click links in text for more info

Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient is a total score derived from a set of standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book. IQ was a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months; the resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. For modern IQ tests, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less. By this definition two-thirds of the population scores are between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 2.5 percent of the population scores above 130, 2.5 percent below 70. Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence. Unlike, for example and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of "intelligence".

IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, evaluating job applicants; when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory and speed. In research contexts, they have been studied as predictors of job income, they are used to study distributions of psychometric intelligence in populations and the correlations between it and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect. Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can inform current research on human intelligence.

Before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life. Those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based on IQ test scores. Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the reliability and error of estimation in the classification procedure; the English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person's intelligence. A pioneer of psychometrics and the application of statistical methods to the study of human diversity and the study of inheritance of human traits, he believed that intelligence was a product of heredity, he hypothesized that there should exist a correlation between intelligence and other observable traits such as reflexes, muscle grip, head size.

He set up the first mental testing centre in the world in 1882 and he published "Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development" in 1883, in which he set out his theories. After gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, he abandoned this research. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities, it was intended to identify mental retardation in school children, but in specific contradistinction to claims made by psychiatrists that these children were "sick" and should therefore be removed from school and cared for in asylums. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age, 6.0.. Binet came under the control of practical judgment.

In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarkable diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, measures. American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, it became the most popular test in the United States for decades. The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content; some test items are visual. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge; the British psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. He observed that children's school grades across unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests.

He suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor and a large number of narrow task-specific ability factors. Spear

Agrupación Aérea Presidencial

The Agrupación Aérea Presidencial was the Head of State Air Transport Unit for the President of Argentina. It was closed in 2016 by president Mauricio Macri, because of the high cost of repairs and maintenance and the lack of adequate pilots; the Presidential Air Group was a small fleet of Argentine Air Force aircraft and helicopters for official use by the President, immediate family, senior government officials. The fleet was administered by the Casa Militar, charged with presidential security and transportation. Both military and civilian pilots staffed the fleet; the aircraft were painted evoking the Argentine Flag. Some notable presidential aviation events: July 28, 1973: Fokker F-28 Patagonia landed on Antarctic Marambio Base August 26, 1985: Former President Raúl Alfonsín was launched from the Argentine Navy aircraft carrier ARA 25 de Mayo on a Grumman S-2 Tracker number 0702/2-AS-23. After assuming office in 2015, president Mauricio Macri requested an assessment of the unit to determine the fleet status and decide if it was economically viable.

As of February 2016, the Argentine presidential fleet was composed of 3 helicopters. The main aircraft was a Boeing 757 known as Tango 01 after its military registry: "T-01"; the 757 entered in service in 1995 replacing the former T-01, a Boeing 707. Nicknamed Virgen de Luján after Argentina's patron saint, the 757 has been object of political contention for the last decade, with many politicians and media commentators denouncing this aircraft as an unnecessary and expensive luxury prone to abuse by presidents, their families and political allies; the current Presidential fleet includes two Fokker F28, a Boeing 737-500 and a Learjet 60. The Learjet is used by the Air Force Chief of Staff; these aircraft are based at Aeroparque Jorge El Palomar Air Force base. As helicopters, a Sikorsky S-70 and two Sikorsky S-76 make-up the fleet, with an additional Air Force Bell 212, as needed. During Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández administration, AAP used different aircraft for their global flights, most notably Boeing 747 loaned from Aerolíneas Argentinas and a private Bombardier Global 5000.

Aircraft Vickers VC.1 Viking T-64 1948-1952 Rockwell Aero Commander 680 1957-1967 Douglas DC-3 Independencia T-01 1959-1966 Avro 748 Libertad FMA IA 50 Guaraní II Fokker F-28 T-02 Patagonia 1977-1999 Boeing 707-320C T-01 Helicopters Sikorsky S-51 and Sikorsky S-55, although not part of the AAP, were used by the President while in service for the Air Force Sikorsky S-58T H-01 1974-1979 and H-02 1975-1980 Sikorsky S-61R H-02 1993-1997 September 19, 1993: with former President Carlos Menem on board, an Air Force CH-47 Chinook went down while visiting Pozo de Mortero near Las Lomitas in Formosa Province without any casualties. April 1, 1998: again President Menem had a critical moment, this time aboard T-01 when it performed an aborted hard landing due to strong crosswinds at Wellington during a state visit to New Zealand; the pilot divert to Auckland where they landed an hour later. Prime Minister Jenny Shipley had to be moved to meet President Menem there. August 1, 2003: President Néstor Kirchner had an emergency landing in "Quebrada de Humahuaca" near "Posta de Hornillos", while being on board the Salta province Bell 407 helicopter.

October 19, 2004: Tango 01 made a successful emergency landing at the military airbase of El Palomar soon after taking off at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery in Buenos Aires when one of its engines caught fire. The engines were taken to Israel for a complete overhaul and the aircraft return to service mid-2005. In the meantime, two chartered Boeing 747s operated by Aerolíneas Argentinas served the Presidential transport role when traveling abroad, when the 757 was back into service, President Néstor Kirchner continued using the 747s for long travel, due to its extended range. April 19, 2009: Tango 01 with President Cristina Kirchner on board was returning from the 5th Summit of the Americas en route from Trinidad & Tobago to Buenos Aires, made an emergency landing at Simón Bolívar International Airport, in Venezuela, after the cockpit windscreen cracked during flight due "to the differences of temperatures inside and outside of the aircraft". Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez lent the Argentine delegation a Falcon jet for the remainder of the trip.

Air transports of heads of state and government "Presidencia - Introducción". Carlos Ay. 2011-07-01. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2014-05-18. Pineiro, Luis. "El fin de la fota aerea Presidencial argentina". Retrieved 2019-02-09. Pineiro, Luis. "En venta el Tango 01 y el Boeing 04 de la Agrupacion Aerea Presidencial argentina". Retrieved 2019-02-09. Potenze, Pablo. "La aviación estatal argentina". Gaceta Aeronautica. Retrieved 2019-02-17. Neme, Carlos. "La Unidad Aérea Presidencial". Gaceta Aeronautica. Retrieved 2019-02-09. "El H-01 hizo ruido por Concordia". Roll Out. 2018-04-04. Retrieved 2019-02-11. New Zealand incident in Clarin newspaper Bell 407 incident in Clarin newspaper

Raul Julia-Levy

Raul Julia-Levy is a Mexican film and television actor and producer. He grew up in a prominent family in Mexico City and started a relationship with his real father, Raul Julia in Hollywood when he was 17. In recent years, Julia-Levy's focus has been on more philanthropic pursuits for the welfare of animals. Julia-Levy pursued a career in entertainment, acting Mexican soap operas before moving to Hollywood, California. Once in Hollywood, he continued to land roles such as Quintana Driver in Double Take, as the bandit José in the TV movie Epoch, he played Detective Marin in the independent, direct-to-video films Vengeance and Clash, films for which he received credit as Associate Producer. Julia-Levy has dedicated his life to make a difference through ending animal abuse and is recognized for his hands-on efforts in Latin America. Over the last decade, Julia-Levy has been a part of critical law cases of animal torture. In 2014, Julia-Levy was involved in the case of Max, a labrador, sexually assaulted and murdered in Yucatán.

He offered 60,000 pesos for their capture. In 2015, Julia-Levy went on to donate $10,000 as reward for information leading to an arrest for the poisoning and murder of over 60 dogs in Hermosillo, Mexico. Another case Julia-Levy was involved in was that of Pablito; the dog was tortured by animal abusers and Julia-Levy saved him from the streets of Mexico City. He spent $30,000 to save and extend the life of Pablito, who had cancer and many broken and deteriorating bones. One of Julia-Levy's most prominent cases took place in 2016, where he mobilized the political structure of Coahuila, Mexico to save an innocent dog's life. A pitbull named Max was accused of killing a three-year-old boy and after two months of intense public battle, the state government concluded that Max was innocent and had no involvement with the child's death. Criminologists from the FBI reported; this led to a new legislation being based in Mexico and Max became the first dog to receive pardon from the state government of Mexico.

Along with these efforts, Julia-Levy and his ex-wife founded Paw Hills, a luxury pet hotel in Agoura Hills, California. Inside the pet hotel is the Raul Julia Foundation, dedicated to preserve and fight for the rights of animals in Latin America and Mexico. Since its founding, the Raul Julia Foundation has saved over 7,500 stray dogs. Future plans for the Foundation are to build an animal rehabilitation center in hopes of saving 50,000 stray and abused dogs and cats. Julia-Levy has expanded his involvement to include the plight of Lolita, an orca whale, living and performing at Seaquarium in Miami, Florida. Raul Julia-Levy on IMDb

Thione Seck

Thione Ballago Seck is a Senegalese singer and musician in the mbalakh genre. Seck comes from a family of "griot" singers from the Wolof people of Senegal, his first job was with Orchestre Baobab, but he formed his own band, Raam Daan, which he still heads. Seck's album Orientation was one of four nominated for BBC Radio 3's World Music Album of the Year in 2006. In much of his music, notably on this album, Seck experiments with the use of Indian & Arabic scales; this supplements his laid back vocals and the band's intense sabar driven rhythms, displaces the band's more usual guitars and synthesizers. This album was made in collaboration with a range of more than 40 North African and Indian musicians, playing diverse instruments and creating a fusion of styles. Seck has stated that Bollywood films were a longstanding musical influence for him, the experiment in a fusion style reflects this. Other albums include XV Anniversary Live! and Daaly. He contributed "Laye M'Boup," a tribute to the late Orchestre Baobab leader, to The Music in My Head soundtrack.

Seck wrote "Entends-tu le monde?", the lead single from Australian singer Tina Arena's seventh studio album 7 vies. In May 2015, at the age of 60, he was indicted by the Senegalese courts. Thione Seck was arrested on May 27 in the evening, at his home in Dakar by the gendarmerie and placed in custody following an investigation into significant transactions in foreign currencies, involving his entourage and family, according to various local media, who reported the discovery in his house of large sums of counterfeit euro and dollar notes. On June 2, 2015, he was placed under a detention warrant and was sent to the Rebeuss Central Prison in downtown Dakar. On February 12, 2016, he was granted temporary liberty to return to his home. In March 2016, his son Seydina Alioune Seck was incarcerated because he was suspected of being involved in the same affair as his father. AlbumsOrientation XV Anniversary Live! Daaly DiagaContributing artistThe Rough Guide to the Music of Senegal Baaba Maal Youssou N'dour Artist info at AfroPop


Year 1420 was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. March – The Çelebi Sultan Mehmed Mosque in Didymoteicho is inaugurated. May 21 – Treaty of Troyes: With the Burgundian faction dominant in France, King Charles VI of France acknowledges Henry V of England as his heir, as virtual ruler of most of France. May 25 – Henry the Navigator is appointed governor of the Portuguese Order of Christ. June 2 – Catherine of Valois marries King Henry V of England. June 7 – Troops of the Republic of Venice capture Udine after a long siege, ending the independence of the Patriarchal State of Friuli, run by the Patriarch of Aquileia. August 7 – Construction of the dome of Florence Cathedral is started, after Filippo Brunelleschi wins the commission for his "double shell" design. September 1 – a 9.4 MS-strong earthquake shakes Chile's Atacama Region causing tsunamis in Chile as well as Hawaii and Japan. October 22 – Ghiyāth al-dīn Naqqāsh, an envoy of the embassy sent by the Timurid ruler of Persia, Mirza Shahrukh, to the Ming Dynasty of China during the reign of the Yongle Emperor, records his sight and travel over a large floating pontoon bridge at Lanzhou as he crosses the Yellow River on this day.

He writes that it was: "...composed of twenty three boats, of great excellence and strength attached together by a long chain of iron as thick as a man's thigh, this was moored on each side to an iron post as thick as a man's waist extending a distance of ten cubits on the land and planted in the ground, the boats being fastened to this chain by means of big hooks. There were placed big wooden planks over the boats so and evenly that all the animals were made to pass over it without difficulty." October 28 – Beijing is designated the capital of the Ming Dynasty, during the same year that the Forbidden City, the seat of government, is completed. November 1 – Hussite WarsBattle of Vyšehrad: Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, fails and is ejected from Bohemia. Henry V of England commences construction of the ship Grace Dieu. Tang Saier starts a rebellion against the emperor of China, takes two cities with her rebel army, before she is defeated. Construction begins on the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, China while the palace complex of the Forbidden City is completed.

In this year the Yongle Emperor confers the title "Beijing" for the Ming Dynasty's new capital city, replacing Nanjing. Radu II Praznaglava, supported by the Ottomans, Dan II, with Hungarian help, start a seven-years-long struggle for the throne of Wallachia, after Mihail I is killed in a battle; the throne of Wallachia will switch from one to another about four times until 1427, when Radu II dies. Alexandru cel Bun defends Moldavia against the first incursion by the Ottomans, at Cetatea Albă. February 9 – Dorothea of Brandenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg April 23 – George of Poděbrady, King of Bohemia June 5 – Anna of Saxony, Landgravine of Hesse, German royalty July 19 – William VIII, Marquess of Montferrat October 1 – Elisabeth of Cleves, Countess of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, German noble date unknown Jean Fouquet, French painter Nicolas Jenson, French engraver Antoinette de Maignelais, mistress of Charles VII of France Tomás de Torquemada, first grand inquisitor of Spain June 11 – John III, Burgrave of Nuremberg August 9 – Pierre d'Ailly, French theologian and cardinal September 3 – Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, regent of Scotland date unknown Andrew of Wyntoun, Scottish chronicler Marina Galina, Dogaressa of Venice Epiphanius the Wise, Russian saint King Lukeni lua Nimi of the Kingdom of Kongo Mihail I, ruler of Wallachia

Matteo Messori

Matteo Messori is an Italian keyboard player, conductor and teacher. He performs on period instruments including the harpsichord, pipe organ and pedal piano, he founded the early music ensemble Cappella Augustana. Matteo Messori was born in Bologna where he studied piano under the Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli pupil Franca Fogli and organ and counterpoint with Umberto Pineschi, graduating cum laude, he studied harpsichord with Sergio Vartolo at the conservatories of Mantua and Venice, graduating again cum laude. He studied musicology at the University of Bologna. From 1990 he started to work as a continuo player with the ensemble "I Filomusi". At the same time he undertook a soloist career in America. In 1998 he won the First Prize at the National Harpsichord Competition "Gianni Gambi" in Pesaro, he won other prizes, including the Medaglia Campiani in Mantua. In 2000 he founded an early music ensemble Cappella Augustana with which he is recording the complete works by Heinrich Schütz for the Dutch label Brilliant Classics.

Messori's extensive discography includes several works by Johann Sebastian Bach: the third part of Clavierübung, the Schübler Chorales, 8 Preludes and Fugues, the Canonical Variations, Die Kunst der Fuge and Ein musikalisches Opfer. He recorded the first tribute to the sacred music composed by Vincenzo Albrici, Kapellmeister in Dresden and organist at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig, Besides his work with the ensemble Cappella Augustana, he is in frequent demand as organist and guest conductor. In 2010 his study on the 16' harpsichord with pedal harpsichord built by Zacharias Hildebrandt for the Collegium Musicum in Leipzig was published in the Bach-Jahrbuch, he harpsichord at the Bergamo Conservatory. In November 2011 the German magazine FonoForum wrote: "The complete recording of Bach's late works is a statement with which the still young Italian harpsichordist and organist has come to play in the Champions League of the international Bach interpreters". "Johann Sebastian Bach - Schübler Chorales, 8 Preludes and Fugues" 2 CDs.

2011 "Johann Sebastian Bach - Die Kunst der Fuge, Musikalisches Opfer, Einige canonische Veraenderungen" 3CDs. 2010 "Johann Sebastian Bach - Dritter Theil der Clavierübung" 2 SuperAudio CDs. 2008 "Heinrich Schütz Edition Vol. 4" 5 CDs. With Cappella Augustana. 2008 "Heinrich Schütz Edition Vol. 3" 4 CDs. With Cappella Augustana. 2005 "Heinrich Schütz Edition Vol. 2" 5 CDs. With Cappella Augustana. 2004 "Heinrich Schütz Edition Vol. 1" 5 CDs. With Cappella Augustana. 2003 "Heinrich Schütz - Symphoniae sacrae" SuperAudio CD. With Cappella Augustana. 2004 "Vincenzo Albrici - Concerti sacri". With Cappella Augustana. 2002