP Pro 50 x8 3Dlabs Wildcat4 7110 - 128 MB texture memory and 128 MB frame buffer, AGP Pro 50 x8 Wildcat III Series: 3Dlabs Wildcat III 6210 - 256 MB texture memory and 128 MB frame buffer, AGP Pro 50 3Dlabs Wildcat III 6110 - 128 MB texture memory and 64 MB frame buffer, AGP Pro 50 Wildcat II Series: 3Dlabs Wildcat II 5110 - 64 MB texture memory and 64 MB frame buffer, AGP Pro 50 x4 3Dlabs Wildcat II 5000 - 32 MB texture memory and 32 MB frame buffer 3Dlabs Oxygen GVX420 - 2xGLINT R4 + GLINT Gamma G2 + 128 MB SGRAM 3Dlabs Oxygen GVX1 Pro - GLINT R4 + GLINT Gamma G2 + 64 MB SDRAM + DVI-I 3Dlabs Oxygen GVX210 - 2xGLINT R3 + GLINT Gamma G2 + 64 MB SGRAM 3Dlabs Oxygen GVX1 - GLINT R3 + GLINT Gamma G1 + 32 MB SDRAM, PCI and AGP version available 3Dlabs Oxygen VX1 - GLINT R3 + 32 MB SDRAM 3Dlabs Oxygen VX1-16 - GLINT R3 + 16 MB SDRAM 3Dlabs Oxygen VX1 Stereo - GLINT R3 + 32 MB SDRAM + CrystalEyes 3Dlabs Oxygen VX1 1600SW - GLINT R3 + 32 MB SDRAM + LVDS connector 3Dlabs Permedia3 Create!
- Permedia3 3Dlabs Oxygen GMX - a GMX 2000 based card 3Dlabs Oxygen RPM - dual RPM based card 3Dlabs Oxygen ACX - a Permedia 2 based cardAcquired with Intense3D: Intense3D Wildcat 4210 Intense3D Wildcat 4110 Intense3D Wildcat 4105 Intense3D Wildcat 4000 Intense3D Wildcat 3510 Intense 3D Pro 3600 Intense 3D Pro 3400 Intense 3D Pro 2200S Intense 3D Pro 2200 Intense 3D Pro 1000Acquired with Dynamic Pictures Inc.: Dynamic Pictures Oxygen 102, 202, 402 Dynamic Pictures V192Before ATI acquired the FireGL team in 2001, Diamond Multimedia used 3Dlabs chipsets for some of their FireGL cards. Newer Technology sold the RenderPix cards based on the 500TX + Glint Delta for the Macintosh. Formac made a number of Macintosh graphics cards using Permedia 1, 2, 3 chipsets. Multimedia Graphics card Graphics processing unit