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In linguistics, logic and other fields, an intension is any property or quality connoted by a word, phrase, or another symbol. In the case of a word, the word's definition implies an intension. For instance, the intensions of the word plant include properties such as "being composed of cellulose", "alive", "organism", among others. A comprehension is the collection of all such intensions; the meaning of a word can be thought of as the bond between the idea the word means and the physical form of the word. Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure contrasts three concepts: the signifier – the "sound image" or the string of letters on a page that one recognizes as the form of a sign the signified – the meaning, the concept or idea that a sign expresses or evokes the referent – the actual thing or set of things a sign refers to. See Dyadic signs and Reference. Without intension of some sort, a word has no meaning. For instance, the terms rantans or brillig have no intension and hence no meaning; such terms may be suggestive.

For instance, ran tan is an archaic onomatopoeia for chaotic noise or din and may suggest to English speakers a din or meaningless noise, brillig though made up by Lewis Carroll may be suggestive of'brilliant' or'frigid'. Such terms, it may be argued, are always intensional since they connote the property'meaningless term', but this is only an apparent paradox and does not constitute a counterexample to the claim that without intension a word has no meaning. Part of its intension is. Intension is analogous to the signified in extension to the referent. In philosophical arguments about dualism versus monism, it is noted that thoughts have intensionality and physical objects do not, but rather have extension in space and time. A statement-form is a form obtained by putting blanks into a sentence where one or more expressions with extensions occur—for instance, "The quick brown ___ jumped over the lazy ___'s back." An instance of the form is a statement obtained by filling the blanks in. An intensional statement-form is a statement-form with at least one instance such that substituting co-extensive expressions into it does not always preserve logical value.

An intensional statement is a statement, an instance of an intensional statement-form. Here co-extensive expressions are expressions with the same extension; that is, a statement-form is intensional if it has, as one of its instances, a statement for which there are two co-extensive expressions such that one of them occurs in the statement, if the other one is put in its place, the result is a statement with a different logical value. An intensional statement is an instance of such a form. Everyone who has read Huckleberry Finn knows, it is possible. Aristotle was pleased. To see that these are intensional, make the following substitutions: "Mark Twain" → "The author of'Corn-pone Opinions'"; the intensional statements above feature expressions like "knows", "possible", "pleased". Such expressions always, or nearly always, produce intensional statements when added to an extensional statement, thus they are sometimes called intensional operators. A large class of intensional statements, but by no means all, can be spotted from the fact that they contain intensional operators.

An extensional statement is a non-intensional statement. Substitution of co-extensive expressions into it always preserves logical value. A language is intensional if it contains intensional statements, extensional otherwise. All natural languages are intensional; the only extensional languages are artificially constructed languages used in mathematical logic or for other special purposes and small fragments of natural languages. Mark Twain wrote Huckleberry Finn. Aristotle had a sister. Note that if "Samuel Clemens" is put into in place of "Mark Twain", the result is as true as the original statement, it should be clear that no matter what is put for "Mark Twain", so long as it is a singular term picking out the same man, the statement remains true. We can put in place of the predicate any other predicate belonging to Mark Twain and only to Mark Twain, without changing the logical value. For consider the following substitutions: "Aristotle" → "The tutor of Alexander the Great". Intensional languages cannot be given an adequate semantics in terms of the extensions of expressions in them, since the extensions themselves do not suffice to determine a logical value.

On the other hand, for the first half of the 20th century the only known systems of formal semantics worked by assigning extensions to expressions and used a Tarski-style truth-definition of statements constructed from the primitive expressions of the language under analysis. Hence, these semantical methods were pathetically inadequate for understanding the semantics of any but a few small artificial languages or mutilated fragments of n


Bierutów is a town in Oleśnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It is the seat of the administrative district called Gmina Bierutów; the town lies 13 kilometres south-east of Oleśnica, 35 kilometres east of the regional capital Wrocław. As of 2019, the town has a population of 4,867, its castle is believed to date to the 13th century, was the headquarters of the local forestry body after World War II. Andreas Acoluthus, German scholar of orientalism Louise Elisabeth of Württemberg-Oels Wilhelm Sihler, German-American Lutheran minister and educator Maximilian von Prittwitz, Prussian general Josef Block, German painter Horace Kallen, German-American philosopher Ludwig Meidner, German expressionist painter See twin towns of Gmina Bierutów. Jewish Community in Bierutów on Virtual Shtetl

Natsu Hayate

"Natsu Hayate" is the 55th single by Japanese boy band Arashi. It was released on July 2018 under their record label J Storm. "Natsu Hayate" was used as the theme song for Netto Koshien's 100th Japanese High School Baseball Championship. "Natsu Hayate" was released in three editions: a limited edition, a regular edition, a limited "High School Baseball" edition. The limited editions feature a CD containing two songs and a karaoke track of the B-side song, as well as a DVD containing the music video and making of the single's title track "Natsu Hayate"; the "High School Baseball" edition features a brass band version of "Natsu Hayate" along with the collaboration version of the music video. The regular edition contains three songs. "Natsu Hayate" is the theme for Netto Koshien. Yujin Kitagawa of Yuzu was in charge of handling music; as a special "Arashi x Yuzu" collaboration project, this song is expected to bring a lot of excitement to this year's momentous 100th summer Koshien tournament. "Natsu Hayate" is the first song to be released during summer after a while.

With the song made for summer, the song takes the freshness and brightness of summer, places it on top of a melody that's sure to energize, turns it into a fight song celebrating all the high school students out there who are doing their best. Product information at the official website

Edith Frances Crowdy

Edith Francis Crowdy CBE was the Deputy Director of the Women's Royal Naval Service, served as the first general secretary of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. She was born on 25 August 1880 at 79 Victoria Road, London, one of the four daughters of solicitor James Crowdy and his wife, Mary Isabel Anne Fuidge. Of her sisters, Rachel was Principal Commandant of Voluntary Aid Detachments in France and Belgium from 1914 to 1919 and Isabel was the Assistant Director Inspector of Training, Women's Royal Navy Service from 1918, her brother, James Fuidge Crowdy, was Assistant Secretary to the Governor General of Canada and her niece was married to James Kenneth Weir, 2nd Viscount Weir of Eastwood. Edith's remaining sister was Mary Crowdy, CBE

Kuala Lumpur Open Squash Championships

The Kuala Lumpur Open Squash Championships is an annual squash tournament held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The tournament is sponsored by CIMB. Malaysian Open Squash Championships British Open Squash Championships British Junior Open Squash World Open "CIMB KL Open 2006". Squashsite. Retrieved 2011-12-08. "CIMB KL Open 2007". Squashsite. Retrieved 2009-03-07. "KL Open 2008". Squashsite. Retrieved 2011-12-08. "KL Open 2009". Squashsite. Retrieved 2011-12-08. "KL Open 2010". Squashsite. Retrieved 2011-12-08. "KL Open 2011". Squashsite. Retrieved 2011-12-08

Senior Corps

Senior Corps is a United States government agency under the authority of the Corporation for National and Community Service. Its stated mission is to provide aid to senior citizens in communities while promoting a sense of community. There are about 400,000 members nationwide. Senior Corps was formed when its constituent programs—Foster Grandparents and Senior Volunteer Program, Senior Companions—were merged when the Corporation for National and Community Service was formed by then-president Bill Clinton in 1993; the three programs have unique histories, each was developed to meet a specific need. The Foster Grandparent Program was piloted on August 28, 1965, to entice low income people over 60 in community service; the Senior Companion Program began as part of the Department of Health and Welfare and Administration on Aging in 1968, before being legislated and signed into law under President Richard Nixon. The Retired and Senior Volunteer Program began as an outgrowth by private groups and government agencies to create opportunities of engagement and growth for older Americans following the work of the Community Service Society of New York on Staten Island beginning in 1965.

Senior Corps was formed from a merge of its constituent programs: Foster Grandparents and Senior Volunteer Program, Senior Companions. The three were mandated under the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 with similar aims; the three programs have unique histories, each was developed to meet a specific need, but all were crafted on the same belief that older adults are valuable resources to their communities. When the Corporation for National and Community Service was formed by then-president Bill Clinton in 1993, the three organizations were reformed into the single agency Senior Corps; the Foster Grandparent Program was piloted on August 28, 1965, to entice low income people over 60 in community service. The program revealed the positive impact these thriving older Americans have on exceptional and special needs children and grew in scope. In the 1980s, the Foster Grandparent Program was championed by First Lady Nancy Reagan, she helped it grow as one of her pet projects. In 1968, the Senior Companion Program began as part of the Department of Health and Welfare and Administration on Aging.

Five years President Richard Nixon asked Congress to expand the role of low-income older volunteers who provide personal services to others. Seven months the Senior Companion Program was signed into law. RSVP began as an outgrowth by private groups and government agencies to create opportunities of engagement and growth for older Americans. One of the earliest programs, the Community Service Society of New York, began in 1965 on Staten Island; the project involved a small group of volunteers who were dedicated to serving their communities in a variety of ways. It was due to the success of their efforts that led to an amendment to the Older Americans Act, creating RSVP as a nationwide program in 1969. Senior Corps is for people age 55+ who want to share their experiences with others who are most in need of mentors, coaches, or a companion. First operational on August 28, 1965, the Foster Grandparents program enables seniors to interact with and support young children, thus acting as foster grandparents.

Open to seniors 55 and over, the program's goal is to provide "grandparents" who will give emotional support to victims of abuse and tutor and care for children with disabilities. The participants make a difference in the lives of these children, receive pre-service and monthly training sessions, transportation reimbursement, an annual physical, accident and liability insurance while working with the child/children; some Foster Grandparents receive small tax-free stipends to offset costs incurred while participating in the program. Much like the Foster Grandparents program, the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program seeks to provide a way in which senior citizens can give back to their community. Flexible in nature, RSVP allows participants to choose when they work. Open to seniors 55 and over, the program's goals are wide and varied, include job training, tutoring children, building homes, helping immunize children, relief services, aid to community organizations. Volunteers are given a pre-service orientation, on-the-job training from the placement agency or organization, supplemental insurance while on duty.

This program does not provide a stipend. One of the more widespread RSVP programs is a telephone reassurance service; the Senior Companions program is aimed at helping citizens who need extra assistance to live independently, such as adults with disabilities or those with terminal illnesses and their caregivers. Participants provide both emotional and physical support by assisting with simple house chores, providing transportation, offering companionship. A senior companion must be 55 years of age and able to give between 5 and 40 hours of service per week. In addition to making a significant contribution to the lives of others, a participant receives pre-service and monthly training, transportation reimbursement, an annual physical, meals and accident and liability insurance while on duty. Income-eligible Senior Companions receive a modest, tax-free stipend to offset the cost of volunteering. Community service Elderly care Senior Corps home page Triton College RSVP Home page Nashville RSVP Home page Central Vermont and th