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Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic, self-awareness, emotional knowledge, planning, critical thinking, problem solving. More it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information, to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Intelligence is most studied in humans but has been observed in both non-human animals and in plants. Intelligence in machines is called artificial intelligence, implemented in computer systems using programs and, specialized hardware; the word "Intelligence" derives from the Latin nouns intelligentia or intellēctus, which in turn stem from the verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. In the Middle Ages, the word intellectus became the scholarly technical term for understanding, a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous; this term, was linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, the concept of the Active Intellect.

This entire approach to the study of nature was rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, all of whom preferred the word "understanding" in their English philosophical works. Hobbes for example, in his Latin De Corpore, used "intellectus intelligit", translated in the English version as "the understanding understandeth", as a typical example of a logical absurdity; the term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has been taken up in more contemporary psychology. The definition of intelligence is controversial; some groups of psychologists have suggested the following definitions: From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", an op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers: A general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and learn from experience. It is not book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts.

Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do. From Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.

Besides those definitions and learning researchers have suggested definitions of intelligence such as the following: Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors, it is a cognitive process. It gives humans the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, solve problems, use language to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to think. Much of the above definition applies to the intelligence of non-human animals. Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition; these researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species, comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as verbal reasoning abilities.

Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species, operationalizing a measure that compares mental ability across different species and contexts. Wolfgang Köhler's research on the intelligence of apes is an example of research in this area. Stanley Coren's book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence. Non-human animals noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzees and other great apes, elephants and to some extent parrots and ravens. Cephalopod intelligence provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Vertebrates such as mammals, birds and fish have shown a high degree of intellect that varies according to each species; the same is true with arthropods. Evidence of a general factor of intelligence

8e Escadre de Chasse

The 8e Escadre de Chasse 8e EC or 8th Fighter Wing is a fighter formation of the Fighter Brigade of the French Air Force, reformed on August 25, 2015 at Cazaux Air Base. The unit has known various periods of activity: On Aerial Base 108 Marignane, between January 1, 1936 and May 1, 1939. Escadron de Transition Opérationnelle 1/8 Saintonge Escadron de Transition Opérationnelle 2/8 Nice Escadron d'Entraînement 3/8 Côte d'Or Escadron de Soutien Technique Aéronautique 15.008 Pilat The 8e Escadre possesses two historical squadrons, the "Saintonge" and "Nice". The squadron "Languedoc" was attached to the Escadre during ten years. Hunter Group - Groupe de Chasse I/8: from January 1, 1936 until May 1, 1939 Groupe de Chasse II/8: from January 1, 1936 and May 1, 1939 Groupe Mixte I/8 Saintonge: from January 16, 1951 until July 27, 1954 Hunter Squadron Escadron de Chasse 1/8 Saintonge: from September 9, 1960 until December 1, 1961 and from February 1, 1964 until July 31, 1993 Groupe de Chasse II/8 Languedoc: from August 1, 1951 until July 27, 1954 Escadron de chasse 2/8 Languedoc: from August 1, 1955 until December 1, 1961 Escadron de Chasse 1/8 Maghreb: from August 1, 1955 until September 1960 Escadron de Chasse 2/8 Nice: from February 1, 1964 until July 31, 1993 Aerial Base 108 Marigane: from January 1, 1936 until May 1, 1939 Indochina: from January 16, 1951 until July 27, 1954 Aerial Base 151 Rabat-Salé: from August 1, 1955 until the beginning of 1960 Aerial Base Nancy-Ochey: from the beginning of 1960 until December 1, 1961 Aerial Base 120 Cazaux: from February 1, 1964 until July 31, 1993 and as of August 25, 2015 Morane-Saulnier MS.225: from January 1, 1936 until January 1, 1939 Dewoitine D.500: from January 1, 1936 until January 1, 1939 Dewoitine D.510: from January 1, 1939 until May 1, 1939 Republic P-47D Thunderbolt: from January 16, 1951 until July 27, 1954 Grumman F8F-1B Bearcat: from January 16, 1951 until July 27, 1954 Mistral: from August 1, 1955 until 1959 Dassault Mystère IVA: from June 1959 until December 1, 1961 and from February 1, 1964 until 1982 Alpha Jet: from October 1982 until July 31, 1993 and as of August 25, 2015 Major Patrouille de France Chief of Staff of the French Air Force List of Escadres of the French Air Force

Kurt Kelly

Kurt Kelly is an American politician, a native of Ocala, Florida. He was a member of the Florida House of Representatives from the 24th district and is the President/CEO and founder of 3-D Background Screening, a full-service pre-employment background search company. Kelly has been married for 25 years to his wife Sally, a teacher at Madison Street Elementary School of the Arts; the couple have a son, a son-in-law. He holds a Master of Science in Education from the University of South Florida and a Bachelor of Science from Florida State University. Kelly is a graduate of Ocala Vanguard High School. Kelly served 6 years on the Marion County School Board, he was elected to the Florida House of Representatives from District 24 on June 26, 2007 in a special election and has subsequently been re-elected. Kelly serves on several leadership boards such as Children's Alliance, Success by Six, Ocala Kiwanis, Central Florida Symphony Orchestra, Child Evangelism Fellowship of Marion County. During his first Legislative Session, Representative Kelly spearheaded legislation that supported victims of dating violence called the Barwick/Rucshak Act, strengthened early childhood learning, called to the United States Congress to fund Alzheimer research and services, encouraged the building of "green" schools.

Kelly worked with a state agency to develop statewide plan on drinking water. During the 2009 Legislative Session, Kelly focused on improving Florida's economy, creating jobs, protecting and strengthening Florida's public education, he was placed by leadership to be on the House Full Appropriations Council on Education and Economic Development. He is a member of the Economic Development Policy Committee. Kelly is the Chair of the Vision Caucus, he has transformed the Vision Caucus into the largest Caucus in the Florida Legislature. Kelly was recognized as the 2008 Freshman Legislator of the Year by the Florida Association of Counties, the Florida Water Conservation Champion of 2008, the Central Florida Community Arts-Spirit of International Art Award for 2008, the 2007-2008 PACE Marion County Champion for Girls award. Kurt Kelly's Official Website Marion County, Florida Supervisor of Elections Official Bio for Representative Kelly

Ana Teresa Fernández

Ana Teresa Fernández is a Mexican performance artist and painter. She was born in Tampico and lives and works in San Francisco. Fernández attended the San Francisco Art Institute, where she earned a bachelor's and master's of fine arts degree, her work is included in the permanent collections of the Nevada Museum of Art, Denver Art Museum, the Cheech Marin Collection, the Kadist Institute, the National Museum of Mexican Art. On September 26, 2014, the small town of Iguala, Mexico made national headlines when 43 college students were brutally abducted and slain. According to a Time Magazine article, “corrupt police and cartel thugs in the town of Iguala went on a killing spree.” Although she didn’t know any of these victims of violence Fernández tackled this tragedy through an installation entitled Erasure. The installation includes paintings, text, as well as a performance. A video and photographs from the performance where Fernández paints the entirety of a room black and proceeds to paint herself black until nothing but her piercing green eyes are visible.

In a 2017 interview for the Denver Art Museum, Fernández speaks about Erasure and the 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping explaining, “hrough this absence of my identity, I was kind of wanting people to question who are these students? Who are these 43 individuals?” In the exhibit Foreign Bodies, Fernández takes on women’s rights within her own culture. During her Ted Talk, Fernández spoke of traveling to the Yucatan Peninsula where a tour guide explained that a sinkhole known as a cenote, with beautiful blue water was a mass grave for girls that were sacrificed as offerings to the Gods. An article was written about a team of archaeologists that went to the Yucatan Peninsula discovered evidence that the human sacrifice Fernández learned of was more than a myth about the Mayan culture; the October 2003 issue of National Geographic explains, “ewly discovered skeletons have yield evidence of sacred funerary rites and human sacrifice.” Shaken by this, Fernández returned to the cenote in Mexico in 2012. This time she rented a white stallion named Tequila and outfitted in stilettos and a black dress, she entered the cenote on horseback attempting to conquer nature instead of being sacrificed in it.

In a 2014 interview with SF Art Enthusiast, Fernández illuminates, “I went to a sink hole in Mexico where thousands of virgins had been drowned as sacrificial offerings to the gods. I went into the sink hole and attempted to ride a wild white stallion, as a way to reclaim or change the history of that site.” Borrando la Frontera or Erasing the Border is Fernández’s most renowned performance. It is also the most personal, she used shade of sky blue paint to give the illusion of camouflaging a section of the barrier at the Mexico-United States Border in San Diego into the sky and surrounding ocean. It was the same border that she crossed as a child to come to emigrate from Mexico to the United States with her family, she did this for the first time in 2011 after learning about the way undocumented people were suffering. In a Hyperallergic article dated November 2, 2015, Fernández enlightened, “As immigration becomes more and more of an apparent reality with deeper problems, intimate stories of despair and frustration get revealed, the general public is more open to listen and talk about it.

And art is doing just this, opening a platform to address these issues in new ways, being open, but imaginative.” Borrando la Frontera started off as an understated performance piece with photo and video documentation and transformed when she was invited by Arizona State University to continue the project at the US-Mexico border in Nogales. Circa 2003-2004, Fernández’s mother took her to Friendship Park, where the U. S./Mexico border meets and extends into the Pacific Ocean. Fernández credits this visit as being the time that inspired her to use the border as a site specific part of her work; this came full circle more as both her mother and father were involved in the third performance of Borrando La Frontera. On April 9, 2016, Fernández collaborated with her parents and Border/Arte to perform Borrando La Frontera in three locations along the border: Agua Prieta, Juárez, Mexicali. In an interview with Lakshmi Sarah for KQED, Fernández explained the impact of this third performance and installation.

"It was so moving to see so many people, from so many different communities and walks of life, come together to want to be a part of something bigger. I have worked with my family before, but this time, my mom and dad helped lead Borrando la Frontera in Mexicali all on their own. I'm still feeling the immense high from it all, as well as exhaustion. You feel different, like you have a voice that can talk back to the government and say,'We can help paint a different reality or truth, using paint and imagination as your weapon... no guns, no violence, just the community working together, tearing down walls with creativity.’” Fernández provided illustrations Rebecca Solnit’s iconic book of essays, Men Explain Things to Me. In an interview with Paul Farber for Monument Lab on June 6, 2019, Fernández described how Solnit approached her about including some of Fernández's art in her book. Fernández explains that one of the images "was a performance that I did around the time of SB 1070 in Arizona, the introduction of racial profiling.

There's the hiding of identity, but revealing of other truths in the attempt to hide your identity.” She continues, articulating how her art work ties to the subject of Solnit’s title essay: "And so much of that writing is trying to push through that insistence of hiding the identity. That initial story that she begins with of someone insisting that they know more about the story that she

1944 in Northern Ireland

This is a list of events that happened in Northern Ireland in 1944. Monarch - George VI 13 March - The British Government prohibits all travel between Great Britain and Ireland. 20 May - Aircraft carrier HMS Warrior is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast to British Admiralty order. 22 August - Men from Tyrone and Fermanagh form an Anti-Partition League in Dublin. 16 November - Aircraft carrier HMCS Magnificent is launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast to British Admiralty order. Robert Greacen's poetry Northern Harvest and One Recent Evening is published. Forrest Reid's novel Young Tom is published. John Luke paints The Road to the West. Irish LeagueWinners: Belfast CelticIrish CupWinners: Belfast Celtic 3 - 1 Linfield 5 January - Edward Haughey, Baron Ballyedmond, businessman. 27 January - Mairead Corrigan, peace activist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. 20 March - Alan Harper, Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland. 28 March - Nell McCafferty, journalist and playwright.

28 May - Patricia Quinn, actress. 3 June - Thomas Burns, Bishop of the Forces. 8 June - David Craig, footballer. 28 June - Ian Adamson - Ulster Unionist Lord Mayor of Belfast. 24 July - Jim Armstrong, guitarist. 15 October - David Trimble, leader of the Ulster Unionist Party, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. 28 October - Gerry Anderson and television broadcaster. Colin McClelland, journalist. Ruth Patterson, first woman to be ordained to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. June - Joseph Campbell and lyricist. August - Noble Huston, Presbyterian minister and dog breeder. 28 November - Sir William Moore, 1st Baronet, Unionist MP and Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland 1925-1937. 1944 in Scotland 1944 in Wales

High School Disco

High School Disco is the debut studio album by Australian singer Tim Campbell. The album is a covers album of classic hits from 1970s & 1980s, it was released by Universal Music Australia in April 2014. It peaked at number 25 on the ARIA Charts. Upon release Campbell said "I feel. I have lived through and loved this era of music, it continues to excite me today. Our high school discos were always a memorable night, with classic melodies and music that had my friends and I on the dance floor all night”. A music video for "Play That Funky Music" was released on 8 April 2014. Campbell toured the album across Australia throughout June and July 2014. Campbell toured the album with 9 dates across Australia. June 12: Adelaide June 13: Adelaide June 20: Bankstown June 21: Canberra June 27: Launceston June 28: Hobart July 11: Brisbane July 12: Tweed Heads July 26: Melbourne