International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology". IEC standards cover a vast range of technologies from power generation and distribution to home appliances and office equipment, fibre optics, solar energy and marine energy as well as many others; the IEC manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards. The IEC charter embraces all electrotechnologies including energy production and distribution, electronics and electromagnetics, multimedia, telecommunication and medical technology, as well as associated general disciplines such as terminology and symbols, electromagnetic compatibility and performance, dependability and development, safety and the environment; the first International Electrical Congress took place in 1881 at the International Exposition of Electricity, held in Paris.
At that time the International System of Electrical and Magnetic Units was agreed to. The International Electrotechnical Commission held its inaugural meeting on 26 June 1906, following discussions among the British Institution of Electrical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, others, which began at the 1900 Paris International Electrical Congress, continued with Colonel R. E. B. Crompton playing a key role. In 1906, Lord Kelvin was elected as the first President of the International Electrotechnical Commission; the IEC was instrumental in developing and distributing standards for units of measurement the gauss and weber. It first proposed a system of standards, the Giorgi System, which became the SI, or Système International d’unités. In 1938, it published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical and related technologies; this effort continues, the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries.
The CISPR – in English, the International Special Committee on Radio Interference – is one of the groups founded by the IEC. 82 countries are members while another 82 participate in the Affiliate Country Programme, not a form of membership but is designed to help industrializing countries get involved with the IEC. Located in London, the commission moved to its current headquarters in Geneva in 1948, it has regional centres in Latin America and North America. Today, the IEC is the world's leading international organization in its field, its standards are adopted as national standards by its members; the work is done by some 10,000 electrical and electronics experts from industry, academia, test labs and others with an interest in the subject. IEC standards have numbers in the range 60000–79999 and their titles take a form such as IEC 60417: Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Following the Dresden Agreement with CENELEC the numbers of older IEC standards were converted in 1997 by adding 60000, for example IEC 27 became IEC 60027.
Standards of the 60000 series are found preceded by EN to indicate that the IEC standard is adopted by CENELEC as a European standard. The IEC cooperates with the International Organization for Standardization and the International Telecommunication Union. In addition, it works with several major standards development organizations, including the IEEE with which it signed a cooperation agreement in 2002, amended in 2008 to include joint development work. Standards developed jointly with ISO such as ISO/IEC 26300, ISO/IEC 27001, CASCO ISO/IEC 17000 series, carry the acronym of both organizations; the use of the ISO/IEC prefix covers publications from ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 - Information Technology, as well as conformity assessment standards developed by ISO CASCO and IEC CAB. Other standards developed in cooperation between IEC and ISO are assigned numbers in the 80000 series, such as IEC 82045-1. IEC standards are being adopted by other certifying bodies such as BSI, CSA, UL & ANSI/INCITS, SABS, SAI, SPC/GB and DIN.
IEC standards adopted by other certifying bodies may have some noted differences from the original IEC standard. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, each NC represents its nation's electrotechnical interests in the IEC; this includes manufacturers, providers and vendors, consumers and users, all levels of governmental agencies, professional societies and trade associations as well as standards developers from national standards bodies. National committees are constituted in different ways; some NCs are public sector only, some are a combination of public and private sector, some are private sector only. About 90% of those who prepare IEC standards work in industry. IEC Member countries include: Source: In 2001 and in response to calls from t
International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM produces and sells computer hardware and software, provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is a major research organization, holding the record for most U. S. patents generated by a business for 26 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, dynamic random-access memory; the IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets.
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo, acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting, SPSS, The Weather Company, Red Hat. In 2014, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries. Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 380,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, the country with the largest number of IBMers is India. IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology and five National Medals of Science. In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would form the core of International Business Machines. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885. On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company based in Endicott, New York.
The five companies had offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York. C.. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR. Watson joined CTR as General Manager 11 months was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies, he implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees. During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America and Australia.
Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924 chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines". By 1933 most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U. S. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act, the tracking of persecuted groups by Hitler's Third Reich through the German subsidiary Dehomag. In 1949, Thomas Watson, Sr. created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations. In 1952, he stepped down after 40 years at the company helm, his son Thomas Watson, Jr. was named president. In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience.
In 1957, the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the successful Selectric typewriter. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped. A year it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York; the latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights and 1969 lunar mission. On April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360, it spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. It was followed by the IBM System/370 in 1970. Together the
X86 is a family of instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address; the term "x86" came into being because the names of several successors to Intel's 8086 processor end in "86", including the 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 processors. Many additions and extensions have been added to the x86 instruction set over the years consistently with full backward compatibility; the architecture has been implemented in processors from Intel, Cyrix, AMD, VIA and many other companies. Of those, only Intel, AMD, VIA hold x86 architectural licenses, are producing modern 64-bit designs; the term is not synonymous with IBM PC compatibility, as this implies a multitude of other computer hardware. As of 2018, the majority of personal computers and laptops sold are based on the x86 architecture, while other categories—especially high-volume mobile categories such as smartphones or tablets—are dominated by ARM.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, when the 8088 and 80286 were still in common use, the term x86 represented any 8086 compatible CPU. Today, however, x86 implies a binary compatibility with the 32-bit instruction set of the 80386; this is due to the fact that this instruction set has become something of a lowest common denominator for many modern operating systems and also because the term became common after the introduction of the 80386 in 1985. A few years after the introduction of the 8086 and 8088, Intel added some complexity to its naming scheme and terminology as the "iAPX" of the ambitious but ill-fated Intel iAPX 432 processor was tried on the more successful 8086 family of chips, applied as a kind of system-level prefix. An 8086 system, including coprocessors such as 8087 and 8089, as well as simpler Intel-specific system chips, was thereby described as an iAPX 86 system. There were terms iRMX, iSBC, iSBX – all together under the heading Microsystem 80. However, this naming scheme was quite temporary.
Although the 8086 was developed for embedded systems and small multi-user or single-user computers as a response to the successful 8080-compatible Zilog Z80, the x86 line soon grew in features and processing power. Today, x86 is ubiquitous in both stationary and portable personal computers, is used in midrange computers, workstations and most new supercomputer clusters of the TOP500 list. A large amount of software, including a large list of x86 operating systems are using x86-based hardware. Modern x86 is uncommon in embedded systems and small low power applications as well as low-cost microprocessor markets, such as home appliances and toys, lack any significant x86 presence. Simple 8-bit and 16-bit based architectures are common here, although the x86-compatible VIA C7, VIA Nano, AMD's Geode, Athlon Neo and Intel Atom are examples of 32- and 64-bit designs used in some low power and low cost segments. There have been several attempts, including by Intel itself, to end the market dominance of the "inelegant" x86 architecture designed directly from the first simple 8-bit microprocessors.
Examples of this are the iAPX 432, the Intel 960, Intel 860 and the Intel/Hewlett-Packard Itanium architecture. However, the continuous refinement of x86 microarchitectures and semiconductor manufacturing would make it hard to replace x86 in many segments. AMD's 64-bit extension of x86 and the scalability of x86 chips such as the eight-core Intel Xeon and 12-core AMD Opteron is underlining x86 as an example of how continuous refinement of established industry standards can resist the competition from new architectures; the table below lists processor models and model series implementing variations of the x86 instruction set, in chronological order. Each line item is characterized by improved or commercially successful processor microarchitecture designs. At various times, companies such as IBM, NEC, AMD, TI, STM, Fujitsu, OKI, Cyrix, Intersil, C&T, NexGen, UMC, DM&P started to design or manufacture x86 processors intended for personal computers as well as embedded systems; such x86 implementations are simple copies but employ different internal microarchitectures as well as different solutions at the electronic and physical levels.
Quite early compatible microprocessors were 16-bit, while 32-bit designs were developed much later. For the personal computer market, real quantities started to appear around 1990 with i386 and i486 compatible processors named to Intel's original chips. Other companies, which designed or manufactured x86 or x87 processors, include ITT Corporation, National Semiconductor, ULSI System Technology, Weitek. Following the pipelined i486, Intel introduced the Pentium brand name for their new set of superscalar x86 designs.
The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector. Introduced in 1979 with HMOS technology as the first member of the successful 32-bit Motorola 68000 series, it is software forward-compatible with the rest of the line despite being limited to a 16-bit wide external bus. After 39 years in production, the 68000 architecture is still in use; the 68000 grew out of the MACSS project, begun in 1976 to develop an new architecture without backward compatibility. It would be a higher-power sibling complementing the existing 8-bit 6800 line rather than a compatible successor. In the end, the 68000 did retain a bus protocol compatibility mode for existing 6800 peripheral devices, a version with an 8-bit data bus was produced. However, the designers focused on the future, or forward compatibility, which gave the 68000 design a head start against 32-bit instruction set architectures.
For instance, the CPU registers are 32 bits wide, though few self-contained structures in the processor itself operate on 32 bits at a time. The MACSS team drew on the influence of minicomputer processor design, such as the PDP-11 and VAX systems, which were microcode-based. In the mid 1970s, the 8-bit microprocessor manufacturers raced to introduce the 16-bit generation. National Semiconductor had been first with its IMP-16 and PACE processors in 1973–1975, but these had issues with speed. Intel had worked on their advanced 16/32-bit Intel iAPX 432 since 1975 and their Intel 8086 since 1976. Arriving late to the 16-bit arena afforded the new processor more transistors, 32-bit macroinstructions, acclaimed general ease of use; the original MC68000 was fabricated using an HMOS process with a 3.5 µm feature size. Formally introduced in September 1979, initial samples were released in February 1980, with production chips available over the counter in November. Initial speed grades were 4, 6, 8 MHz. 10 MHz chips became available during 1981, 12.5 MHz chips by June 1982.
The 16.67 MHz "12F" version of the MC68000, the fastest version of the original HMOS chip, was not produced until the late 1980s. The 68k instruction set was well suited to implement Unix, the 68000 and its successors became the dominant CPUs for Unix-based workstations including Sun workstations and Apollo/Domain workstations; the 68000 was used for mass-market computers such as the Apple Lisa, Macintosh and Atari ST. The 68000 was used in Microsoft Xenix systems, as well as an early NetWare Unix-based Server; the 68000 was used in the first generation of desktop laser printers, including the original Apple Inc. LaserWriter and the HP LaserJet. In 1982, the 68000 received an update to its ISA allowing it to support virtual memory and to conform to the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements; the updated chip was called the 68010. A further extended version, which exposed 31 bits of the address bus, was produced in small quantities as the 68012. To support lower-cost systems and control applications with smaller memory sizes, Motorola introduced the 8-bit compatible MC68008 in 1982.
This was a 68000 with a smaller address bus. After 1982, Motorola devoted more attention to the 88000 projects. Several other companies were second-source manufacturers of the HMOS 68000; these included Hitachi, who shrank the feature size to 2.7 µm for their 12.5 MHz version, Rockwell, Thomson/SGS-Thomson, Toshiba. Toshiba was a second-source maker of the CMOS 68HC000. Encrypted variants of the 68000, being the Hitachi FD1089 and FD1094, store decryption keys for opcodes and opcode data in battery-backed memory and were used in certain Sega arcade systems including System 16 to prevent piracy and illegal bootleg games; the 68HC000, the first CMOS version of the 68000, was designed by Hitachi and jointly introduced in 1985. Motorola's version was called the MC68HC000, while Hitachi's was the HD68HC000; the 68HC000 was offered at speeds of 8–20 MHz. Except for using CMOS circuitry, it behaved identically to the HMOS MC68000, but the change to CMOS reduced its power consumption; the original HMOS MC68000 consumed around 1.35 watts at an ambient temperature of 25 °C, regardless of clock speed, while the MC68HC000 consumed only 0.13 watts at 8 MHz and 0.38 watts at 20 MHz.
Apple selected the 68HC000 for use in the Macintosh Portable. Motorola replaced the MC68008 with the MC68HC001 in 1990; this chip resembled the 68HC000 in most respects, but its data bus could operate in either 16-bit or 8-bit mode, depending on the value of an input pin at reset. Thus, like the 68008, it could be used in systems with cheaper 8-bit memories; the evolution of the 68000 focused on more modern embedded control applications and on-chip peripherals. The 68EC000 chip and SCM68000 core expanded the address bus to 32 bits, removed the M6800 peripheral bus, excluded the MOVE from SR instruction from user mode programs. In 1996, Motorola updated the standalone core with static circuitry, drawing only 2 µW in l
H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding is a block-oriented motion-compensation-based video compression standard. As of 2014, it is one of the most used formats for the recording and distribution of video content, it supports resolutions up to 8192×4320, including 8K UHD. The intent of the H.264/AVC project was to create a standard capable of providing good video quality at lower bit rates than previous standards, without increasing the complexity of design so much that it would be impractical or excessively expensive to implement. An additional goal was to provide enough flexibility to allow the standard to be applied to a wide variety of applications on a wide variety of networks and systems, including low and high bit rates and high resolution video, broadcast, DVD storage, RTP/IP packet networks, ITU-T multimedia telephony systems; the H.264 standard can be viewed as a "family of standards" composed of a number of different profiles. A specific decoder decodes at least one, but not all profiles.
The decoder specification describes. H.264 is used for lossy compression, although it is possible to create lossless-coded regions within lossy-coded pictures or to support rare use cases for which the entire encoding is lossless. H.264 was developed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group together with the ISO/IEC JTC1 Moving Picture Experts Group. The project partnership effort is known as the Joint Video Team; the ITU-T H.264 standard and the ISO/IEC MPEG-4 AVC standard are jointly maintained so that they have identical technical content. The final drafting work on the first version of the standard was completed in May 2003, various extensions of its capabilities have been added in subsequent editions. High Efficiency Video Coding, a.k.a. H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2 is a successor to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC developed by the same organizations, while earlier standards are still in common use. H.264 is best known as being one of the video encoding standards for Blu-ray Discs. It is widely used by streaming Internet sources, such as videos from Vimeo, YouTube, the iTunes Store, Web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial and satellite.
H.264 is protected by patents owned by various parties. A license covering most patents essential to H.264 is administered by patent pool MPEG LA. Commercial use of patented H.264 technologies requires the payment of royalties to MPEG LA and other patent owners. MPEG LA has allowed the free use of H.264 technologies for streaming Internet video, free to end users, Cisco Systems pays royalties to MPEG LA on behalf of the users of binaries for its open source H.264 encoder. The H.264 name follows the ITU-T naming convention, where the standard is a member of the H.26x line of VCEG video coding standards. The standard was developed jointly in a partnership of VCEG and MPEG, after earlier development work in the ITU-T as a VCEG project called H.26L. It is thus common to refer to the standard with names such as H.264/AVC, AVC/H.264, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, or MPEG-4/H.264 AVC, to emphasize the common heritage. It is referred to as "the JVT codec", in reference to the Joint Video Team organization that developed it.
Some software programs internally identify this standard as AVC1. In early 1998, the Video Coding Experts Group issued a call for proposals on a project called H.26L, with the target to double the coding efficiency in comparison to any other existing video coding standards for a broad variety of applications. VCEG was chaired by Gary Sullivan; the first draft design for that new standard was adopted in August 1999. In 2000, Thomas Wiegand became VCEG co-chair. In December 2001, VCEG and the Moving Picture Experts Group formed a Joint Video Team, with the charter to finalize the video coding standard. Formal approval of the specification came in March 2003; the JVT was chaired by Gary Sullivan, Thomas Wiegand, Ajay Luthra. In June 2004, the Fidelity range extensions project was finalized. From January 2005 to November 2007, the JVT was working on an extension of H.264/AVC towards scalability by an Annex called Scalable Video Coding. The JVT management team was extended by Jens-Rainer Ohm. From July 2006 to November 2009, the JVT worked on Multiview Video Coding, an extension of H.264/AVC towards free viewpoint television and 3D television.
That work included the development of two new profiles of the standard: the Multiview High Profile and the Stereo High Profile. The standardization of the first version of H.264/AVC was completed in May 2003. In the first project to extend the original standard, the JVT developed what was called the Fidelity Range Extensions; these extens
Commodore International was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel. Commodore International, along with its subsidiary Commodore Business Machines, participated in the development of the home–personal computer industry in the 1970s and 1980s; the company developed and marketed the world's best-selling desktop computer, the Commodore 64, released its Amiga computer line in July 1985. With quarterly sales ending 1983 of $49 million, Commodore was one of the world's largest personal computer manufacturers; the company that would become Commodore Business Machines, Inc. was founded in 1954 in Toronto as the Commodore Portable Typewriter Company by Polish-Jewish immigrant and Auschwitz survivor Jack Tramiel. For a few years he had been living in New York, driving a taxicab, running a small business repairing typewriters, when he managed to sign a deal with a Czechoslovakian company to manufacture their designs in Canada, he moved to Toronto to start production.
By the late 1950s a wave of Japanese machines forced most North American typewriter companies to cease business, but Tramiel instead turned to adding machines. In 1955, the company was formally incorporated as Inc. in Canada. In 1962 Commodore went public on the New York Stock Exchange, under the name of Commodore International Limited. In the late 1960s, history repeated itself when Japanese firms started producing and exporting adding machines; the company's main investor and chairman, Irving Gould, suggested that Tramiel travel to Japan to understand how to compete. Instead, Tramiel returned with the new idea to produce electronic calculators, which were just coming on the market. Commodore soon had a profitable calculator line and was one of the more popular brands in the early 1970s, producing both consumer as well as scientific/programmable calculators. However, in 1975, Texas Instruments, the main supplier of calculator parts, entered the market directly and put out a line of machines priced at less than Commodore's cost for the parts.
Commodore obtained an infusion of cash from Gould, which Tramiel used beginning in 1976 to purchase several second-source chip suppliers, including MOS Technology, Inc. in order to assure his supply. He agreed to buy MOS, having troubles of its own, only on the condition that its chip designer Chuck Peddle join Commodore directly as head of engineering. Through the 1970s Commodore produced numerous peripherals and consumer electronic products such as the Chessmate, a chess computer based around a MOS 6504 chip, released in 1978. In December 2007, when Tramiel was visiting the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, for the 25th anniversary of the Commodore 64, he was asked why he called his company Commodore, he said: "I wanted to call my company General, but there's so many Generals in the U. S.: General Electric, General Motors. I went to Admiral, but, taken. So I wind up in Berlin, with my wife, we were in a cab, the cab made a short stop, in front of us was an Opel Commodore." Tramiel gave this account in many interviews, but Opel's Commodore didn't debut until 1967, years after the company had been named.
Once Chuck Peddle had taken over engineering at Commodore, he convinced Jack Tramiel that calculators were a dead end, that they should turn their attention to home computers. Peddle packaged his single-board computer design in a metal case with a keyboard using calculator keys with a full-travel QWERTY keyboard, monochrome monitor, tape recorder for program and data storage, to produce the Commodore PET. From PET's 1977 debut, Commodore would be a computer company. Commodore had been reorganized the year before into Commodore International, Ltd. moving its financial headquarters to the Bahamas and its operational headquarters to West Chester, near the MOS Technology site. The operational headquarters, where research and development of new products occurred, retained the name Commodore Business Machines, Inc. In 1980 Commodore launched production for the European market in Braunschweig. By 1980, Commodore was one of the three largest microcomputer companies, the largest in the Common Market.
The company had lost its early domestic-market sales leadership, however. BYTE stated of the business computer market that "the lack of a marketing strategy by Commodore, as well as its past nonchalant attitude toward the encouragement and development of good software, has hurt its credibility in comparison to the other systems on the market"; the author of Programming the PET/CBM stated in its introduction that "CBM's product manuals are recognized to be unhelpful. Commodore reemphasized the US market with the VIC-20; the PET computer line was used in schools, where its tough all-metal construction and ability to share printers and disk drives on a simple local area network were advantages, but PETs did not compete well in the home setting where graphics and sound were important. This was addressed with the VIC-20 in 1981, introduced at a cost of US$299 and sold in retail stores. Commodore bought aggressive advertisements featuring William Shatner asking consumers "Why buy just a video game?"
The strategy worked and the VIC-20 became the first computer to ship more than one million units. A total of 2.5 million units were sold over the machine's lifetime and helped Commodore's sales to Canadian schools. In another promotion aimed at schools (and as a
High Efficiency Video Coding
High Efficiency Video Coding known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard, designed as a successor to the used AVC. In comparison to AVC, HEVC offers from 25% to 50% better data compression at the same level of video quality, or improved video quality at the same bit rate, it supports resolutions up to 8192×4320, including 8K UHD, unlike the 8-bit AVC, HEVC's higher fidelity Main10 profile has been incorporated into nearly all supporting hardware. HEVC is competing with the AV1 coding format for standardization by the video standard working group NetVC of the Internet Engineering Task Force. In most ways, HEVC is an extension of the concepts in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Both work by comparing different parts of a frame of video to find areas that are redundant, both within a single frame and between consecutive frames; these redundant areas are replaced with a short description instead of the original pixels. The primary changes for HEVC include the expansion of the pattern comparison and difference-coding areas from 16×16 pixel to sizes up to 64×64, improved variable-block-size segmentation, improved "intra" prediction within the same picture, improved motion vector prediction and motion region merging, improved motion compensation filtering, an additional filtering step called sample-adaptive offset filtering.
Effective use of these improvements requires much more signal processing capability for compressing the video, but has less impact on the amount of computation needed for decompression. HEVC was developed by the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding, a collaboration between the ISO/IEC MPEG and ITU-T VCEG; the ISO/IEC group refers to it as MPEG-H Part 2 and the ITU-T as H.265. The first version of the HEVC standard was ratified in January 2013 and published in June 2013; the second version, with multiview extensions, range extensions, scalability extensions, was completed and approved in 2014 and published in early 2015. Extensions for 3D video were completed in early 2015, extensions for screen content coding were completed in early 2016 and published in early 2017, covering video containing rendered graphics, text, or animation as well as camera-captured video scenes. In October 2017, the standard was recognized by a Primetime Emmy Engineering Award as having had a material effect on the technology of television.
HEVC contains technologies covered by patents owned by the organizations that participated in the JCT-VC. Implementing a device or software application that uses HEVC may require a license from HEVC patent holders; the ISO/IEC and ITU require companies that belong to their organizations to offer their patents on reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing terms. Patent licenses can be obtained directly from each patent holder, or through patent licensing bodies, such as MPEG LA, HEVC Advance, Velos Media; the combined licensing fees offered by all of the patent licensing bodies are higher than for AVC. The licensing fees are one of the main reasons HEVC adoption has been low on the web and is why some of the largest tech companies have joined the Alliance for Open Media, which aimed to finalize the royalty-free alternative video coding format AV1 by the end of 2017. An initial version of the AV1 specification was released on 28 March 2018. In 2004, the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group began a major study of technology advances that could enable creation of a new video compression standard.
In October 2004, various techniques for potential enhancement of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard were surveyed. In January 2005, at the next meeting of VCEG, VCEG began designating certain topics as "Key Technical Areas" for further investigation. A software codebase called; the KTA software was based on the Joint Model reference software, developed by the MPEG & VCEG Joint Video Team for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Additional proposed technologies were integrated into the KTA software and tested in experiment evaluations over the next four years. MPEG and VCEG established a Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding to develop the HEVC standard. Two approaches for standardizing enhanced compression technology were considered: either creating a new standard or creating extensions of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. The project had tentative names H.265 and H. NGVC, was a major part of the work of VCEG until its evolution into the HEVC joint project with MPEG in 2010; the preliminary requirements for NGVC were the capability to have a bit rate reduction of 50% at the same subjective image quality compared with the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC High profile and computational complexity ranging from 1/2 to 3 times that of the High profile.
NGVC would be able to provide 25% bit rate reduction along with 50% reduction in complexity at the same perceived video quality as the High profile, or to provide greater bit rate reduction with somewhat higher complexity. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group started a similar project in 2007, tentatively named High-performance Video Coding. An agreement of getting a bit rate reduction of 50% had been decided as the goal of the project by July 2007. Early evaluations were performed with modifications of the KTA reference software encoder developed by VCEG. By July 2009, experimental results showed average bit reduction of around 20% compared with AVC High Profile. A formal joi