A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
A Sunday school is an educational institution Christian in character. They were first set up in the 1780s in England to provide education to working children. Today, Sunday school has become the generic name for many different types of religious education pursued and conducted on Sundays by various denominations. William King started a Sunday school in 1751 in Dursley and suggested that Robert Raikes start a similar one in Gloucester. Raikes was editor of the Gloucester Journal, he wrote an article in his journal, as a result many clergymen supported schools, which aimed to teach the youngsters reading, cyphering and a knowledge of the Bible. In 1785, 250,000 English children were attending Sunday school. There were 5,000 in Manchester alone. By 1835, the Society for the Establishment and Promotion of Sunday Schools had distributed 91,915 spelling books, 24,232 Testaments and 5,360 Bibles; the Sunday school movement was cross-denominational. Financed through subscription, large buildings were constructed that could host public lectures as well as provding classrooms.
Adults would attend the same classes as the infants. In some towns, the Methodists built their own; the Anglicans set up their own National schools that would act as day schools. These schools were the precursors to a national system of education; the role of the Sunday schools changed with the Education Act 1870 which provided universal elementary education. In the 1920s they promoted sports, ran Sunday School Leagues, they became social centres hosting amateur dramatics and concert parties. By the 1960s, the term Sunday school could refer to the building and to education classes. By the 1970s the largest Sunday school had been demolished; the first recorded Sunday school opened in 1751 in Nottingham. Hannah Ball made another early start, founding a school in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire,in 1769. However, the pioneer of Sunday schools is said to be Robert Raikes, editor of the Gloucester Journal, who in 1781, after prompting from William King, recognised the need of children living in the Gloucester slums.
He opened a school in the home of a Mrs Meredith, operating it on a Sunday - the only day that the boys and girls working in the factories could attend. Using the Bible as their textbook, the children learned to write. In 18th-century England, education was not compulsory; the wealthy educated their children at home, with hired governesses or tutors for younger children. Boys of that class were sent away to boarding schools, hence these fee-based educational establishments were known as public schools; the town-based middle class may have sent their sons to grammar schools, while daughters were left to learn what they could from their mothers or from their fathers' libraries. The children of factory workers and farm labourers received no formal education, worked alongside their parents six days a week, sometimes for more than 13 hours a day. By 1785 over 250,000 children throughout England attended schools on Sundays. In 1784 many new schools opened, including the interdenominational Stockport Sunday School, which financed and constructed a school for 5,000 scholars in 1805.
In the late-19th century this was accepted as being the largest in the world. By 1831 it was reported. Robert Raikes's schools were seen as the precursors of the English state education system; the first Sunday school in London opened at Surrey Chapel under Rowland Hill. By 1831 1,250,000 children in Great Britain, or about 25 per cent of the eligible population, attended Sunday schools weekly; the schools provided basic lessons in literacy alongside religious instruction. In 1833, "for the unification and progress of the work of religious education among the young", the Unitarians founded their Sunday School Association, as "junior partner" to the British and Foreign Unitarian Association, with which it set up offices at Essex Hall in Central London; the work of Sunday schools in the industrial cities was supplemented by "ragged schools", by publicly-funded education under the terms of the Elementary Education Act 1870. Sunday schools continued alongside such increasing educational provision, new forms developed such as the Socialist Sunday Schools movement, which began in the United Kingdom in 1886.
The earliest recorded Sunday school programme in Ireland goes back to 1777 when Roman Catholic priest Daniel Delany - Bishop Daniel Delany of Kildare and Leighlin - started a school in Tullow, County Carlow. This was a sophisticated system which involved timetables, lesson plans and various teaching activities; this system spread to other parishes in the diocese. By 1787 in Tullow alone there were 700 students and girls, men and women, 80 teachers; the primary intent of this Sunday School system was the teaching of the Catholic faith. With the coming of Catholic Emancipation in Ireland and the establishment of the National Schools system, which meant that the Catholic faith could be taught in school, the Catholic Sunday School system became unnecessary; the Church of Ireland Sunday School Society was founded in 1809. The Sabbath School Society of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland was founded in 1862; the American Sunday school system was first begun by Samuel Slater in his textile mills
A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively". It can be described as, "the average period considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, begin to have children of their own". In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship, it is known as biogenesis, reproduction, or procreation in the biological sciences. "Generation" is often used synonymously with cohort in social science. Generations in this sense of birth cohort known as "social generations", are used in popular culture, have been the basis for sociological analysis. Serious analysis of generations began in the nineteenth century, emerging from an increasing awareness of the possibility of permanent social change and the idea of youthful rebellion against the established social order; some analysts believe that a generation is one of the fundamental social categories in a society, while others view its importance as being overshadowed by other factors including class, gender and education, among others.
The word generate comes from the Latin generāre, meaning "to beget". The word generation as a cohort in social science signifies the entire body of individuals born and living at about the same time, most of whom are the same age and have similar ideas and attitudes. A familial generation is a group of living beings constituting a single step in the line of descent from an ancestor. In developed nations the average familial generation length is in the high 20s and has reached 30 years in some nations. Factors such as greater industrialisation and demand for cheap female labour, delayed first pregnancy and a greater uncertainty in relationship stability have all contributed to the increase of the generation length from the late 18th century to the present; these changes can be attributed to social factors, such as GDP and state policy, related individual-level variables a woman's educational attainment. Conversely, generation length has changed little and remains in the low 20s in less developed nations.
An intergenerational rift in the nuclear family, between the parents and two or more of their children, is one of several possible dynamics of a dysfunctional family. Coalitions in families are subsystems within families with more rigid boundaries and are thought to be a sign of family dysfunction. Social generations are cohorts of people born in the same date range and who share similar cultural experiences; the idea of a social generation, in the sense that it is used today, gained currency in the 19th century. Prior to that the concept "generation" had referred to family relationships and not broader social groupings. In 1863, French lexicographer Emile Littré had defined a generation as, "all people coexisting in society at any given time". Several trends promoted a new idea of generations, as the 19th century wore on, of a society divided into different categories of people based on age; these trends were all related to the processes of modernisation, industrialisation, or westernisation, changing the face of Europe since the mid-18th century.
One was a change in mentality about time and social change. The increasing prevalence of enlightenment ideas encouraged the idea that society and life were changeable, that civilization could progress; this encouraged the equation of youth with social change. Political rhetoric in the 19th century focused on the renewing power of youth influenced by movements such as Young Italy, Young Germany, Sturm und Drang, the German Youth Movement, other romantic movements. By the end of the 19th century, European intellectuals were disposed toward thinking of the world in generational terms—in terms of youth rebellion and emancipation. Two important contributing factors to the change in mentality were the change in the economic structure of society; because of the rapid social and economic change, young men were less beholden to their fathers and family authority than they had been. Greater social and economic mobility allowed them to flout their authority to a much greater extent than had traditionally been possible.
Additionally, the skills and wisdom of fathers were less valuable than they had been due to technological and social change. During this time, the period between childhood and adulthood spent at university or in military service, was increased for many people entering white-collar jobs; this category of people was influential in spreading the ideas of youthful renewal. Another important factor was the breakdown of traditional regional identifications; the spread of nationalism and many of the factors that created it encouraged a broader sense of belonging beyond local affiliations. People thought of themselves as part of a society, this encouraged identification with groups beyond the local. Auguste Comte was the first philosopher to make a serious attempt to systematically study generations. In Cours de philosophie positive Comte suggested that social change is determined by generational change and in particular conflict between successive generations; as the members of a given generation age, their "instinct of social conservation" becomes stronger and brings them into conflict with the "normal attribute of youth"—innovation.
Other important theorists of the 19th century were John Stuart Mill and Wilhelm
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod referred to as the Missouri Synod, is a traditional, confessional Lutheran denomination in the United States. With 2.0 million members, it is the second-largest Lutheran body in the U. S. the largest being Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. The LCMS was organized in 1847 at a meeting in Chicago, Illinois, as the German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri and Other States, a name which reflected the geographic locations of the founding congregations; the LCMS has congregations in all 50 U. S. states and two Canadian provinces, but over half of its members are located in the Midwest. It is a member of the International Lutheran Council and is in altar and pulpit fellowship with most of that group's members; the LCMS is headquartered in Kirkwood, is divided into 35 districts—33 of which are geographic and two non-geographic. The current president is Matthew C. Harrison, who took office on September 1, 2010; the Missouri Synod emerged from several communities of German Lutheran immigrants during the 1830s and 1840s.
In Indiana and Michigan, isolated Germans in the dense forests of the American frontier were brought together and ministered to by missionary F. C. D. Wyneken. A communal emigration from Saxony under Bishop Martin Stephan created a community in Perry County, St. Louis, Missouri. In Michigan and Ohio, missionaries sent by Wilhelm Löhe ministered to scattered congregations and founded German Lutheran communities in Frankenmuth and the Saginaw Valley of Michigan. In the 19th-century German Kingdom of Saxony, Lutheran pastor Martin Stephan and many of his followers found themselves at odds with the rationalism, Christian ecumenism, the prospect of a forced unionism of the Lutheran church with the Reformed church. In the neighboring Kingdom of Prussia, the Prussian Union of 1817 put in place what they considered non-Lutheran communion and baptismal doctrine and practice. In order to practice their Christian faith in accordance with the Lutheran confessions outlined in the Book of Concord and between 600 and 700 other Saxon Lutherans left for the United States in November 1838.
Their ships arrived between December 31, 1838, January 20, 1839, in New Orleans, with one ship lost at sea. Most of the remaining immigrants left immediately, with the first group arriving in St. Louis on January 19, 1839; the final group, led by Stephan, remained in New Orleans for ten days to wait for the passengers of the lost ship Amalia. The immigrants settled in Perry County, in and around St. Louis. Stephan was the bishop of the new settlement, but he soon became embroiled in charges of corruption and sexual misconduct with members of the congregation and was expelled from the settlement, leaving C. F. W. Walther as the leader of the colony. During this period, there was considerable debate within the settlement over the proper status of the church in the New World: whether it was a new church or whether it remained within the Lutheran hierarchy in Germany. Walther's view that they could consider themselves a new church prevailed. Beginning in 1841, the parish pastor in Neuendettelsau, Bavaria—Wilhelm Löhe—inspired by appeals for aid to the German immigrants in North America, began to solicit funds for missionary work among them.
He began training men to become pastors and teachers, sending his first two students—Adam Ernst and Georg Burger—to America on August 5, 1842. Löhe sent over 80 pastors and students of theology to America. Löhe led an early and abortive effort to send missionaries to convert the Native Americans. In 1844 and 1845, he solicited colonists to form a German Lutheran settlement in Michigan, with the thought that this settlement would serve as the base for missionary activity among the Native Americans; the colonists left Germany on April 20, 1845, under the leadership of Pastor August Crämer, arrived in Saginaw County, Michigan, in August of that year. They founded several villages—Frankenmuth, Frankenlust and Frankenhilf —and worked to convert the Native Americans, they had limited success and the villages became nearly German settlements within a few years. In addition to sending pastors, theological students, colonists to America, Löhe played an instrumental role in the formation of Concordia Theological Seminary, raising funds for the new institution and sending eleven theological students and a professor from Germany to help found it.
The seminary's first president, Wilhelm Sihler, had been sent by Löhe to America several years before. It was due to Löhe's great zeal and indefatigable labors that the LCMS' first president, C. F. W. Walther, once said of him, "Next to God, it is Pastor Loehe to whom our Synod is indebted for its happy beginning and rapid growth in which it rejoices, it would fill the pages of an entire book to recount briefly what for many years this man, with tireless zeal in the noblest unselfish spirit, has done for our Lutheran Church and our Synod in particular." In 1844 and 1845, the three groups listed above began to discuss the possibility of forming a new, confessional Lutheran church body. As a result of these discussions, the Löhe missionaries and Wyneken and his assistant decided to leave their respective synods. Two planning meetings were held in St. Louis and Fort Wayne, Indiana in May and July 1846
In the context of human society, a family is a group of people related either by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence or some combination of these. Members of the immediate family may include spouses, brothers, sisters and daughters. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, uncles, nephews and siblings-in-law. Sometimes these are considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individual's specific relationship with them. In most societies, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children; as the basic unit for raising children, anthropologists classify most family organizations as matrifocal. Sexual relations among the members are regulated by rules concerning incest such as the incest taboo; the word "family" can be used metaphorically to create more inclusive categories such as community, global village, humanism. The field of genealogy aims to trace family lineages through history; the family is an important economic unit studied in family economics.
One of the primary functions of the family involves providing a framework for the production and reproduction of persons biologically and socially. This can occur through the sharing of material substances. Thus, one's experience of one's family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is G "family of orientation": the family serves to locate children and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization. From the point of view of the parent, the family is a "family of procreation", the goal of, to produce and enculturate and socialize children. However, producing children is not the only function of the family. Christopher Harris notes that the western conception of family is ambiguous and confused with the household, as revealed in the different contexts in which the word is used. Olivia Harris states this confusion is not accidental, but indicative of the familial ideology of capitalist, western countries that pass social legislation that insists members of a nuclear family should live together, that those not so related should not live together.
The total fertility rate of women varies from country to country, from a high of 6.76 children born/woman in Niger to a low of 0.81 in Singapore. Fertility is low in most Eastern Southern European countries. In some cultures, the mother's preference of family size influences that of the children through early adulthood. A parent's number of children correlates with the number of children that they will have. Although early western cultural anthropologists and sociologists considered family and kinship to be universally associated with relations by "blood" research has shown that many societies instead understand family through ideas of living together, the sharing of food and sharing care and nurture. Sociologists have a special interest in the function and status of family forms in stratified societies. According to the work of scholars Max Weber, Alan Macfarlane, Steven Ozment, Jack Goody and Peter Laslett, the huge transformation that led to modern marriage in Western democracies was "fueled by the religio-cultural value system provided by elements of Judaism, early Christianity, Roman Catholic canon law and the Protestant Reformation".
Much sociological and anthropological research dedicates itself to the understanding of this variation, of changes in the family that form over time. Levitan claims: "Times have changed; the way roles are balanced between the parents will help children grow and learn valuable life lessons. There is great importance of communication and equality in families, in order to avoid role strain." The term "nuclear family" is used in the United States of America, to refer to conjugal families. A "conjugal" family includes only the unmarried children who are not of age; some sociologists distinguish between nuclear families. Other family structures - with blended parents, single parents, domestic partnerships - have begun to challenge the normality of the nuclear family. A single-parent family consist one parent together with his or her children, where the parent is either widowed and not remarried, or never married; the parent may either have sole custody of the children, or, the parents may have a shared parenting arrangement, where the children divide their time between two different single-parent families or between one single-parent family and one blended family.
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad