Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educator and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, its second President. He is considered one of the fathers of the modern Olympic Games. Born into a French aristocratic family, he became an academic and studied a broad range of topics, most notably education and history, he graduated with a degree in public affairs Paris Institute of Political Studies. It was at Sciences Po; the Pierre de Coubertin medal is an award given by the International Olympic Committee to athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in the Olympic Games. Pierre de Frédy was born in Paris on 1 January 1863, into an aristocratic family, he was the fourth child of Baron Charles Louis de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin and Marie–Marcelle Gigault de Crisenoy. Family tradition held that the Frédy name had first arrived in France in the early 15th century, the first recorded title of nobility granted to the family was given by Louis XI to an ancestor named Pierre de Frédy, in 1477.
But other branches of his family tree delved further into French history, the annals of both sides of his family included nobles of various stations, military leaders and associates of kings and princes of France. His father Charles was a staunch royalist and accomplished artist whose paintings were displayed and given prizes at the Parisian salon, at least in those years when he was not absent in protest of the rise to power of Louis Napoleon, his paintings centred on themes related to the Roman Catholic Church and nobility, which reflected those things he thought most important. In a semi-fictional autobiographical piece called Le Roman d'un rallié, Coubertin describes his relationship with both his mother and his father as having been somewhat strained during his childhood and adolescence, his memoirs elaborated further, describing as a pivotal moment his disappointment upon meeting Henri, Count of Chambord, whom the elder Coubertin believed to be the rightful king. Coubertin grew up in a time of profound change in France: France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the Paris Commune, the establishment of the French Third Republic, the Dreyfus affair.
But while these events were the setting of his childhood, his school experiences were just as formative. In October 1874, his parents enrolled him in a new Jesuit school called Externat de la rue de Vienne, still under construction for his first five years there. While many of the school's attendees were day students, Coubertin boarded at the school under the supervision of a Jesuit priest, which his parents hoped would instill him with a strong moral and religious education. There, he was among the top three students in his class, was an officer of the school's elite academy made up of its best and brightest; this suggests that despite his rebelliousness at home, Coubertin adapted well to the strict rigors of a Jesuit education. As an aristocrat, Coubertin had a number of career paths from which to choose, including prominent roles in the military or politics, but he chose instead to pursue a career as an intellectual and writing on a broad range of topics, including education, history and sociology.
The subject which he seems to have been most interested in was education, his study focused in particular on physical education and the role of sport in schooling. In 1883, he visited England for the first time, studied the program of physical education instituted by Thomas Arnold at the Rugby School. Coubertin credited these methods with leading to the expansion of British power during the 19th century and advocated their use in French institutions; the inclusion of physical education in the curriculum of French schools would become an ongoing pursuit and passion of Coubertin's. Coubertin is thought to have exaggerated the importance of sport to Thomas Arnold, whom he viewed as "one of the founders of athletic chivalry"; the character-reforming influence of sport with which Coubertin was so impressed is more to have originated in the novel Tom Brown's School Days rather than in the ideas of Arnold himself. Nonetheless, Coubertin was an enthusiast in need of a cause and he found it in England and in Thomas Arnold.
"Thomas Arnold, the leader and classic model of English educators," wrote Coubertin, "gave the precise formula for the role of athletics in education. The cause was won. Playing fields sprang up all over England". Intrigued by what he had read about English public schools, in 1883, at the age of twenty, Frédy went to Rugby and to other English schools to see for himself, he described the results in a book, L'Education en Angleterre, published in Paris in 1888. This hero of his book is Thomas Arnold, on his second visit in 1886, Coubertin reflected on Arnold's influence in the chapel at Rugby School. What Coubertin saw on the playing fields of Rugby and the other English schools he visited was how "organised sport can create moral and social strength". Not only did organised games help to set the mind and body in equilibrium, it prevented the time being wasted in other ways. First developed by the ancient Greeks, it was an approach to education that he felt the rest of the world had forgotten and to whose revival he was to dedicate the rest of his life.
As a historian and a thinker on education, Coubertin romanticised ancient Greece. Thus, when he began to develop his theory of physical education, he looked to the example set by the Athe
An Olympiad is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 3rd year of the 699th Olympiad will begin in mid-summer 2019. A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports; the first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, so on. The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD, but as the Gregorian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.
An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed; the sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, by the time of Eratosthenes, it was agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC. The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states; the first to do so was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by historian for events before the 5th century BC are unreliable.
In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius. Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius. Early historians sometimes used the names of Olympic victors as a method of dating events to a specific year. For instance, Thucydides says in his account of the year 428 BC: "It was the Olympiad in which the Rhodian Dorieus gained his second victory". Dionysius of Halicarnassus dates the foundation of Rome to the first year of the seventh Olympiad, 752/1 BC. Since Rome was founded on April 21, in the last half of the ancient Olympic year, it would be 751 BC specifically. In Book 1 chapter 75 Dionysius states: "... Romulus, the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first year of the seventh Olympiad, when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon."
Diodorus Siculus dates the Persian invasion of Greece to 480 BC: "Calliades was archon in Athens, the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the stadion. It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece." Jerome, in his Latin translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius, dates the birth of Jesus Christ to year 3 of Olympiad 194, the 42nd year of the reign of the emperor Augustus, which equates to the year 2 BC. An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August; the games were therefore a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21.. Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians; the Eleians declared such games Anolympiads, but it is assumed the winners were recorded.
During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit deriving from a sport was banned; some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused; the modern Olympiad is a period of four years, beginning at the opening of the Olympic Summer Games and ending at the opening of the next. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896; the XXXI Olympiad began on August 5, 2016 and will end on July 24, 2020. The Summer Olympics are more referred to as the Games of the Olympiad; the first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad Note, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does
Special Olympics World Games
The Special Olympics World Games are an international sporting competition for athletes with intellectual disabilities, organized by the IOC-recognised Special Olympics organisation. Although local Special Olympics events and competitions are held around the world every day, the World Games are flagship events; the goal is to showcase the skills and accomplishments of people with intellectual disabilities on a global stage. The World Games feature more than a week of competitions involving thousands of athletes. Through media coverage of the Games, the stories and achievements of children and adults with intellectual disabilities are made known to millions of people worldwide. Special Olympics World Games take place every two years and alternate between Summer and Winter Games, a schedule similar to the Olympics and Paralympics. Attracting as many as 350,000 volunteers and coaches, plus several thousands of athletes, these World Games can be the world's largest sporting event of the year. Special Olympics athletes can compete in 32 Olympic-style winter sports.
The athletes are adults and children with intellectual disabilities who can range from gifted, world-class competitors to average athletes to those with limited physical ability. It's a fundamental rule of Special Olympics competitions that athletes are matched up according to their ability and age; this “divisioning” process is an effort to make every competition fair and exciting for athletes as well as fans. The first International Special Olympics Summer Games were held in Chicago, Illinois, US, in 1968, while the first International Special Olympics Winter Games were held in February 1977 in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, US. In 1991, the name was changed from International Special Olympics Summer/Winter Games to Special Olympics World Summer/Winter Games. In 2011, Special Olympics World Summer Games were held on June 25 – July 4 in Athens, involving 6,000 athletes with intellectual disabilities from 170 countries. In 2013, the Special Olympics World Winter Games were held in PyeongChang, South Korea from Jan. 29 – Feb. 5.
The Host Town program, in which families host Special Olympics athletes from around the world t 13. In 2015 Special Olympics World Summer Games; these games were the first Special Olympics World Summer Games held in the United States in 16 years since the 1999 Summer Games held in Raleigh, North Carolina. In 2017 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Schladming in Styria, Austria; this marked a return: Salzburg and Schladming, Austria hosted the fifth Special Olympics World Winter Games in 1993. These were the first Special Olympics; the 2017 World Winter Games were held on March 14-25, 2017. The recent Special Olympics World Summer Games were held March 14-21, 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; these were the first Special Olympics. Competitions were held in 24 sports. Åre and Östersund,Sweden will host the next World Winter Games between February 2 to 13, 2021. It will mark the first time that Sweden has hosted the Special Olympics World Games. Berlin, Germany will host the next World Summer Games in 2023.
It will mark the first time that Germany has hosted the Special Olympics World Games
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, United States, from April 30 to December 1, 1904. Local and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event. More than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, attended by nearly 19.7 million people. Historians emphasize the prominence of themes of race and empire, the fair's long-lasting impact on intellectuals in the fields of history, art history and anthropology. From the point of view of the memory of the average person who attended the fair, it promoted entertainment, consumer goods and popular culture. In 1904, St. Louis hosted a World's Fair to celebrate the centennial of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase; the idea for such a commemorative event seems to have emerged early in 1898, with Kansas City and St. Louis presented as potential hosts for a fair based on their central location within the territory encompassed by the 1803 land annexation.
The exhibition was grand in scale and lengthy in preparation, with an initial $5 million committed by the city of St. Louis through the sale of city bonds was authorized by the Missouri state legislature in April 1899. An additional $5 million was generated through private donations by interested citizens and businesses from around Missouri, a fundraising target reached in January 1901; the final installment of $5 million of the exposition's $15 million capitalization came in the form of earmarked funds that were part of a congressional appropriations bill passed at the end of May 1900. The fundraising mission was aided by the active support of President of the United States William McKinley, won by organizers in a February 1899 White House visit. While conceived as a centennial celebration to be held in 1903, the actual opening of the St. Louis exposition was delayed until April 30, 1904, to allow for full-scale participation by more states and foreign countries; the exposition remained in operation from its opening until December 1, 1904.
During the year of the fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition supplanted the annual St. Louis Exposition of agricultural and scientific exhibitions, held in the city since the 1880s; the fair's 1,200-acre site, designed by George Kessler, was located at the present-day grounds of Forest Park and on the campus of Washington University, was the largest fair to date. There were over 1,500 buildings, connected by some 75 miles of walkways, it was said to be impossible to give a hurried glance at everything in less than a week. The Palace of Agriculture alone covered some 20 acres. Exhibits were staged by 50 foreign nations, the United States government, 43 of the then-45 U. S. states. These featured industries, private organizations and corporations, theater troupes, music schools. There were over 50 concession-type amusements found on "The Pike". Over 19 million individuals were in attendance at the fair. In conjunction with the Exposition the U. S. Post Office issued a series of five commemorative stamps celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase.
The 1-cent value portrayed Robert Livingston, the ambassador who negotiated the purchase with France, the 2-cent value depicts Thomas Jefferson, who executed the purchase, the 3-cent honors James Monroe, who participated in negotiations with the French, the 5-cent memorializes William McKinley, involved with early plans for the Exposition and the 10-cent presents a map of the Louisiana Purchase. Louisiana Purchase Commemoratives Kessler, who designed many urban parks in Texas and the Midwest, created the master design for the Fair. A popular myth says that Frederick Law Olmsted, who had died the year before the Fair, designed the park and fair grounds. There are several reasons for this confusion. First, Kessler in his twenties had worked for Olmsted as a Central Park gardener. Second, Olmsted was involved with Forest Park in New York. Third, Olmsted had planned the renovations in 1897 to the Missouri Botanical Garden several blocks to the southeast of the park. Olmsted's sons advised Washington University on integrating the campus with the park across the street.
In 1901 the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Corporation selected prominent St. Louis architect Isaac S. Taylor as the Chairman of the Architectural Commission and Director of Works for the fair, supervising the overall design and construction. Taylor appointed Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be his Chief of Design. In the position for three years, Masqueray designed the following Fair buildings: Palace of Agriculture, the Cascades and Colonnades, Palace of Forestry and Game, Palace of Horticulture and Palace of Transportation, all of which were emulated in civic projects across the United States as part of the City Beautiful movement. Masqueray resigned shortly after the Fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota to design a new cathedral for the city. Paul J. Pelz was architect for the Palace of Machinery. According to a claim in a 1923 edition of The Colored Citizen of Pensacola, the majority of work in building the fair was done by African Americans, including all the engineering calculations for the layout of the park.
Many African Americans were not credited. Florence Hayward, a successful freelance writer in St. Lo
The Olympic symbols are icons and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee to elevate the Olympic Games. Some—such as the flame and theme—are more used during Olympic competition, but others, such as the flags, can be seen throughout the years; the Olympic flag was created under the guidance of Baron Coubertin in 1913 and was released in 1914. But it was first hoisted in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium at the 1920 Summer Olympics in the main stadium. Five rings equal the Five continents of the world; the Olympic motto is the hendiatris Citius, Fortius, Latin for "Faster, Stronger". It was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin upon the creation of the International Olympic Committee in 1894. Coubertin borrowed it from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest, an athletics enthusiast. Coubertin said "These three words represent a programme of moral beauty; the aesthetics of sport are intangible." The motto was introduced in 1924 at the Olympic Games in Paris. A more informal but well-known motto introduced by Coubertin, is "The most important thing is not to win but to take part!"
Coubertin got this motto from a sermon by the Bishop of Pennsylvania during the 1908 London Games. The rings are five interlocking rings, coloured blue, black and red on a white field, known as the "Olympic rings"; the symbol was designed in 1912 by de Coubertin. He appears to have intended the rings to represent the five continents: Europe, Africa and America. According to Coubertin, the colours of the rings together with the white of the background included the colours composing every competing nation's flag at the time. Upon its initial introduction, Coubertin stated the following in the August 1912 edition of Olympique:... the six colours combined in this way reproduce the colours of every country without exception. The blue and yellow of Sweden, the blue and white of Greece, the tricolour flags of France, the United States, Belgium and Hungary, the yellow and red of Spain are included, as are the innovative flags of Brazil and Australia, those of ancient Japan and modern China; this is an international emblem.
In his article published in the Olympic Revue the official magazine of the International Olympic Committee in November 1992, the American historian Robert Barney explains that the idea of the interlaced rings came to Pierre de Coubertin when he was in charge of the USFSA, an association founded by the union of two French sports associations and until 1925, responsible for representing the International Olympic Committee in France: The emblem of the union was two interlaced rings and the idea of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung: for him, the ring symbolized continuity and the human being. The 1914 Congress was suspended due to the outbreak of World War I, but the symbol and flag were adopted, they debuted at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. The symbol's popularity and widespread use began during the lead-up to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Carl Diem, president of the Organizing Committee of the 1936 Summer Olympics, wanted to hold a torchbearers' ceremony in the stadium at Delphi, site of the famous oracle, where the Pythian Games were held.
For this reason he ordered construction of a milestone with the Olympic rings carved in the sides, that a torchbearer should carry the flame along with an escort of three others from there to Berlin. The ceremony was celebrated but the stone was never removed. Two American authors and Gray Poole, when visiting Delphi in the late 1950s, saw the stone and reported in their History of the Ancient Games that the Olympic rings design came from ancient Greece; this has become known as "Carl Diem's Stone". This created a myth; the current view of the International Olympic Committee is that the symbol "reinforces the idea" that the Olympic Movement is international and welcomes all countries of the world to join. As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the "five continents" of the world and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Prior to 1951, the official handbook stated that each colour corresponded to a particular continent: blue for Europe, yellow for Asia, black for Africa, green for Australia and Oceania, red for the Americas.
The logo of the Association of National Olympic Committees places the logo of each of its five continental associations inside the ring of the corresponding colour. The Olympic flag was created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1913; the Olympic flag has a white background, with five interlaced rings in the centre: blue, black and red. This design is symbolic. There are specific Olympic flags that are displayed by cities that will be hosting the next Olympic games. During each Olympic closing ceremony in what is traditionally known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the flag is passed from the mayor of one host city to the next host, where it will be taken to the new host and displayed at city hall; these flags should not be confused with the larger Olympic flags designed and created for each games, which are flown over the host stadium and retired. Because there is no specific flag for this purp
The Olympic Charter is a set of rules and guidelines for the organisation of the Olympic Games, for governing the Olympic movement. Its last revision was on the 15th of September 2017 during the 131st IOC Session in Peru. Adopted by International Olympic Committee, it is the codification of the fundamental principles, rules and by-laws. French and English are the official languages of the Olympic Charter. Throughout the history of the Olympics, the Olympic Charter has decided the outcome of Olympic controversy; as expressed in its introduction, the Olympic Charter serves three main purposes: to establish principles and values of Olympism to serve as IOC law to define the rights and obligations of the four main constituents of the Olympic movement: the International Olympic Committee, the International Federations and the National Olympic Committees, the Organising Committees for the Olympic Games. With its 5 chapters and 61 articles, the Olympic Charter outlines in detail several guidelines and rules.
This article highlights and summarises those items considered most important to governing the Olympic Games, the Olympic movement, its three main constituents: the International Olympic Committee, the International Federations, the National Olympic Committees. Article 2: The mission of the IOC is to promote Olympism throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement; this includes upholding ethics in sports, encouraging participation in sports, ensuring the Olympic Games take place on a regular period, protecting the Olympic Movement, encouraging and supporting the development of sport. Article 6: The Olympic Games are competitions between athletes in individual or team events and not between countries. Article 8: The Olympic symbol consists of five interlocking rings which, from left to right are blue, black and red; this chapter outlines the membership and guiding doctrines of the International Olympic Committee. Chapter 3 discusses the role of International Federations in the Olympic movement.
IFs are international non-governmental organisations that administer to sports at the world level and encompass organisations administering such sports at the national level. For each sport, part of the Olympic Games, an International Federation exists; these IFs work to ensure their sports are developed in a way that agrees with the Olympic Charter and the Olympic spirit. With technical expertise in its particular sport, an IF has control over eligibility for competition as well as details of the venue in which the athletic competition takes place. Article 28: The mission of the National Olympic Committees is to develop and protect the Olympic Movement in their respective countries; the role of NOCs within each country is to promote the spirit of Olympicism, ensure the observance of the Olympic Charter, to encourage ethics in and development of sports. They are in charge of their country's representation at the Games, deciding on a host city for the Games, cooperation with governmental and non-governmental bodies during the Games.
This chapter addresses the celebration of the Olympic Games, the selection of the host city, the eligibility code for participation in the games, those sports included in the Games, media coverage and propaganda allowed for the Games. In addition, Section 3 of this chapter discusses applicable protocol for Olympic functions and events; this includes an outline of use of the Olympic flag and opening and closing ceremonies. The five rings of the Olympic games signify the five continents. Olympism is a philosophy of life and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort, the educational value of good example, social responsibility and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles; the goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of humankind, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity.
The Olympic Movement is the concerted, organised and permanent action, carried out under the supreme authority of the IOC, of all individuals and entities who are inspired by the values of Olympism. It covers the five continents, it reaches its peak with the bringing together of the world’s athletes at the great sports festival, the Olympic Games. Its symbol is five interlaced rings; the practice of sport is a human right. Every individual must have the possibility of practising sport, without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship and fair play. Recognising that sport occurs within the framework of society, sports organisations within the Olympic Movement shall have the rights and obligations of autonomy, which include establishing and controlling the rules of sport, determining the structure and governance of their organisations, enjoying the right of elections free from any outside influence and the responsibility for ensuring that principles of good governance be applied.
The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Olympic Charter shall be secured without discrimination of any kind, such as race, sex, sexual orientation, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, birth or other status. Belonging to the Olympic Movement requires compliance with the Olympic Charter and recognition by the IOC; the Olympic Charter is not a matter of unenforced policy for the Olympic Games. Throughout history, it has served as guidance for the proceedings of the Games. Below are a few of the most recent examples: May 2004: Bernard Lagat became a US citizen