Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
The Department for Environment and Rural Affairs is the government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture and rural communities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Concordats set out agreed frameworks for co operation, between it and the Scottish Government, Welsh Government and Northern Ireland Executive, which have devolved responsibilities for these matters in their respective nations. Defra leads for Britain at the EU on agricultural and environment matters and in other international negotiations on sustainable development and climate change, although a new Department of Energy and Climate Change was created on 3 October 2008 to take over the last responsibility, it was formed in June 2001, under the leadership of Margaret Beckett, when the Ministry of Agriculture and Food was merged with part of the Department of Environment and the Regions and with a small part of the Home Office. The department was created after the perceived failure of MAFF, to deal adequately with an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease.
The department had about 9,000 core personnel, as of January 2008. The department's main building is Nobel House on Smith Square, SW1. In October 2008, the climate team at Defra was merged with the energy team from the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, to create the Department of Energy and Climate Change headed by Ed Miliband; the Defra Ministers are as follows: The Permanent Secretary is Clare Moriarty. Shadow ministers portfolios can differ from government departments therefore overlap. Defra is responsible for British Government policy in the following areas Adaptation to global warming Agriculture Air quality Animal health and animal welfare Biodiversity Conservation Chemical substances and pesticides Fisheries Flooding Food Forestry Hunting Inland waterways Land management Marine policy National parks Noise Plant health Rural development Sustainable development Waste management Water managementSome policies apply to England alone due to devolution, while others are not devolved and therefore apply to Britain as a whole.
The department's executive agencies are: Animal and Plant Health Agency Centre for Environment and Aquaculture Science Rural Payments Agency Veterinary Medicines Directorate The department's key delivery partners are: Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Consumer Council for Water Environment Agency Fera Science Forestry Commission Joint Nature Conservation Committee Marine Management Organisation National Forest Company Natural England Ofwat Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Sea Fish Industry AuthorityA full list of departmental delivery and public bodies may be found on the Defra website. Policies for environment and rural affairs are delivered in the regions by Defra's executive agencies and delivery bodies, in particular Natural England, the Rural Payments Agency, Animal Health and the Marine Management Organisation. Defra provides grant aid to the following flood and coastal erosion risk management operating authorities: Environment Agency Internal drainage boards Local authorities Defra's overarching aim is sustainable development, defined as "development which enables all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life without compromising the quality of life of future generations."
The Secretary of State wrote in a letter to the Prime Minister that he saw Defra’s mission as enabling a move toward what the World Wide Fund for Nature has called "one planet living". Under this overarching aim, Defra has five strategic priorities: energy. Sustainable consumption and production, including responsibility for the National Waste Strategy. Protecting the countryside and natural resource protection. Sustainable rural communities. A sustainable farming and food sector including animal health and welfare. Badger culling in the United Kingdom Cattle Health Initiative Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Energy policy in the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Environmental contract List of atmospheric dispersion models National Bee Unit National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria New Technologies Demonstrator Programme Nicola Spence Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department UK Dispersion Modelling Bureau United Kingdom budget Waste Implementation Programme Defra's official website Fera - Executive agency of DEFRA National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria - Fera English Nature's website JNCC's website Defra's wiki for formulating an environmental contract DEFRA YouTube channel
The Met Office is the United Kingdom's national weather service. It is an executive agency and trading fund of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy led by CEO, Penelope Endersby, who took on the role as Chief Executive in December 2018, the first woman to do so; the Met Office makes meteorological predictions across all timescales from weather forecasts to climate change. The Met Office was established in 1854 as a small department within the Board of Trade under Vice Admiral Robert FitzRoy as a service to mariners; the loss of the passenger vessel, the Royal Charter, 459 lives off the coast of Anglesey in a violent storm in October 1859 led to the first gale warning service. FitzRoy established a network of 15 coastal stations from which visual gale warnings could be provided for ships at sea; the new electric telegraph enabled rapid dissemination of warnings and led to the development of an observational network which could be used to provide synoptic analysis. The Met Office started in 1861 to provide weather forecasts to newspapers.
FitzRoy requested the daily traces of the photo-barograph at Kew Observatory to assist in this task and similar barographs and as well as instruments to continuously record other meteorological parameters were provided to stations across the observing network. Publication of forecasts ceased in May 1866 after FitzRoy's death but recommenced in April 1879. Following the First World War, the Met Office became part of the Air Ministry in 1919, the weather observed from the top of Adastral House giving rise to the phrase "The weather on the Air Ministry roof"; as a result of the need for weather information for aviation, the Met Office located many of its observation and data collection points on RAF airfields, this accounts for the large number of military airfields mentioned in weather reports today. In 1936 the Met Office split with services to the Royal Navy being provided by its own forecasting services, it became an executive agency of the Ministry of Defence in April 1990, a quasi-governmental role, being required to act commercially.
Following a machinery of government change, the Met Office became part of the Department for Business and Skills on 18 July 2011, subsequently part of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy following the merger of BIS and the Department of Energy and Climate Change on 14 July 2016. Although no longer part of the MOD, the Met Office maintains strong links with the military through its front line offices at RAF and Army bases both in the UK and overseas and its involvement in the Joint Operations Meteorology and Oceanography Centre with the Royal Navy; the Mobile Met Unit are a unit consisting of Met Office staff who are RAF reservists who accompany forward units in times of conflict advising the armed forces of the conditions for battle the RAF. In September 2003 the Met Office moved its headquarters from Bracknell in Berkshire to a purpose-built £80m structure at Exeter Business Park, near junction 29 of the M5 motorway; the new building was opened on 21 June 2004 – a few weeks short of the Met Office's 150th anniversary – by Robert May, Baron May of Oxford.
It has a worldwide presence – including a forecasting centre in Aberdeen, offices in Gibraltar and on the Falklands. Other outposts lodge in establishments such as the Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology at University of Reading in Berkshire, the Joint Centre for Hydro-Meteorological Research site at Wallingford in Oxfordshire, there is a Met Office presence at Army and Air Force bases within the UK and abroad. Royal Navy weather forecasts are provided by naval officers, not Met Office personnel; the Shipping Forecast is produced by the Met Office and broadcast on BBC Radio 4, for those traversing the seas around the British Isles. The Met Office issues Severe Weather Warnings for the United Kingdom through the National Severe Weather Warning Service; these warn of weather events that may endanger people's lives. In March 2008, the system was improved and a new stage of warning was introduced, the'Advisory'. In September 2015 the Met Office established a "name our storms" project, the aim is to provide a single authoritative naming system for the storms that affect the UK and Ireland by asking the public to suggest names.
On 10 November, the first named. The main role of the Met Office is to produce forecast models by gathering information from weather satellites in space and observations on earth processing it with a variety of models, based on a software package known as the unified model; the principal weather products for UK customers are 36-hour forecasts from the operational 1.5 km resolution UKV model covering the UK and surroundings, 48-hour forecasts from the 12 km resolution NAE model covering Europe and the North Atlantic, 144-hour forecasts from the 25 km resolution global model. The Met Office's Global Model forecast has been in the top 3 for global weather forecast performance in independent verification to WMO standards. Products for other regions of the globe are sold to customers abroad, provided for MOD operations abroad or provided free to developing countries in Africa. If necessary, forecasters may make adjustments to the computer forecasts. Data is stored in the Met Office's own PP-format.
Formed in 2009, the Flood Forecasting Centre is a joint venture between the Environment Agency and the Met Office to provide flood risk guidance for Engl
History of patent law
The history of patents and patent law is considered to have started with the Venetian Statute of 1474. There is some evidence. In 500 BCE, in the Greek city of Sybaris, "encouragement was held out to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury, the profits arising from which were secured to the inventor by patent for the space of a year." Athenaeus, writing in the third century CE, cites Phylarchus in saying that in Sybaris exclusive rights were granted for one year to creators of unique culinary dishes. In England, grants in the form of letters patent were issued by the sovereign to inventors who petitioned and were approved: a grant of 1331 to John Kempe and his Company is the earliest authenticated instance of a royal grant made with the avowed purpose of instructing the English in a new industry; these letters patent provided the recipient with a monopoly to produce particular goods or provide particular services. Another early example of such letters patent was a grant by Henry VI in 1449 to John of Utynam, a Flemish man, for a twenty-year monopoly for his invention.
The first Italian patent was awarded by the Republic of Florence in 1421. The Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi received a three-year patent for a barge with hoisting gear, that carried marble along the Arno River in 1421. Patents were systematically granted in Venice as of 1450, where they issued a decree by which new and inventive devices had to be communicated to the Republic in order to obtain legal protection against potential infringers; the period of protection was 10 years. These were in the field of glass making; as Venetians emigrated, they sought similar patent protection in their new homes. This led to the diffusion of patent systems to other countries. King Henry II of France introduced the concept of publishing the description of an invention in a patent in 1555; the first patent "specification" was to inventor Abel Foullon for "Usaige & Description de l'holmetre", Publication was delayed until after the patent expired in 1561. Patents were granted by the monarchy and by other institutions like the "Maison du Roi" and the Parliament of Paris.
The novelty of the invention was examined by the French Academy of Sciences. Digests were published irregularly starting in 1729 with delays of up to 60 years. Examinations were done in secret with no requirement to publish a description of the invention. Actual use of the invention was deemed adequate disclosure to the public; the English patent system evolved from its early medieval origins into the first modern patent system that recognised intellectual property in order to stimulate invention. By the 16th century, the English Crown would habitually grant letters patent for monopolies to favoured persons. Blackstone explains how "letters patent" were so called because the seal hung from the foot of the document: they were addressed "To all to whom these presents shall come" and could be read without breaking the seal, as opposed to "letters close", addressed to a particular person who had to break the seal to read them; this power was used to raise money for the Crown, was abused, as the Crown granted patents in respect of all sorts of common goods.
The Court began to limit the circumstances in which they could be granted. After public outcry, James I of England was forced to revoke all existing monopolies and declare that they were only to be used for "projects of new invention"; this was incorporated into the Statute of Monopolies in which Parliament restricted the Crown's power explicitly so that the King could only issue letters patent to the inventors or introducers of original inventions for a fixed number of years. It voided all existing monopolies and dispensations with the exception of:...the sole working or making of any manner of new manufactures within this realm to the true and first inventor and inventors of such manufactures which others at the time of making such letters patent and grants shall not use... The Statute became the foundation for developments in patent law in England and elsewhere. Important developments in patent law emerged during the 18th century through a slow process of judicial interpretation of the law.
During the reign of Queen Anne, patent applications were required to supply a complete specification of the principles of operation of the invention for public access. Patenting medicines was particular popular in the mid-eighteenth century and declined. Legal battles around the 1796 patent taken out by James Watt for his steam engine, established the principles that patents could be issued for improvements of an existing machine and that ideas or principles without specific practical application could legally be patented; this legal system became the foundation for patent law in countries with a common law heritage, including the United States, New Zealand and Australia. In the Thirteen Colonies, inventors could obtain patents through petition to a given colony's legislature. In 1641, Samuel Winslow was granted the first patent in North America by the Massachusetts General Court for a new process for making salt. Towards the end of the 18th century, influenced by the philosophy of John Locke, the granting of patents began to be viewed as a form of intellectual property right, rather than the obtaining of economic privilege.
A negative aspect of the patent law emerged in this period - the abuse of patent privilege to monopolise the market and prevent
Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy, or informally Business Secretary, is a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. The office is responsible for the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the secretary of state was, until July 2016 President of the Board of Trade when that position was transferred to the newly created post of Secretary of State for International Trade. During the government of Sir Alec Douglas-Home, the President of the Board of Trade Edward Heath was given in addition the job of Secretary of State for Industry and Regional Development; this title was not continued under Harold Wilson, but when Heath became Prime Minister in 1970 he decided to merge functions of the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Technology to create the Department of Trade and Industry. The head of this department became known as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry and retained the title of President of the Board of Trade; when Harold Wilson re-entered office in March 1974, the office was split into the Department of Trade, the Department of Industry and the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection, resulting in the creation of three new positions: Secretary of State for Industry, Secretary of State for Prices and Consumer Protection, Secretary of State for Trade.
The title President of the Board of Trade became the secondary title of the Secretary of State for Trade. In 1979 the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection was abolished by the incoming Conservative government and its responsibilities were reintegrated into the Department of Trade. In 1983 the offices of trade and industry were remerged and the title of Secretary of State for Trade and Industry was recreated; when Michael Heseltine held this office, he preferred to be known by the older title of President of the Board of Trade, this practice was followed by Ian Lang and Margaret Beckett. Heseltine's decision to reuse the old title caused some comment and it was discovered that the Board of Trade had not in fact met since the mid-nineteenth century. Under Gordon Brown's premiership there were two renamings of the role and three re-alignments of responsibility. In his first cabinet of 2007, he called the post Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform. In this change, the Better Regulation Executive was added to the department but the Office of Science and Innovation was lost.
In 2008, the title remained. In 2009, the Department for Innovation and Skills was merged into the existing department and the post became Secretary of State for Business and Skills. In July 2016, Prime Minister Theresa May decided to merge the Department for Energy and Climate Change into this department with the responsibilities for post-19 education and skills being returned to the Department for Education resulting in the position being renamed to Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. At the same time the post of President of the Board of Trade was transferred to the newly created post of Secretary of State for International Trade. † — Primarily referred to as President of the Board of Trade, not as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry †† — Alan Johnson was announced on 6 May 2005, after the general election, as being "Secretary of State for Productivity and Industry and President of the Board of Trade", but after just a week, on 13 May, it was declared that the new title would not be used, after widespread derision of the new name, because the abbreviation for Johnson's title, Productivity and Industry Secretary, would have been "PENIS"
Arts and Humanities Research Council
The Arts and Humanities Research Council was established in April 2005 as successor to the Arts and Humanities Research Board and is a British research council. In any one year, the AHRC makes 700 research awards and around 1,350 postgraduate awards. Awards are made after a rigorous peer review process, to ensure that only applications of the highest quality are funded; the Stonehenge Riverside Project is a major five year AHRC-funded archaeological research study interested in the development of the Stonehenge landscape in Neolithic and Bronze Age Britain. In particular, the project is interested in the relationship between the stones and surrounding monuments and features including. In August 2009 the project discovered a new stone circle, named Bluestonehenge by the research team, about one mile away from Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England; the project is run by a consortium of university teams. It is directed by Prof. Mike Parker Pearson of Sheffield University, with co-directors Dr Josh Pollard, Prof. Julian Thomas, Dr Kate Welham and Dr Colin Richards.
Researchers at the University of Reading and University of Southampton analysed historic sources such as muster rolls records in the National Archives at Kew and the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. The resulting Medieval Soldier online database enables people to search for soldiers by surname, rank or year of service; the online database contains 250,000 service records of soldiers who saw active duty in the latter phases of the Hundred Years' War. An AHRC research grant enabled academics from the University of Hertfordshire, University of Sheffield and the Open University to double in size the Old Bailey trial proceedings available to view on the Old Bailey Proceedings Online website and provide access to the largest single source of searchable information about ordinary British lives and behaviour published; the Old Bailey Proceedings Online makes available a searchable, digitised collection of all surviving editions of the Old Bailey Proceedings from 1674 to 1913, of the Ordinary of Newgate's Accounts, 1679 to 1772.
It allows access to over 197,000 trials and biographical details of 2,500 men and women executed at Tyburn. In 2005 the AHRC replaced the Arts and Humanities Research Board, founded in 1998; the AHRC publish reviews and reports on arts and humanities subjects, as well as corporate publications. Research news and findings are communicated in website features, press releases, multimedia content such as podcasts. Between 2005 and 2010, the AHRC published a magazine called Podium twice a year, which contained news and case studies based on research that they have funded; the AHRC is one of seven research councils in the UK. Professor Andrew S Thompson is serving as Interim Chief Executive of the AHRC, from December 2015; the previous CE of the AHRC was Professor Rick Rylance who took up the post on 1 September 2009, was re-appointed in September 2013 to serve until August 2017. The current Council Chair is Sir Drummond Bone. Sir Alan Wilson stepped down in December 2013. Official website
Natural Environment Research Council
The Natural Environment Research Council is a British Research Council that supports research and knowledge transfer activities in the environmental sciences. NERC began in 1965 when several environmental research organisations were brought under the one umbrella organisation; when most research councils were re-organised in 1994, it had new responsibilities – Earth observation and science-developed archaeology. Collaboration between research councils increased in 2002. Sir Graham Sutton Professor John Krebs, Baron Krebs 1994-1999 Sir John Lawton 1999–2005 Professor Alan Thorpe 2005–2011 Dr Steven Wilson – 2011–2012 Professor Duncan Wingham – from 1 January 2012 The council's head office is at Polaris House in Swindon, alongside the other six Research Councils. NERC's research centres provide leadership to the UK environmental science community and play significant and influential roles in international science collaborations, it supports a number of collaborative centres of excellence and subject-based designated Environmental Data Centres for the storage and distribution of environmental data.
The Natural Environment Research Council delivers independent research, survey and knowledge transfer in the environmental sciences, to advance knowledge of planet Earth as a complex, interacting system. The council's work covers the full range of atmospheric, biological and aquatic sciences, from the deep oceans to the upper atmosphere, from the geographical poles to the equator. NERC's mission is to gather and apply knowledge, create understanding and predict the behaviour of the natural environment and its resources, communicate all aspects of the council's work; the British Meteorological Office is not part of NERC. The NERC Airborne Research Facility collects and processes remotely sensed data for use by the scientific community. Data are collected from one of four Twin Otter research aircraft operated by British Antarctic Survey, processed by a data analysis team at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory and archived at the National Earth Observation Data Centre; the NERC ARF provides radiometrically corrected hyperspectral data from the AISA Fenix and Owl instruments.
Conservation biology Conservation ethic Conservation movement David Carson Ecology Ecology movement Environmentalism Environmental movement Environmental protection Habitat conservation List of environmental organisations Natural environment Natural capital Natural resource Renewable resource Royal Research Ship Sustainable development Sustainability Official website British Antarctic Survey British Geological Survey Centre for Ecology and Hydrology National Centre for Atmospheric Science National Centre for Earth Observation NERC Centre for Population Biology National Oceanography Centre Research Councils UK ARF homepage ARSF-DAN Wiki
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte