Inter-American Defense Board
The Inter-American Defense Board is an international committee of nationally appointed defense officials who develop collaborative approaches on common defense and security issues facing countries in North and South America. The IADB provides technical advice and services to the Organization of American States; the IADB was created in 1942 by foreign ministers of 21 states, in the middle of World War II. It is now the oldest existing defense organization in the world. In March 2006, the OAS assumed formal authority over the IADB; as of that date, 27 of the 34 members of OAS were members of the IADB. The Board is made up of three main organs, one of, the Inter-American Defense College; the IADC offers an eleven-month Master of Science for senior military and government officials that covers governmental systems, the current international environment, the structure and function of the Inter-American system, offers an opportunity to study broad-based defense and security issues affecting the Western Hemisphere and the world.
Official website The Inter-American Defense Board Medal is an international military decoration. It is awarded to any military officer, serving in a member nation of the OAS, who completes a tour of service with the IADB; the award is presented to military personnel who serve on the staff of the IADB Chairman or Secretariat, for those who complete instructor tours at the IADC. Official website "Remarks Regarding the Inter-American Defense Board", Remarks by Ambassador John F. Maisto, U. S. Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States, to the Thirty-Second Special Session of the OAS General Assembly Considering the Juridical Link of the Inter-American Defense Board, March 15, 2006
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United Nations Korea Medal
The United Nations Service Medal for Korea is an international military decoration established by the United Nations on December 12, 1950 as the United Nations Service Medal. The decoration was the first international award created by the United Nations and recognized the multi-national defense forces which participated in the Korean War; the United Nations Service Medal is awarded to any military service member, of an Armed Force allied with South Korea, who participated in the defense of South Korea from North Korea between the dates of June 27, 1950 and July 27, 1954. The military forces of the Netherlands are awarded the medal for service to January 1, 1955, while the armed forces of Thailand and Sweden grant the award to July 27, 1955. International Red Cross personnel engaged for service during the war with any United Nations relief team in Korea were not eligible for the medal; the ultimate award authority of the United Nations Service Medal is United Nations Commander-in-Chief of military forces in Korea.
Most countries consider the United Nations Service Medal an automatic decoration, if some other Korean service award was bestowed, award the medal without requesting permission through United Nations channels. For instance, in the United States Armed Forces, any service member awarded the Korean Service Medal is automatically granted the United Nations Service Medal. On November 22, 1961, the United Nations changed the name of the United Nations Service Medal to the United Nations Service Medal Korea; this was as a prelude to the creation of a large number of subsequent United Nations medals which are awarded for various operations around the world. The United States and some other countries continue to refer to the medal as the United Nations Service Medal in an effort to maintain consistency with past military files referring to the medal by its original name; the UN Korea Medal is a 36mm wide circular medal of bronze alloy. The obverse depicts the ‘World-in-a Wreath' emblem of the United Nations.
The reverse has the inscription: FOR SERVICE IN DEFENCE OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Each participating country has the text in the most appropriate language, the inscription may be in any one of the following languages: Amharic, English, Greek, Korean, Tagalog, Thai or Turkish; the medal hangs from a claw attachment on a straight bar suspension. Each medal is worn with a medal bar bearing the inscription KOREA in the same language as the reverse inscription; the medal's ribbon made up of 17 equal stripes of United Nations Blue and white, 9 blue and 8 white, each 5⁄64 inch wide. Awards and decorations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines United Nations Medal Korean War Service Medal, South Korea Korea Medal and Commonwealth Forces. Korean Service Medal, United States Korea Defense Service Medal, United States NZDF Medals site British regulations for award of medal - from NZDF site
Inter-American Defense College
The Inter-American Defense College is the educational entity of the Inter-American Defense Board, an independent entity of the Organization of American States. The IADC is unique in the Western Hemisphere in that the faculty and student body are international. Broad international participation provides an exceptional opportunity for the free exchange of ideas and forms a foundation for better inter-American understanding. General Otto Pérez Molina, Guatemalan Army, Former President of Guatemala Michelle Bachelet the United Nation's High Commissioner for Human Rights and former President, Minister of National Defense, Minister of Health of Chile, head of UN Women Lucio Gutiérrez, former President of Ecuador Paco Moncayo, former Mayor of Quito and General of the Ecuadorian Army during the Alto Cenepa War, current congressman Daniel Delgado Diamante, former Minister of Government and Justice of Panama Almirante Mariano Francisco Saynez Mendoza, Mexican Navy, Secretary of the Navy General Jorge Daniel Castro Castro, Colombian National Police General de División Ronaldo Cecilio Leiva, Minister of Defense of Guatemala Major General William A. Navas, Jr.
US Army, former Assistant Secretary of the Navy and former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs Major General Alfred Valenzuela, US Army, Author of "No Greater Love: The Life and Times of Hispanic Soldiers" Major General Antonio J. Vicens, US Army, Adjutant General of the Puerto Rico National Guard Brigadier General Antonio J. Ramos, US Air Force Major General Efrain Vasquez Velazco. Venezuelan Army. Former Commander of the Venezuelan Army
Multinational Force and Observers Medal
The Multinational Force and Observers Medal is an international military decoration, first created on March 24, 1982. The medal was established under the authority of the Director-General of the Multinational Force and Observers which were established to monitor a neutral ceasefire zone, between Egypt and Israel, as the result of the Yom Kippur War of 1973. Silver numerals, beginning with numeral'2', worn on the medal ribbon are awarded for additional periods of service with the same mission; the Multinational Force and Observers Medal is authorized to be worn as a foreign medal for the Australian Defence Force. The medal is worn after Australian medals, with other foreign awards, in the order of date of receipt; the Multinational Force and Observers Medal was presented to 100 members of 9 Parachute Squadron Royal Engineers in 2017 for their deployment to Sinai between March and June 2016 and has been placed in the category of "International Campaign Medals". It can be worn alongside other Campaign Medals of the United Kingdom in order of date of issue.
The Multinational Force and Observers Medal is considered an authorized medal within the International Mission Medals category for the Canadian Forces. Its order of precedence within the International Missions Medals category is based on date of award and may be worn directly after the International Commission of Control and Supervision Medal and before the European Community Monitor Mission Medal for Yugoslavia; the Multinational Force and Observers Medal is considered an authorized medal for the New Zealand Defence Force within the Foreign Medals category, the last category in the New Zealand order of precedence. The MFO Medal is worn directly after the Korean War Service Medal; the United States military began issuing the Multinational Force and Observers Medal on July 28, 1982. The medal was made retroactive to August 1981 and was presented to any United States service member who served at least ninety cumulative days as a member of the Multinational Force and Observers. On March 15, 1985, the time period was increased to a minimum of 170 days.
The time frame could be waived if the award was presented posthumously, a service member was medically evacuated from the region, or if the Director-General of the Multinational Force and Observers presented the award for a specific act or special case. The Multinational Force and Observers Medal is authorized for wear as a United States military award under the category of "Non-U. S. Service award" and is worn after all U. S. before foreign awards of individual countries. Multiple presentations are denoted by award numerals. Similar international military decorations include the NATO Service Medals and the United Nations Service Medals; some orders of precedence are as follows: Multinational Force & Observers website US Army Institute of Heraldry
United Nations Medal
A United Nations Medal is an international decoration awarded by the United Nations to the various world countries militaries for participation in joint international military and police operations such as peacekeeping, humanitarian efforts, disaster relief. The medal is ranked in militaries and police forces as a service medal; the United Nations awarded its first medal during the Korean War. Since 1955, many additional United Nations medals have been created and awarded for participation in various United Nations missions and actions around the world; the most common United Nations medal is the standard UN decoration known as the United Nations Medal. Most countries bestow this award for any action in which a member of the military participated in a joint UN activity. In situations where a service member participated in multiple UN operations, service stars, campaign clasps, or award numbers are authorized as attachments to the United Nations Medal; these devices vary depending on the regulations of the various armed forces.
The UN has authorised the award of numerals to be attached to the medal ribbon. The qualification for these numerals is not to indicate the number of campaigns served in, but rather the number of qualifying periods of service, which are counted as 180 consecutive days after the initial qualifying period of ninety days; the first United Nations medal to be created was the United Nations Service Medal known as the United Nations Service Medal Korea, was awarded to any military service member, of an Armed Force allied with South Korea, who participated in the defense of South Korea from North Korea between the dates of 27 June 1950 and 27 July 1953. The military forces of the Netherlands are awarded the medal for service to January 1, 1955, while the armed forces of Thailand and Sweden grant the award to July 27, 1955. In 1956, to maintain the peace which brought the end of the Suez Crisis the United Nations Emergency Force was established; this was the first Peacekeeping operation of the United Nations.
To reward the service of troops from Brazil, Colombia, India, Norway and Yugoslavia those troops who completed ninety days of service with the UNEF were awarded the United Nations Emergency Force Medal. The mission lasted from November 1956 until June 1967, it is unique from other United Nations Medals in that instead of saying UN on the obverse, it says UNEF. Subsequent missions did not use the missions abbreviation on its medals. In most nations, the standard United Nations Medal is awarded in lieu of a campaign specific medal. Most operations utilize a different ribbon for each mission, though there have been some notable exceptions. In some countries where the UN Security Council determines a mission in the same geographic region, but changes the mission mandate by way of Security Council Resolution, there may be a number of missions which have identical campaign ribbons and later will change the ribbon to reflect the changing environment; the United Nations Mission in Haiti was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 867 on 23 September 1993 and lasted until in June 1996.
This mission was an effort to end the conflict and instability caused by the 1991 Haitian coup d'état. Subsequent missions to maintain stability and train the Haitian National Police were undertaken under UNSMIH, UNTMIH, MIPONUH, MICAH; these subsequent missions all used the same medal as UNMIH. In East Timor, the medals awarded for UNTAET and UNMISET all have the same ribbon. For 90 days of service with a United Nations mission or organization where there is no specific approved United Nations medal, personnel may be eligible for the United Nations Special Service Medal; some examples of qualifying service are the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, or the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs Accelerated De-Mining Programme in Mozambique. Some nations, such as France, the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand permit members of the military and police to receive and display multiple United Nations Medals as separate decorations. Other countries, in particular the United Kingdom, permit a service member to receive the relevant United Nations medal and authorization for it to be worn is given by the FCO, Numerals may be added to denote multiple tours to one mission, the medals are worn in order of award and take precedence alongside British campaign medals.
In the United States Armed Forces, prior to 13 October 1995, all US military personnel wore the blue and white United Nations Ribbon regardless of the ribbon awarded. On 13 October 1995, the Assistant Secretary of Defense approved a change to the wear policy of the United Nations Medal. Effective on that date, personnel who are awarded the United Nations Medal may wear the first medal and ribbon for which they qualify, adding a bronze service star for subsequent awards of the United Nations Medal for service in a different mission. No more than one UN medal or ribbon may be worn at a time. On US uniforms, the UN Medal is worn before the NATO Medal, except for the United Nations Korea Medal, worn as a campaign medal just before the Vietnam Campaign Medal. US military personnel are eligible to wear the medal from one of the following United Nations operations as their one approved medal: Members of the Argentinian Armed Forces are allowed to wear the different UN medals as separate decorations.
However, authorization for use must be formally requested for every single medal, is granted on an individual basis. Regulations for the use of either medals or ribbons apply for each uniform. In the Argentinian Army, a national-issued, maroon-and-white bar showing the number of tours of duty may be worn in lieu of
Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces awards and decorations are the medals, service ribbons, specific badges which recognize military service and personal accomplishments while a member of the U. S. Armed Forces; such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a service member's career. While each service has its own order of precedence, the following general rules apply to all services: U. S. military personal decorations U. S. military unit awards U. S. non-military personal decorations Presidential awards National Medals DoD and JCS Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Superior Service awards Agency-specific Meritorious Service awards Agency-specific Commendation awards Agency-specific Achievement awards Civilian unit awards Civilian service awards U. S. non-military unit awards U. S. military campaign and service medals U. S. military service and training awards U. S. Merchant Marine awards and non-military service awards Foreign military personal decorations Foreign military unit awards Non-U.
S. Service awards Foreign military service awards Marksmanship awards Awards of U. S. military societies and other organizations6a 6b State awards of the National Guard Notes on branch-specific exceptions to the above: 1a In the Army, unit awards are worn as a separate grouping, on the right side of the uniform and without frames, are worn in the order of precedence from the wearer’s right to left. 1b In the Navy, unit award ribbons are only worn on the right side of the uniform, when wearing full medals on the left side. Arrange ribbons in order of precedence in rows from top down, inboard to outboard. For U. S. Navy, the USPHS unit awards are considered unit awards. However, if Navy personnel are awarded USPHS personal decorations the USPHS order of precedence would apply. 2 Some awards, despite being ribbon-only, are higher in precedence. The Navy & Coast Guard Combat Action Ribbons and the Coast Guard's Commandant's Letter of Commendation Ribbon are included with personal decorations, while two Air Force ribbon-only awards and the Coast Guard Enlisted Person of the Year Ribbon are considered in the same category as service medals.
3a Marksmanship Awards in the Air Force are considered training awards. 3b The Army and Marine Corps issue Marksmanship Qualification Badges instead of Marksmanship awards. 4 For Navy, Merchant Marine awards are considered U. S. non-military awards. 5 The obsolete Philippine Commonwealth service awards, when still listed in the order of precedence, come before the United Nations medals or before the Merchant Marine awards. 6a For Navy and ribbons from military societies, such as the Army and Navy Union of the United States, worn in the order earned may be worn after marksmanship awards. Medals and badges issued by these societies may be worn only while attending meetings or conventions or while participating in parades or other ceremonies as a member of these organizations. 6b For Army, no allowance of military society medals or ribbons is prescribed. More badges of the Army and Navy Union of the United States of America are authorized for such active duty ANU members without further restriction.
Badges of other civic and quasi-military societies of the United States, international organizations of a military nature may be worn with restrictions. These include badges of organizations composed of members who served in a U. S. force during the Revolutionary War. The badges are worn only while the wearer is attending meetings or functions of such organizations, or on occasions of ceremony. Personnel will not wear these badges to and from such events. Notes: Precedence of particular awards will vary among the different branches of service. All awards and decorations may be awarded to any service member unless otherwise designated by name or notation. Note: ^ The precedence of the Purple Heart was before the Good Conduct Medals until changed to its current precedence in 1985. Inter-service Air Force Army Coast Guard Navy and Marine CorpsTo denote additional achievements or multiple awards of the same decoration, the United States military maintains a number of award devices which are pinned to service ribbons and medals.
Awards and decorations of the National Guard Awards and decorations of the state defense forces U. S. military personnel having received these awards have either been discharged or retired for a substantial length of time and/or are deceased. The following decorations were designed for issuance with an approved medal, but were either never approved for presentation or were discontinued bef