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Intel 80486

The Intel 80486 known as the i486 or 486, is the successor model of 32-bit x86 microprocessor to the Intel 80386. Introduced in 1989, the 80486 improved on the performance of the 80386DX thanks to on-die L1 cache and floating-point unit, as well as an improved, five-stage tightly-coupled pipelined design, it was the first x86 chip to use more than a million transistors. It represents the fourth generation of binary compatible CPUs since the original 8086 of 1978; the initial model, the 80486DX, was introduced with 33 MHz models. A 50 MHz part was added clock-doubled DX2/50 and DX2/66 parts, still, clock-tripled DX4/75 and DX4/100 ones; the 486DX was supplemented with the cheaper 80486SX, available in 16 and 20 MHz variants. The "SX" and "DX" designations had different meanings. For the 486, the SX designation indicated no on-chip FPU. In early 486SX units, the FPU disabled. A supplementary 80487DX upgrade chip was offered, but this was not an FPU. A 50 MHz 80486 executes around 40 million instructions per second on average and is able to reach 50 MIPS peak performance.

The 80486 was announced at Spring Comdex in April 1989. At the announcement, Intel stated that samples would be available in the third quarter of 1989 and production quantities would ship in the fourth quarter of 1989; the first 80486-based PCs were announced in late 1989, but some advised that people wait until 1990 to purchase an 80486 PC because there were early reports of bugs and software incompatibilities. The instruction set of the i486 is similar to its predecessor, the Intel 80386, with the addition of only a few extra instructions, such as CMPXCHG which implements a compare-and-swap atomic operation and XADD, a fetch-and-add atomic operation returning the original value. From a performance point of view, the architecture of the i486 is a vast improvement over the 80386, it has an on-chip unified instruction and data cache, an on-chip floating-point unit and an enhanced bus interface unit. Due to the tight pipelining, sequences of simple instructions could sustain a single clock cycle throughput.

These improvements yielded a rough doubling in integer ALU performance over the 386 at the same clock rate. A 16-MHz 80486 therefore had a performance similar to a 33-MHz 386, the older design had to reach 50 MHz to be comparable with a 25-MHz 80486 part. An 8 KB on-chip SRAM cache stores the most used instructions and data; the 386 supported a slower off-chip cache. An enhanced external bus protocol to enable cache coherency and a new burst mode for memory accesses to fill a cacheline of 16 bytes within 5 bus cycles; the 386 needed 8 bus cycles to transfer the same amount of data. Tightly-coupled pipelining completes a simple instruction like ALU reg,reg or ALU reg,im every clock cycle; the 386 needed two clock cycles to do this. Integrated FPU with a dedicated local bus. Improved MMU performance. New instructions: XADD, BSWAP, CMPXCHG, INVD, WBINVD, INVLPG. Just as in the 80386, a simple flat 4 GB memory model could be implemented by setting all "segment selector" registers to a neutral value in protected mode, or setting "segment registers" to zero in real mode, using only the 32-bit "offset registers" as a linear 32-bit virtual address bypassing the segmentation logic.

Virtual addresses were normally mapped onto physical addresses by the paging system except when it was disabled. Just as with the 80386, circumventing memory segmentation could improve performance in some operating systems and applications. On a typical PC motherboard, either four matched 30-pin SIMMs or one 72-pin SIMM per bank were required to fit the 80486's 32-bit data bus; the address bus used 30-bits complemented by four byte-select pins to allow for any 8/16/32-bit selection. This meant. There are several suffixes and variants.. Other variants include: Intel RapidCAD: a specially packaged Intel 486DX and a dummy floating-point unit designed as pin-compatible replacements for an Intel 80386 processor and 80387 FPU. i486SL-NM: i486SL based on i486SX. I487SX: i486DX with one extra pin sold as an FPU upgrade to i486SX systems. I486 OverDrive: i486SX, i486SX2, i486DX2 or i486DX4. Marked as upgrade processors, some models had different pinouts or voltage-handling abilities from "standard" chips of the same speed stepping.

Fitted to a coprocessor or "OverDrive" socket on the motherboard, worked the same as the i487SX. The specified maximal internal clock frequency ranged from 16 to 100 MHz; the 16 MHz i486SX model was used by Dell Computers. One of the few 80486 models specified for a 50 MHz bus had overheating problems and was moved to the 0.8-mic

Dodge Viper (VX I)

The Dodge Viper is the fifth and final generation of the Viper sports car. Introduced in the 2013 model year, the car was redesigned and included features such as an Anti-lock Braking System, electronic stability control and traction control that made the car compatible to modern vehicle safety standards; the discontinuation of production of the VX I in August 2017 marked the culmination of the Viper. At a dealer conference on September 14, 2010 in Orlando, the Chrysler Group and Fiat CEO Sergio Marchionne was reported to have concluded his remarks by unveiling a rolling 2012 Dodge Viper prototype. There would be cars produced for the 2011 model year. In Autumn of 2011, Ralph Gilles announced that the next generation of the Viper would debut at the New York Auto Show in April 2012. At the 2013 New York International Auto Show, the all new SRT Viper GTS was unveiled along with plans to enter the car into racing as well; as part of Chrysler's plan of turning Street and Racing Technology as a separate vehicle brand within Chrysler Group LLC, the SRT Viper became the brand's halo vehicle.

In May 2014, the SRT brand was re-consolidated under Dodge, with former SRT CEO Ralph Gilles continuing as senior vice president of product design and as the CEO and president of Motorsports. The car was renamed back to Dodge Viper in 2015. SRT offered two versions of the Viper; the GTS is the premium model offering more creature comforts over the base model. The most notable exterior difference between the two models is the hood; the base model has six functional hood vents. To commemorate the return of the Viper, SRT offered a'launch edition' package available on 150 GTS models in 2013. All of the launch edition cars were painted in Viper Blue with twin white stripes and came with a serialized dash plaque placed inside their cabins; the interior of the launch edition cars was swathed in Black Laguna leather with contrast stitching. The SRT Viper GTS includes leather upholstery, accented colors on the seats, center console and stitching; the SRT Viper controls on the steering wheel. UConnect Bluetooth phone with Bluetooth Audio streaming is standard, as is an 8.4-inch touch screen display like that found on the Chrysler 300, Dodge Charger, Dodge Journey.

It features an Alpine surround sound system and many exterior and wheel combinations. There is a four-inch reconfigurable Thin-Film Transistor display in the gauge cluster to display important vehicle information, system messages, has controls to turn the traction control, stability control, other features off, it has a "Track Mode" with a built-in track timer, "stoplight" countdown timer display, other features. Power seats, keyless entry, heated seats are new options. A navigation system by Garmin was an available option, as were the Sirius-XM satellite radio and HD radio. A built-in HDD for storing music and photos JPEG and MP3 was included as standard equipment; the optional SRT Track Package includes Pirelli P Zero Corsa tires, StopTech slotted two-piece brake rotors and ultra-lightweight wheels in Hyper Black or matte black finishes. Dodge introduced a new GT package in 2015 to fill the gap between the GTS model. GT buyers got the two-mode, driver-adjustable suspension and five-mode electronic stability control system from the GTS, along with Nappa leather seats with Alcantara accents and contrast stitching.

The Viper is powered by an all-aluminium 8,382 cc V10 engine. The engine generated 640 hp at 6,150 rpm and 600 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,950 rpm but in 2015, power was raised by 5 hp for a total of 645 hp; the Viper could attain a top speed of 208 mph. ACR At SEMA 2014, Dodge presented a Viper ACR concept car based on the new VX I platform. After many rumors and speculations, the car was introduced in 2015 for the 2016 model year; the base price of the 2016 ACR was US$121,395 in the United States and CA$159,995 in Canada. The 2016 Viper ACR came installed with an all-new aerodynamic body kit made from carbon fiber, that included a new front splitter and a fixed carbon fiber rear wing, altogether producing a total of 680.5 kg of downforce at corners. The 8,382 cc Viper V10 engine generated the same power output 645 hp at 6,200 rpm and 600 lb⋅ft of torque at 5,000 rpm as in all other Viper trims; the brakes were from Brembo, with discs and calipers built for the car. The discs were now a first for the Viper series.

The braking system contains 391 mm discs with 6-piston calipers up front, 360 mm discs with 4-piston calipers down the rear. The tires were from Kumho, using a set of tires called the Kumho Ecsta V720 ACR, a variant of the V720 built for the ACR; the front tires are P295/25R19Z smaller than the regular Viper, P355/30R19Z at the rear. Suspension system is manufactured by Bilstein, which has 10 settings for rebound and compression tuning for the dampers; the options for the car are diverse, like all of the other Viper trims. One example is the ACR Extreme Aero Package, the same

Wattle Point Wind Farm

Wattle Point Wind Farm is a wind farm near Edithburgh on the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, operating since April 2005. When it was opened in June of that year it was Australia's largest wind farm at 91 megawatts; the installation consists of 55 wind turbines covering 17.5 square kilometres and was built at a cost of 180 million Australian dollars. It is connected to ETSA Utilities electricity transmission system via a 132 kilovolt line; the location was chosen after identification as having one of mainland Australia's highest average wind speeds. The wind farm was opened by South Australian Premier Mike Rann and Southern Hydro Chairman, Dr Keith Turner; the opening was opposed by some of the Adjahdura. A descendant of the traditional landowners argued that construction desecrated an ancient burial ground, disturbing skeletons in the construction of turbine number four. Work was halted in late 2004 after the discovery of human remains and tools; the Aboriginal Affairs Department, the developers, separately commissioned archaeological reports resulting in the development allowed to proceed with five towers being repositioned.

Both reports concluded that the bones had come from elsewhere on the peninsula, being reburied at Wattle Point. The region's aboriginal community was divided on construction. Wattle Point Wind Farm was owned by Southern Hydro Pty Limited. Southern Hydro was owned by Meridian Energy of New Zealand until October 2005, when it was bought by the Australian Gas Light Company; the windfarm was acquired by Alinta in October 2006, as part of an asset merger with AGL, subsequently by the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group's Energy Infrastructure Trust, for 225 million dollars on 23 April 2007. The District Council of Yorke Peninsula approved a second wind farm, Wattle Point Stage 2; however it did not proceed due to insufficient capacity in the electrical transmission lines. The facility is connected to the Dalrymple ESCRI battery, a 30-megawatt battery storage facility at Dalrymple substation about 21 kilometres to the north. Wind power in South Australia Wind power and wind farms in South Australia Photographs of Wattle Point wind farm Media related to Wattle Point Wind Farm at Wikimedia Commons

Srđa Popović (activist)

Srđa Popović is a Serbian political activist. He was a leader of the student movement Otpor! that helped topple Serbian president Slobodan Milošević. After pursuing a political career in Serbia, he established the Centre for Applied Nonviolent Action and Strategies in 2003 and published Blueprint for Revolution in 2015. CANVAS has worked with pro-democracy activists from more than 50 countries, promoting the use of non-violent resistance in achieving political and social goals. In October 2017, he was elected Rector of the University of St Andrews, succeeding Catherine Stihler. Popović was born in Belgrade, his mother, TV anchor Vesna Nestorović narrowly avoided being killed during the NATO bombing of state television in Belgrade in 1999. He played bass guitar in a goth rock band called BAAL, fronted by Andrej Aćin who turned to film making, they released one album in 1993 called Između božanstva i ništavila. In parallel to music, Popović joined. At the party conference in January 1994, he became the president of Demokratska omladina working under the newly elected party leader Zoran Đinđić.

Although remaining a DS member, in 1998 with the establishment of Otpor!, Popović's activity in the party took a back seat to his engagement with the new movement. Shortly after the overthrow of Milošević, Popović left Otpor! to return to his political career in Serbia, becoming a Democratic Party MP in the National Assembly as well as an environmental adviser to newly appointed prime minister Zoran Đinđić. Popović is the co-author with Matthew Miller of Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, Other Non-Violent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World. Blueprint for Revolution was met with positive reviews The Guardian called it "fantastically readable" and "brilliant", pointing to the usefulness and ingenuity of the ideas for creative nonviolent dissent it offers. Critic Tina Rosenberg wrote that the work of Popović and Đinović draws on the insights of Gene Sharp, a pioneer and leading theorist in the field of nonviolent resistance, but manages to "refine" and extend his key ideas.

The review praised the book for challenging conventional wisdom on the efficacy of peaceful movements and "cheerfully blowing up" common misconceptions about their internal structure and chances of success. Blueprint for Revolution was nominated for the Atlantic Magazine's book of the month, it was published in the United States as well as in Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and Serbia. It has since been translated into Serbian, German and Turkish. Popović has been on book promoting tours in both the US and UK. Popović has authored or co-authored various CANVAS publications, available for free on the organization's website. Nonviolent Struggle: 50 Crucial Points and the CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle both elaborate on how activists should approach the vital stages of organizing a nonviolent movement: comparatively assessing their capabilities against those of the regime, formulating a clear plan for action, implementing it as efficiently as possible, responding to ensuing repression from the authorities without jeopardizing their goals and commitment to nonviolence.

Making Oppression Backfire, which Popovic co-authored with Tori Porell, more examines how activists can make significant gains in the asymmetrical struggle against a regime's repressive apparatus, through knowledge and preparation. It illustrates two key principles - firstly, that of "creating a dilemma" for the regime, which has to either tolerate the movement's actions and appear powerless or respond with force and risk alienating members of the larger community or publicly embarrassing itself. Secondly, it provides insights into how to best take care of the movement's "foot soldiers" – its activists and demonstrators- foster cohesion, cultivate a sense of community; the site contains a brief illustrated chronology of the evolution of Otpor! and an examination of the unique features which allowed it to win over a large number of Serbs and mobilize solidarity to effect a profound political transformation. Popović was one of the founders and leaders of the Serbian nonviolent resistance group Otpor!.

It was founded in Belgrade on 10 October 1998, by a small group of student protestors, in direct response to the University and Media Acts. The organization was founded as a leaderless movement implementing the principles of nonviolent resistance in order to oppose the violent policies of the Milosevic regime and its constant infringements upon Serbs' fundamendal democratic rights. In December 1998, Otpor organized its first major gathering - at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering; the demonstrators, about a thousand university students marched to the Faculty of Philosophy, in solidarity with their peers, locked up by the authorities in the latter so that they would be unable to join the peaceful protest. Just two days about seventy Otpor members took part in the "We are paving the way" march and walked the 83 km distance between Belgrade and Novi Sad. After the NATO bombing, Otport somewhat changed its goals and focused on campaigns which provoked the regime in humorous and ironic ways, thus drawing citizens’ attention and raising their motivation.

One vivid example was the "birthday party for Milošević" demonstration organized in Niš, during which more than two thousand citizens had a chance to write down what they wished Mr Milosevic for his birthda

Paloma, California

Paloma is an unincorporated community in Calaveras County, California. It lies at an elevation of 1362 feet and is located at 38°15′34″N 120°45′48″W; the community is in ZIP code 95252 and area code 209. Gwin Mine and Lower Rich Gulch were mined for placer gold in 1849, quartz was discovered by J. Alexander in 1851. Property here was acquired by William M. Gwin, California's first U. S. Senator, in 1851. After yielding millions of dollars in gold, the Gwin Mine closed in 1908; the town today is registered as California Historical Landmark #295. The town's post office operated from 1903 to 1918, when the name was Fosteria - from the Foster family, early pioneers. In the state legislature, Paloma is in the 8th Senate District, represented by Republican Andreas Borgeas, the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. Federally, Paloma is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom McClintock. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Paloma, California

Nemo (magazine)

Nemo, the Classic Comics Library was a magazine devoted to the history and creators of vintage comic strips. Created by comics historian Rick Marschall, it was published between 1990 by Fantagraphics. Nemo ran for 31 issues plus one annual. Most issues were edited by Marschall; the title was taken from the classic comic strip Little Nemo. While some issues were thematic, most were a mix of articles, comic strip reprints and more. Marschall went on to co-found another magazine about comics, Hogan's Alley. During that same period in the 1980s, Fantagraphics launched an imprint, Nemo Bookshelf, the Classic Comics Library; this was a line of classic comic strip reprint books, including Little Orphan Annie, Red Barry, Dickie Dare, The Complete E. C. Segar Popeye and Prince Valiant. Terry and the Pirates Superman Popeye Flash Gordon Fantasy in Comics Alley Oop Disney legends Little Orphan Annie Hal Foster Interview Cartoon Christmas Cards Art of Charles Dana Gibson, Sam's Strip by Mort Walker and Jerry Dumas, Clare Victor Dwiggins, Nervy Nat by James Montgomery Flagg, Slim Jim Cartoonists and World War II Red Barry George McManus Milton Caniff's first art script Huck Finn Dick Tracy Al Capp Kerry Drake Golden Age of Comics Promotion King Aroo John Held Jr. Jimmy Swinnerton, 100 years ago, Joe Palooka Little Orphan Annie, Hi and Lois Rube Goldberg Edwina Dumm's Cap Stubbs and Tippie, Milton Caniff's advertising work, reminiscences by John Neville Wheeler, early work of Gene Ahern T. S. Sullivant's Unforgettable Comic Zoo Cartoon Art of Norman Rockwell, "Lovely Lilly" by Carolyn Wells, chalk-plate cartoon production, William Faulkner and The Comics, "White Boy" by Garrett Price Ethnic Images Gasoline Alley Sunday Pages, interview with Ferd Johnson and Texas Slim strips, Ming Foo by Nicholas Afonsky and Brandon Walsh Little Nemo, Joseph Keppler, Ernie Bushmiller Double Issue - Charles Schulz Interview, Milton Caniff, Krazy Kat, Cliff SterrettAnnual 1 — Screwball Comics Special Milt Gross, Dr. Seuss, Smokey Stover, Rube Goldberg The Menomonee Falls Gazette The Menomonee Falls Guardian Rick Marschall interviews Mort Walker Stripper's Guide: Adventures of Lovely Lilly